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definition - Thai_Airways_International

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Thai Airways International

                   
Thai Airways International
การบินไทย
IATA
TG
ICAO
THA
Callsign
THAI
Founded 1 May 1960 (merged with Thai Airways Company on 1 April 1988)
Hubs Suvarnabhumi Airport
Focus cities
Frequent-flyer program Royal Orchid Plus
Airport lounge
  • Royal First Lounge
  • Royal Orchid Spa
  • Royal Silk Lounge
  • Royal Orchid Lounge
Alliance Star Alliance
Fleet size 91 (+56 orders)
Destinations 71 (60 international + 11 domestic.)
Company slogan Smooth as Silk/ I Fly THAI
Parent company Thai Ministry of Finance[1] , Thai Ministry of Transport[2]
Headquarters Chatuchak District, Bangkok, Thailand
Key people
  • Ampon Kittiampon (Chairman)
  • Chokchai Panyayong (President)
Website www.thaiairways.com

Thai Airways International Public Company Limited (THAI) (SETTHAI, Thai: การบินไทย) is the national flag carrier and largest airline of Thailand. Formed in 1988, the airline has its corporate headquarters in Chatuchak District, Bangkok,[3][4] and primarily operates out of Suvarnabhumi Airport. THAI is a founding member of the Star Alliance. The airline is the largest shareholder of the low-cost carrier Nok Air with a 49% stake,[5] and it also has plans to launch a regional carrier under the name Thai Smile in the middle of 2012 using new Airbus A320 aircraft.[6]

From its hub at Suvarnabhumi Airport, THAI flies to 71 destinations in 35 countries, using a fleet of 91 aircraft. The airline was once the operator of two of the world's longest nonstop routes between Thailand and Los Angeles and New York, but due to high fuel prices and the withdrawal of aircraft, the airline abandoned all nonstop U.S. services in 2012. Currently, services between Bangkok and Los Angeles are served via Incheon Airport near Seoul. THAI's route network is dominated by flights to Europe, East Asia, and South/Southwest Asia, though the airline serves Johannesburg in South Africa and five cities in Oceania. THAI was the first Asia-Pacific airline to serve London Heathrow Airport. Among East Asian carriers, THAI has one of the largest passenger operations in Europe.

THAI is currently an official sponsor of Football Association of Thailand.

Contents

  History

  Sud Aviation Caravelle in Stockholm (1970)
  Airbus A340-600 in the current livery landing at Auckland Airport

  Early Beginnings

THAI has its origins in 1960 as a joint venture between Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), which held a 30 percent share of the new company valued at 2 million Baht, and Thailand's domestic carrier, Thai Airways Company (Thai: เดินอากาศไทย). The purpose of the joint venture was to create an international wing for the domestic carrier Thai Airways Company. SAS also provided operational, managerial, and marketing expertise, with training assistance aimed at building a fully independent national airline within the shortest possible time. Thai nationals, through training and experience, were gradually able to assume full managerial responsibility and the number of expatriate staff duly decreased, with expatriates accounting for less than one percent of staff based in Thailand in 1987.[7]

The carrier's first revenue flight was on 1 May 1960. Flights were operated to nine overseas Asian destinations from Bangkok[when?]. The first intercontinental services started in 1971 to Australia, and then to Europe the following year. Services to North America commenced in 1980.[7]

On 1 April 1977, after 17 years of capital participation by SAS, the Thai government bought out the remaining 15% of SAS-owned shares and THAI became an airline fully owned by the Thai government.[7]

  1980s and 1990s, Merger with Thai Airways Company

On 1 April 1988, then-Prime Minister Gen. Prem Tinsulanonda, in seeking to have a single national carrier, merged the international and domestic operations of the two companies to form the present company, Thai Airways International.[8] On 25 June 1991, the new THAI listed its shares on the Stock Exchange of Thailand and offered them to the public. The THAI public offering of shares is the largest ever undertaken in the country.[citation needed]

On 14 May 1997, THAI, along with Lufthansa, Air Canada, Scandinavian Airlines System and United Airlines, founded the world's first, and now the largest, airline alliance named Star Alliance.

