1.a four-wheeled wagon that runs on tracks in a mine"a tramcar carries coal out of a coal mine"
2.a conveyance that transports passengers or freight in carriers suspended from cables and supported by a series of towers
3.(British)a wheeled vehicle that runs on rails and is propelled by electricity
1.travel by tram
TramTram (?), n. [Prov. E. tram a coal wagon, the shaft of a cart or carriage, a beam or bar; probably of Scand, origin; cf. OSw. tråm, trum, a beam, OD. drom, Prov. & OHG. tram.]
1. A four-wheeled truck running on rails, and used in a mine, as for carrying coal or ore.
2. The shaft of a cart. [Prov. Eng.] De Quincey.
3. One of the rails of a tramway.
4. A car on a horse railroad. [Eng.]
Tram car, a car made to run on a tramway, especially a street railway car. -- Tram plate, a flat piece of iron laid down as a rail. -- Tram pot (Milling), the step and support for the lower end of the spindle of a millstone.
TramTram, n. [Sp. trama weft, or F. trame.] A silk thread formed of two or more threads twisted together, used especially for the weft, or cross threads, of the best quality of velvets and silk goods.
TramTram, n. (Mech.) Same as Trammel, n., 6.
TramTram (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Trammed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Tramming.] To convey or transport on a tramway or on a tram car.
TramTram, v. i. To operate, or conduct the business of, a tramway; to travel by tramway.
A class Melbourne tram • ADtranz low floor tram • Addington Village tram stop • Addiscombe tram stop • Aerial tram • Alexandria Tram • Alicante Tram • Ampere Way tram stop • Arena tram stop • Avenue Road tram stop • B class Melbourne tram • Baknana tram stop • Beckenham Road tram stop • Beddington Lane tram stop • Belgrave Walk tram stop • Bilston Central tram stop • Black Lake tram stop • Blackhorse Lane tram stop • Bolzano Tram • Bondi tram • Bradley Lane tram stop • Brunswick tram depot, Melbourne • C class Melbourne tram • C2 class Melbourne tram • Camberwell tram depot, Melbourne • Centenary Square tram stop • Centrale tram stop • Changchun Tram • Church Street tram stop • City Circle Tram • Cobra (tram) • Comstock Tram • Coombe Lane tram stop • Corporation Street tram stop • Cross River Tram • D class Melbourne tram • Dang Thuy Tram • Dartmouth Street tram stop • Dick Kerr Type Tram • Double-decker tram • Dudley Street Guns Village tram stop • Dundonald Road tram stop • Edgbaston tram stop • Essendon tram depot, Melbourne • Fieldway tram stop • Fort Macquarie Tram Depot • GT4 (tram) • George Street tram stop • Glenhuntly tram depot, Melbourne • Gothenburg tram • Gravel Hill tram stop • Great Orme Tram • H class Adelaide tram • Handsworth Booth Street tram stop • Harrington Road tram stop • High School tram stop • Highbury Vale tram stop • Ho Tram • Horseley Road tram stop • Karachi To Melbourne Tram • Kenrick Park tram stop • Kew tram depot, Melbourne • Kharkiv tram • King Henry's Drive tram stop • Kirnitzschtal tram • Lake Margaret Tram • Lebanon Road tram stop • List of Melbourne tram routes • List of UK tram systems • List of railway stations and tram stops in Croydon • List of tram and light-rail transit systems • List of tram stations in Barcelona • Lloyd Park tram stop • Lodge Road West Bromwich Town Hall tram stop • Loxdale tram stop • M-Tram • Malvern tram depot, Melbourne • Man on the Bondi tram • Mandalay Bay Tram • Melbourne tram route 1 • Melbourne tram route 112 • Melbourne tram route 19 • Melbourne tram route 24 • Melbourne tram route 3 • Melbourne tram route 30 • Melbourne tram route 31 • Melbourne tram route 48 • Melbourne tram route 5 • Melbourne tram route 55 • Melbourne tram route 6 • Melbourne tram route 64 • Melbourne tram route 68 • Melbourne tram route 72 • Melbourne tram route 78 • Melbourne tram route 79 • Melbourne tram route 8 • Melbourne tram route 86 • Melbourne tram route 96 • Meraner Tram • Merton Park tram stop • Morden Road tram stop • Mykolaiv tram • New Addington tram stop • Oslo tram • Oslo tram system • Paddington tram depot fire • Peak Tram • Petersburg Tram Mechanical Factory • Phipps Bridge tram stop • Prague tram system • Priestfield tram stop • Ramsey (Plaza) tram station • Reeves Corner tram stop • Rotterdamse Elektrische Tram • Royal Centre tram stop • Rubber tired tram • Réunion Tram Train • Sedgley Road tram stop • Soho Benson Road tram stop • Southbank tram depot, Melbourne • St Paul's tram stop • Station Arts et Métiers (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Barrière Saint-Genès (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Bassins à Flot (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Bergonié (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Béthanie (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station CAPC (Musée