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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
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1.a tranquilizer (trade name Mellaril) used to treat schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
1.(MeSH)A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of psychoses, including schizophrenia, and in the control of severely disturbed or agitated behavior. It has little antiemetic activity. Thioridazine has a higher incidence of antimuscarinic effects, but a lower incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms, than CHLORPROMAZINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p618)
Aldazine (MeSH), Alphapharm Brand of Thioridazine Hydrochloride (MeSH), Apotex Brand of Thioridazine Hydrochloride (MeSH), Apo-Thioridazine (MeSH), Arzneimittelwerk Dresden Brand of Thioridazine (MeSH), AWD.pharma Brand of Thioridazine Hydrochloride (MeSH), Clonmel Brand of Thioridazine Hydrochloride (MeSH), DDSA Brand of Thioridazine Hydrochloride (MeSH), Hi-Tech Brand of Thioridazine Hydrochloride (MeSH), Meleril (MeSH), Mellaril (MeSH), Melleretten (MeSH), Melleril (MeSH), Melleryl (MeSH), Melzine (MeSH), neurazpharm Brand of Thioridazine Hydrochloride (MeSH), Novartis Brand of Thioridazine (MeSH), Pinewood Brand of Thioridazine Hydrochloride (MeSH), Rideril (MeSH), Roxane Brand of Thioridazine Hydrochloride (MeSH), Sonapax (MeSH), Teva Brand of Thioridazine Hydrochloride (MeSH), Thioridazine HCL (MeSH), Thioridazine Hydrochloride (MeSH), Thioridazine-neurazpharm (MeSH), Thiozine (MeSH)
Apo-Thioridazine • Apotex Brand of Thioridazine Hydrochloride • Clonmel Brand of Thioridazine Hydrochloride • DDSA Brand of Thioridazine Hydrochloride • Hi-Tech Brand of Thioridazine Hydrochloride • Novartis Brand of Thioridazine • Roxane Brand of Thioridazine Hydrochloride • Teva Brand of Thioridazine Hydrochloride • Thioridazine HCL • Thioridazine Hydrochloride • Thioridazine-neurazpharm
Thioridazine (n.) [MeSH]
|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Pregnancy cat.||Only if clearly needed|
|Legal status||RX-only-medication, non-narcotic|
|Routes||oral (tablets, concentration, sometimes syrup)|
|Half-life||7–13 hours (up to 20 hours)|
| (what is this?)
Thioridazine (Mellaril, Novoridazine, Thioril) is a piperidine typical (but see next paragraph, below) antipsychotic drug belonging to the phenothiazine drug group and was previously widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia and psychosis. Due to concerns about cardiotoxicity and retinopathy at high doses this drug is not commonly prescribed, reserved for patients who have failed to respond to, or have contraindications for, more widely used antipsychotics. A serious side effect is the potentially fatal neuroleptic malignant syndrome. It exerts its actions through a central adrenergic-blocking, a dopamine-blocking, and minor anticholinergic activity.
In older references, it is sometimes described as atypical, but more recently it is usually described as typical, with the term "atypical" usually reserved for agents showing D4 selectivity or serotonin antagonism.
Previous additional indications were agitated depression, tension and anxiety linked to alcohol withdrawal and dysphoria of epileptic patients. It was even indicated in Europe for the treatment of psychosis in children and adolescents as Melleretten (10 mg to 60 mg daily).
Thioridazine is a racemic compound with two enantiomers, both of which are metabolized, according to Eap et al., by CYP2D6 into (S)- and (R)-thioridazine 2-sulfoxide, better known as mesoridazine, and into (S)- and (R)-thioridazine-5-sulfoxide. Mesoridazine is in turn metabolized into sulforidazine. Thioridazine is an inhibitor of CYP1A2 and CYP3A2.
For further information see: Phenothiazine
The most commonly complained about side effect is akathisia which is the main reason for low patient compliance
Tardive dyskinesia characterized by involuntary movements of the lips, mouth, and tongue can be long lasting or irreversible, tremor of the mouth and lips without tongue involvement constitutes Rabbit syndrome. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is potentially fatal.
Central nervous system side effects occur. These are mainly drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue, and vertigo. Early and late extrapyramidal side effects are seen only infrequently (less than 1% altogether). There is no clear dose-effect relationship, as with higher doses anticholinergic effects of thioridazine become more prominent.
Thioridazine causes also an unusual high incidence of impotence and anorgasmia due to a strong alpha-blocking activity. Painful ejaculation or no ejaculation at all is also sometimes seen.
Autonomic side effects (dry mouth, urination difficulty, obstipation, induction of glaucoma, postural hypotension, and sinus tachycardia) occur obviously less often than with most other mildly potent antipsychotics.
Thioridazine is no longer recommended as first-line treatment due its side effect of prolonging the QT interval on the EKG. Thioridazine-5-sulfoxide is associated with ventricular tachycardia and torsades de pointes.
Also, the serious and sometimes fatal blood damage agranulocytosis is seen more frequently (approximately 1/500 to 1/1,000 patients) with thioridazine than with other typical phenothiazines (1/2,000 to 1/10,000 patients).
Thioridazine if given over a prolonged time and in high doses can be stored in the ocula and the retina of the eyes and in the heart muscle. Clinical consequences (disturbed or blurred vision) are rare although chromatopsia has been reported.
It is advisable to withdraw thioridazine gradually and not abruptly to avoid unpleasant withdrawal symptoms (agitation, insomnia, anxiety). Another neuroleptic may be introduced to the therapeutic regime step by step (overlapping), if needed. If sudden withdrawal of thioridazine is necessary, withdrawal symptoms can also be alleviated with the benzodiazepines lorazepam (Ativan) 1 mg—2 mg, alprazolam (Xanax) 0,5 mg prn or clonazepam (Klonopin, Rivotril) 0,5 mg to 2 mg prn (as needed)or Diazepam (Valium)5 – 10 mg prn for up to 2 weeks (not longer to avoid addiction).
The manufacturer Novartis/Sandoz/Wander of the brands of thioridazine, Mellaril in the USA and Canada and Melleril in Europe, discontinued the drug worldwide in June 2005.
The usual dosage was 50 mg per day for mild cases to 600–800 mg per day for severely disturbed patients.
Thioridazine may still be available from other manufacturers as a generic drug with the precaution that it is used only in psychotic patients refractory to other forms of drug treatment. ECG-monitoring and frequent white blood cell counts are required before initiating therapy and in close intervals afterwards.
A multi-year UK study by the Alzheimer's Research Trust suggested that this and other neuroleptic anti-psychotic drugs commonly given to Alzheimer's patients with mild behavioural problems often make their condition worse. The study concluded that
|“||For most patients with AD, withdrawal of neuroleptics had no overall detrimental effect on functional and cognitive status and by some measures improved functional and cognitive status. Neuroleptics may have some value in the maintenance treatment of more severe neuropsychiatric symptoms, but this possibility must be weighed against the unwanted effects of therapy. The current study helps to inform a clinical management strategy for current practice, but the considerable risks of maintenance therapy highlight the urgency of further work to find, develop, and implement safer and more effective treatment approaches for neuropsychiatric symptoms in people with AD.||”|
|This section requires expansion.|
Thioridazine, (±)-(10-[2-(1-methyl-2-piperidyl)ethyl]-2-(methylthio)phenothiazine) is synthesized by alkylating 2-methylthiophenothiazine with 2-(2-chloroethyl)-1-methylpiperidine.