  THAI Airbus A300 at Phuket Airport (2008).

  2000s, Airline Brand Renewal, and Financial Difficulties

Throughout the 2000s, THAI aggressively continued its route network expansion with new services to Chengdu, Busan, Chennai, Xiamen, Milan, Moscow, Islamabad, Hyderabad, Johannesburg and Oslo.

Using Airbus A340-500s it acquired in 2005, THAI commenced nonstop flights from Bangkok to New York, its first nonstop services to North America. The airline later converted existing one-stop services to Los Angeles into nonstop services using the same aircraft type. The service to Los Angeles was again reverted back to one-stop service at Seoul on 1 May 2012 leaving the airline with no nonstop service between Thailand and North America. Citing very high fuel costs, THAI discontinued the New York service in July 2008, even though the airline had been able to fill 80% of the seats.

In 2006, THAI moved its hub operations to the new Bangkok Suvarnabhumi Airport. Coinciding with the arrival of new aircraft during the mid 2000s, as well as its new hub airport in Bangkok, the airline launched a brand renewal by introducing a new aircraft livery, new aircraft seating, and revamped ground and air services.

The 2000s also saw THAI expanding its route network beyond its Bangkok hub. The airline launched nonstop flights from Phuket to Tokyo-Narita, Seoul-Incheon and Hong Kong.

During the late 2000s, THAI's aggressive growth was hampered by a combination of internal and external factors, including a spike in fuel prices, domestic political conflict in Thailand, and the global economic crisis of the late 2000s. In 2008, after achieving profitability for the previous 40 years, THAI recorded a loss for the first time in its history at around 21 billion Baht (US $675 million). The airline cited high fuel costs and Thailand's political situation.[9] As of Q2 of 2009, after a series of restructuring initiatives, including a two-year deferral of its Airbus A380 deliveries, the carrier returned to a net profit of 2.5 billion Baht.[10]

  Present Day Operations

While celebrating its 50-year anniversary in 2010, THAI, spearheaded by Piyasvasti Amranand, its president and a former energy minister, charted new plans for the airline's future, including a significant aircraft fleet renewal and an upgrade of existing services. THAI has since placed orders for a number of aircraft, including the cost-efficient Boeing 787 and Airbus A350, and it has also launched a refurbishment of its Boeing 747 and 777 cabins. Mindful of rising fuel costs, the airline also announced plans to phase-out inefficient aircraft, including its Airbus A340-500s. The airline will take delivery of its first Airbus A380 aircraft in the latter half of 2012, intending to eventually deploy the aircraft on its core European routes.

THAI has also resumed its network expansion with the resumption of flights to Brussels, in addition to a new nonstop flight from Copenhagen to Phuket. At the same time, the Greek debt crisis caused THAI to suspend its services to Athens.

As part of THAI's broader growth strategy in the region, THAI will be launching a regional carrier dubbed Thai Smile which will operate narrow-bodied Airbus A320s on regional and domestic routes. The new airline expects to initiate commercial operations in July 2012, after its first A320s are received. Thai Smile is expected to serve as a regional full-service airline providing connectivity to THAI's main international routes.

THAI expects to be the first carrier in Asia to fly commercial flights using biofuels. The carrier launched the initiative with experimental flights in December 2011 as part of its Corporate Social Responsibility program, otherwise known as "Travel Green." THAI hopes to stimulate sustained biofuel production in Thailand by working with Thai government agencies and regional corporate partners, such as PTT Public Company Limited. The effort aims to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in regional air travel as well as position Thailand to be the "bio hub" of Asia.[11]

  THAI Airbus A340-600, in current livery

  Destinations

  Codeshare agreements

  THAI service desks at Suvarnabhumi Airport

Beside Star Alliance member airlines, THAI codeshares with the following:[12][13]

* A maximum stay of 21 days is required for passengers traveling between domestic points within Japan on TG-Marketing flights code-shared with Japan Airlines.

  Corporate image

THAI is one of the few airlines with an inflight uniform change policy. International female flight attendants are required to change from their corporate purple suits (for use outside the cabin) into traditional Thai dresses (as seen on the company's marketing campaigns) prior to the general boarding of passengers. They are also required to change back into the former prior to disembarkation. Consequently, traditional Thai dresses are only visible to the traveling public on-board THAI aircraft or in THAI's premium lounges in Bangkok. Cabin crew of nationalities other than Thai are not allowed to wear the traditional Thai attire. Male flight attendants also have on-board suit jackets that differ from those worn on the ground.

  Fleet

The average age of THAI's fleet was 12.1 years as of 31 May 2010.[14][15][16][17]

Aircraft In Service Orders Passengers Notes
F C U Y Total
Airbus A300-600R 13 0 0 28 0 232 260 To be phased out
Airbus A320-200 0 11 0 30 0 144 174 5 purchased and 6 leased with deliveries between 2012 and 2015 for Thai Smile.
Airbus A330-300 20 5 0 36 0 263 299 One painted in Star Alliance livery.
Five new aircraft for delivery in 2012. Long-term plans include phasing-out of three aircraft beginning in 2017.
Airbus A340-500 4 0 0 60 42 113 215 To be phased out by 2012-2013
Airbus A340-600 6 0 8 60 0 199 267 To be phased out by 2016
Airbus A350-900 0 12 TBD 4 Purchased and 8 Leased with deliveries between 2016 and 2018. Replacing A340s
Airbus A380-800 0 6 12 60 0 435 507 3 to be delivered in 2012
3 in 2013
Boeing 737-400 9 0 0 12 0 137 149 To be phased out in 2012/2015
Boeing 747-400 16 0 14 50 0 325 389 One painted in Star Alliance livery and one in a retro livery.
Economy class refurbishment on 12 aircraft, business class and first class refurbishment on 6 aircraft, is scheduled for 2011–2012. The 6 oldest aircraft will be phased out
Boeing 777-200 8 0 0 30 0 279 309 Economy Class refurbishment on all 8 aircraft expected between 2011 and 2012. Long-term plans include phasing-out of two aircraft starting in 2017.
Boeing 777-200ER 6 0 0 30 0 262 292
Boeing 777-300 6 0 0 34 0 330 364
Boeing 777-300ER 3 14 8 30 0 274 312 5 leased from Jet Airways. These five aircraft will leave the fleet in 2013. An order of six new two-class aircraft will begin delivery in late 2012.
Boeing 787-8 0 6 TBD All leased, with deliveries between 2014 and 2015
Boeing 787-9 0 2 TBD All leased, with deliveries in 2017
Thai Cargo Fleet
Boeing 747-400BCF 2 0 112,760 kg Converted from passenger aircraft [18]
Total 91 56
  • A Boeing 747-400 (HS-TGP) has been painted with a retro ‘Thai International’ livery as part of the airline's 50th anniversary in 2010. The ‘Thai International’ livery was used in THAI's fleet in the 1960s when the airline was founded as a joint venture between Thailand's domestic carrier, Thai Airways Company (TAC) and Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS).
  • The airline received Airbus's 1000th A330/A340 on 30 July 2009, which is an Airbus A330-343X powered by Rolls-Royce Trent 700 engines (HS-TEP).[19][20]
  • THAI Cargo leases one Boeing 777F for limited cargo services. THAI Cargo eventually intends to operate two converted Boeing 747-400s in the future.
  • THAI has Boeing Customer Code D7. For example, Boeing 747-400 aircraft that the airline has ordered directly from Boeing Commercial Airplanes are coded Boeing 747-4D7.

  Fleet development plan

THAI’s fleet development plan, as of December 2011,[21] for the period 2010-2022 is in three phases:

  • 2012: phase-out of 11 aging aircraft, delivery of 12 government-approved aircraft.
  • 2013-2017: phase out of 35 aging aircraft, delivery of 11 aircraft that have already been approved, and acquisition of 33 new aircraft, including 26 next generation wide-bodied aircraft and 7 Airbus A320s.
  • 2018-2022: phase out of 21 aging aircraft and acquisition of 21 next generation wide-bodied aircraft.

On 13 June 2011, THAI's Board of Directors announced they would purchase 15 aircraft and acquire the remaining 22 on operating leases. The purchased planes include six Boeing 777-300ERs, to be delivered in 2014 and 2015, four Airbus A350-900s (2016 and 2017) and five Airbus A320-200s (2014 and 2015). The leased planes include six 787-8s and two 787-9s from US lessor International Lease Finance (ILFC). The -8s will be delivered in 2014 and 2015, while the -9s will be delivered in 2017. In addition, THAI will lease six A350-900s from Aviation Lease and Finance, to be delivered in 2017, and two A350-900s from CIT Aerospace International, which will deliver the aircraft in 2016. The airline will also lease six A320-200s from RBS Aerospace International, to be delivered in 2012 and 2013. All the operating leases have terms of 12 years each.[22][23]

  Aircraft Maintenance Centers - Thai Technical

THAI maintains three maintenance centers located at U-Tapao International Airport, Don Mueang International Airport, and Suvarnabhumi Airport. The centers service aircraft belonging to other airlines in additional to THAI aircraft.

THAI Technical is certified internationally by the Federal Aviation Administration, the Joint Aviation Authorities,[24] the European Aviation Safety Agency Part-145 Maintenance Organisation,[25] and the Japan Civil Aviation Bureau for facilities at Don Mueang International Airport and Suvarnabhumi Airport.[26] It has also received its Requalifier Identification Certificate from the United States Department of Transportation[27] for its operations at U-Tapao International Airport and Suvarnabhumi Airport.[28]

It is certified domestically by the Department of Civil Aviation (Thailand) for all three of its facilities located in Thailand.[28]

On 27 February 1998, the Department received its ISO 9002 certification from Bureau Veritas Quality International,[29] with ISO 14001 certification granted by the same agency on 16 March 2001.[29]

  Hygiene award

THAI initiated a program entitled “The Most Hygienic In-Cabin Environment Program" with an emphasis on air quality, surface cleanliness, and food safety. The program includes removal of all inflight disposable materials after flight, sterilization and fumigation of all cabin equipment, and inspection of the air-circulation system. A special audit process is also carried out for the cleaning and sanitization of the overall aircraft systems by a team of specialists. These measures are applied to the entire THAI fleet.[30]

THAI is the first airline to install hospital-grade air-filter True HEPA, capable of intercepting up to 99.999% of dust particles and micro organisms on every flight.[30]

The World Health Organization awarded the airline a plaque for the implementation of its in-cabin management system in 2004. It was the first award of its kind to be presented to a private organization.[31][32]

  Ground services

THAI Royal Silk or Royal Orchid lounges are available to THAI's premium passengers in various domestic and international destinations. The airline's hub at Suvarnabhumi Airport also includes a Royal First Class Lounge for first class passengers. Passengers traveling internationally from Bangkok in Royal Silk or Royal First classes are also entitled private security screening and passport control facilities, as well as free spa services at the Royal Orchid Spa, with different services available depending on the service class flown by the passenger. These services are not available to non-premium class passengers. THAI's first class ground services at Bangkok additionally provide private transportation services within the terminal to first class passengers.

On 30 September 2008 THAI's Ground services Department received a Certificate ISO 14001 from Bureau Veritas Certification[33]

Since 4 January 2011, THAI has been providing check-in services at the Bangkok City Air Terminal at Makkasan Station. Train services are provided by the Suvarnabhumi Airport Link.[34]

  Cabin services

THAI offers four cabin classes: Royal First, Royal Silk, Premium Economy and Economy.

  Royal First Class

  THAI Royal First Class cabin on the Boeing 747-400

THAI's standard Royal First Class seats, manufactured by B/E Aerospace, were introduced with the arrival of the Airbus A340-600, and are equipped with lumbar massage and 10.4" AVOD touchscreens. These seats are also available on select Boeing 747-400 aircraft. A new version of Royal First Class seating in a suite or enclosure configuration is available on Boeing 777-300ER aircraft, and will soon be available on THAI's upcoming Airbus A380 aircraft and select Boeing 747-400 aircraft after a 2012 refurbishment. Royal First Class passengers can pre-order from 22 available meals.

  Royal Silk Class (Business)

The new generation of Royal Silk Class seats has been installed on THAI's Airbus A340, Boeing 777, select Boeing 747-400, and select Airbus A330 aircraft. The angled shell design seats have 58-62" of pitch and a width of 20-21.5". Seats have lumbar massage and are equipped with 10 to 15" AVOD screens. Prior to refurbishment, older generation Royal Silk seats on some Boeing 747-400 aircraft are sold as Premium Economy Class seats on routes to Scandinavia. A new set of Royal Silk seats is expected with the arrival of THAI's Airbus A380s and new Boeing 777-300ERs scheduled for delivery beginning in late 2012. The new seats will allow for a fully horizontal recline.

  Premium Economy Class

  THAI Economy Class meal

Premium Economy seating is configured as 2-3-2 seating and is only available in this form on Airbus A340-500 aircraft. Seats include 135 degrees of recline, leg-rests and 42" in seat pitch. Premium Economy class passengers also have more extensive menu options. Premium Economy class seats are equipped with 9" touchscreen with AVOD. There are currently no plans to expand the use of Premium Economy Class to other aircraft; in addition, the class may be phased out entirely following the planned discontinuation of A340-500 aircraft as well as the refurbishment of Boeing 747-400 aircraft.

  Economy class

  THAI Economy Class cabin on a Boeing 747-400 prior to refurbishment

THAI's Economy Class offers between 32 and 36" seat pitch depending on the aircraft type. Personal screens with AVOD are present on Airbus A340, some Airbus A330, some Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 777 (models-200ER, -300, -300ER only) aircraft. All Boeing 747-400s and 777-200s are expected to have personal screens with AVOD once aircraft refurbishment on the remaining aircraft is completed by the end of 2012.

  Royal Orchid Plus

  Royal First and Royal Silk international check-in area at Suvarnabhumi Airport.

Royal Orchid Plus is THAI's frequent flyer program. It has a membership of over two million people.[35]

Earning miles There are two types of miles which can be accrued with a Royal Orchid Plus account:

Eligible Qualifying Miles (EQM) are earned on:

  • THAI flights
  • Flights operated by other carriers that also carry a THAI codeshare (i.e. China Airlines, China Eastern Airlines, El Al, Emirates, Malaysia Airlines and Royal Brunei)[36]
  • Flights operated by fellow Star Alliance carriers

Qualifying Miles (Q Miles) are the miles flown as well as the bonus miles earned from travel in particular classes of service on THAI and Star Alliance airlines. Royal Orchid Plus miles are earned based on the paid class of travel.

Partner Miles are earned from non-airline partners, such as hotels.

Status Tiers There are four tiers in the Royal Orchid Plus program

  • Member– entry-level status
  • Silver– requires 10,000 Q Miles in one calendar year or 15,000 Q Miles from the date of enrollment up to 31 December of the next complete calendar year
  • Gold– requires 50,000 Q Miles in one calendar year, 80,000 Q Miles from the date of enrollment up to 31 December of the next complete calendar year, or 40 international flown sectors on THAI within any 1 calendar year.
  • Platinum– by invitation only; requires frequent and consistent premium class travel on THAI in addition to longstanding Royal Orchid Plus Gold status

  Incidents and accidents

  • 30 June 1967 Thai Airways International Flight 601, a Sud Aviation SE-210 Caravelle III with registration HS-TGI, crashed into the sea while on approach to Kai Tak Airport in a typhoon. 24 out of the 80 passengers and crew on board were killed.
  • 25 December 1967 A Thai Airways International Douglas DC-3 with registration HS-TDH crashed at Chiang Mai Airport, killing 4 out of 31 passengers and crew on the flight.[37]
  • 10 May 1973 A Thai Airways International Douglas DC-8-33 with registration HS-TGU overran the runway on landing at Tribhuvan International Airport in Kathmandu. There was 1 fatality out of 100 passengers and 10 crew on board.[38]
  • 27 April 1980 Thai Airways Flight 231, a Hawker Siddeley HS 748, crashed after entering a severe thunderstorm on approach to Khon Kaen Airport. Forty four of the fifty three people on board were killed.[39]
  • 10 November 1990 – Flight 306,an Airbus A300-600 flying from Yangon to Don Muang International Airport was the target of an attempted hijacking by individuals demanding to be taken to Kolkata.[40]
  • 31 July 1992 – Flight 311, an Airbus A310-300 hit the side of a hill 23 miles north of Kathmandu while descending toward Tribhuvan International Airport from Bangkok. All 113 on board (99 passengers and 14 crew) died. The accident was caused by technical failures, a lack of radar equipment at Tribhuvan International Airport.[41][42]
  • 11 December 1998 – Flight 261, an A310-200, bound for Surat Thani from Bangkok, crashed into a rice paddy about two miles from Surat Thani airport during its third landing attempt in heavy rain; 102 of 143 on board were killed.[43]
  • 3 March 2001 – Thai Airways International Flight 114, a Boeing 737-400 with registration HS-TDC, bound for Chiang Mai from Bangkok, was destroyed by an explosion of the center wing tank resulting from ignition of the flammable fuel/air mixture in the tank while the aircraft was being serviced at the gate in Bangkok. The source of the ignition energy for the explosion could not be determined with certainty, but the most likely source was an explosion originating at the center wing tank pump as a result of running the pump in the presence of metal shavings and a fuel/air mixture. One crew member was killed.[44]

  Subsidiaries

  Leaders

Presidents of the company include

  See also


  References

  1. ^ "Major Shareholders". Stock Exchange of Thailand. 10 January 2007. http://www.set.or.th/set/companyinfo.do?type=holder&symbol=THAI&language=en&country=US. Retrieved 2007-08-16. 
  2. ^ "State Enterprises of the Ministry of Transport". Thai Ministry of Transport. http://vigportal.mot.go.th/portal/site/PortalMOTEN/about/thaiairways-en/. Retrieved 2012-04-20. 
  3. ^ "Details of Shareholders and Board of Directors". Thai Airways International. http://www.thaiair.com/documents/detail.pdf. Retrieved 4 March 2010. 
  4. ^ "Addresses and contact numbers". Thai Airways International. http://thaiair.com/About_Thai/Public_Information/Company_Profile/Contact_address.htm. Retrieved 21 February 2009. 
  5. ^ "Tiger Airways drops joint venture with Thai Airways". FlightGlobal. http://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/tiger-airways-drops-joint-venture-with-thai-airways-365730/. Retrieved 27 December 2011. 
  6. ^ "THAI realigns plan for a better year". The Nation. http://www.nationmultimedia.com/business/THAI-realigns-plan-for-a-better-year-30171723.html. Retrieved 27 December 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c "THAI Company Information : History". Thaiairways.com. http://www.thaiairways.com/about-thai/company-profile/en/history.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-13. 
  8. ^ Thai Airways International Public Information[dead link]
  9. ^ "ตลาดหลักทรัพย์แห่งประเทศไทย : ข้อมูลรายบริษัท/หลักทรัพย์" (in (Thai)). Set.or.th. http://www.set.or.th/set/companyhighlight.do?symbol=THAI&language=th&country=TH. Retrieved 2010-09-13. 
  10. ^ "The Stock Exchange of Thailand : Companies/Securities in Focus". Set.or.th. http://www.set.or.th/set/companyfinance.do?type=balance&symbol=THAI&language=en&country=US. Retrieved 2010-09-13. 
  11. ^ "THAI Launches Biofuels Flight". eTravel Blackboard. http://www.etravelblackboard.com/article/126892/thai-launches-biofuels-flight-and-first-biofuels-passenger-flight-in-asia-through-travel-green-initiative. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 
  12. ^ "Codeshare flights". Thai Airways International. http://www.thaiairways.com/frequent-flyer/en/codeshare-flights.htm. 
  13. ^ Worldwide codeshare list Aug 2011
  14. ^ Airfleets information for Thai Airways
  15. ^ Thai Airways International Website May 2010
  16. ^ "Transportation In Thailand , Čůšâěąĺň§˘Éíáůĺáĺđ˘Čňçęňăąňă¤Ášň¤Á˘Šę觢ͧġ - Content". Thaitransport-photo.net. http://www.thaitransport-photo.net/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pid=70. Retrieved 2010-09-13. 
  17. ^ "Thai Airways International - Details and Fleet History - Planespotters.net Just Aviation". Planespotters.net. http://www.planespotters.net/Airline/Thai-Airways-International. Retrieved 2010-09-13. 
  18. ^ First TG Cargo 744BCF
  19. ^ "Press Release: Airbus delivers 1000th A330/A340 Family Aircraft A330-300 for Thai Airways International". Thaipr.net. http://www.thaipr.net/nc/readnews.aspx?newsid=585C86FDD0870448390EFC988DA3ADA1. Retrieved 2010-09-13. 
  20. ^ [swords]=1000th&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=1780&tx_ttnews[backPid]=1765&cHash=8f0265821f
  21. ^ "TG 3Q2011 Analyst Briefing Presentation". thai.listedcompany.com. http://thai.listedcompany.com/misc/presentations/20111124_THAI_analystBriefing3Q2011-EN.pdf. Retrieved 2011-12-27. 
  22. ^ "Thai to acquire eight 787s and 12 A350s in 37-aircraft deal". FlightGlobal.com. http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2011/06/13/357880/thai-to-acquire-eight-787s-and-12-a350s-in-37-aircraft.html. Retrieved 2011-06-13. 
  23. ^ "Acquisition of 37 New Aircraft for the year 2011-2017". thai.listedcompany.com. http://thai.listedcompany.com/newsroom/2011-06-13_THAI_EN.pdf. Retrieved 2011-06-13. 
  24. ^ THAI's Technical Department Receives JAA Certificate
  25. ^ http://www.easa.eu.int/approvals-and-standardisation/organisation-approvals/docs/lists/Foreign_EASA_Part_145.pdf
  26. ^ [1][dead link]
  27. ^ Press Release: THAI’s Technical Department Receives Recognition from U.S. Department of Transportation
  28. ^ a b Technical Department, THAI Airways International Public Co.,Ltd
  29. ^ a b THAI Company Information : THAI with ISO
  30. ^ a b [2]
  31. ^ WHO HAS PRESENTED THAI AIRWAYS WITH A HYGIENE AWARD
  32. ^ THE MINISTRY OF PUBLIC HEALTH PRESENTS PLAQUE TO THAI FOR GOOD MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH ON BOARD FLIGHTS[dead link]
  33. ^ ThaiAirways News Release: THAI Ground Customer Services Department receives ISO 14001 Certificate from Bureau Veritas Certification (Thailand)
  34. ^ ThaiAirways News Release: THAI Introduces Check-In Service at Makkasan City Air Terminal
  35. ^ "Frequent Flyer : About Royal Orchid Plus". Thaiairways.com. http://www.thaiairways.com/frequent-flyer/en/about-royal-orchid-plus.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-13. 
  36. ^ http://www.thaiairways.com/frequent-flyer/en/codeshare-flights.htm
  37. ^ http://www.planecrashinfo.com/1967/1967-92.htm
  38. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Douglas DC-8-33 HS-TGU Kathmandu-Tribhuvan Airport (KTM)
  39. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 727-2D7Adv Srs. 2 HS-THB Bangkok." Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 1 March 2010.
  40. ^ ASN Aircraft accident Airbus A300 registration unknown Calcutta
  41. ^ [3][dead link], [4]
  42. ^ The Inconvenience Truth of Air Crash at Kathmandu
  43. ^ Asia Economic News 14 December 1998
  44. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 737-4D7 HS-TDC Bangkok International Airport (BKK)." Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 14 June 2009.
  45. ^ http://www.bangkokpost.com/news/politics/294425/acting-thai-president-appointed
  46. ^ http://www.bangkokpost.com/news/politics/294425/acting-thai-president-appointed

  External links

   
               

 

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English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

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Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

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