d'Art Contemporain) (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Camponac Médiathèque (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Chartrons (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Cours du Médoc (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Doyen Brus (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Forum (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station François Bordes (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Gambetta (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Grand Théâtre (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Hôtel de Ville (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Les Hangars (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Montaigne Montesquieu (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Musée d'Aquitaine (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Palais de Justice (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Peixotto (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Pessac Bougnard (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Pessac Centre (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Place de la Bourse (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Porte de Bourgogne (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Quinconces (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Roustaing (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Saige (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Saint-Nicolas (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station UNITEC (Tram de Bordeaux) • Station Victoire (Tram de Bordeaux) • TEDA Modern Guided Rail Tram • TRAM (genetic) • TRAM flap • Tenerife Tram • The Crescent tram stop • The Oslo Tram • The Royal tram stop • Therapia Lane tram stop • Think Tram • Tram 11 • Tram 2000 Zurich • Tram 5 • Tram Chim National Park • Tram Iv Teuk • Tram Line 5 • Tram accident • Tram and light-rail transit systems • Tram controls • Tram engine • Tram et Bus de la CUB • Tram line 5 • Tram line 5 (Amsterdam) • Tram route 3 (Antwerp) • Tram stop • Tram tracking • Tram transport in India • Tram-Anh Tran • Trinity Way tram stop • Trạm Tấu District • Victor Harbor Horse Drawn Tram • Victoria Square tram stop • Vilnius Tram Project • Vinnytsia tram • W class Melbourne tram • Waddon Marsh tram stop • Wandle Park tram stop • Wednesbury Great Western Street tram stop • Wednesbury Parkway tram stop • Wellesley Road tram stop • West Bromwich Central tram stop • West London Tram • West Wallsend Steam Tram Line • Wham-Bam-Tram • Winson Green Outer Circle tram stop • Wolverhampton St George's tram stop • Woodside tram stop • Z class Melbourne tram • Z1 class Melbourne tram
État membre de la Communauté Européenne (fr)[Classe...]
(passerby; passer-by; passer)[termes liés]
tram (n.) [British]
(passerby; passer-by; passer)[termes liés]
action, motion, move, movement - locomotion, travel - locomotion, motive power, motivity - motion, movement - change of location, travel - traveler, traveller - mover - locomotive, locomotor, locomotory - tram[Dérivé]
stay in place[Ant.]
A tram (also known. as a tramcar, streetcar, trolley car) is a passenger rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets and also sometimes on separate rights of way. It may also run between cities and/or towns (interurbans, tram-train), and/or partially grade separated even in the cities (light rail). Trams very occasionally also carry freight.
Trams are usually lighter and shorter than conventional trains and rapid transit trains. However, the differences between these modes of public transportation are often unclear. Some trams (for instance tram-trains) may also run on ordinary railway tracks, a tramway may be upgraded to a light rail or a rapid transit line, two urban tramways may be united to an interurban, etc.
Most trams today use electrical power, usually fed by a pantograph; in some cases by a sliding shoe on a third rail or trolley pole. If necessary, they may have several power systems. Certain types of cable car are also known as trams. Another power source is diesel; a few trams use electricity in the streets and diesel in more rural environments. Also steam and petrol (gasoline) have been used. Horse and mule driven trams do still occur.
Tramways are now included in the wider term "light rail", which also includes segregated systems. Some systems have both segregated and street-running sections, but are usually then referred to as trams, because it is the equipment for street-running which tends to be the decisive factor. Vehicles on wholly segregated light rail systems are generally called trains, although cases have been known of "trains" built for a segregated system being sold to new owners and becoming "trams".
The terms tram and tramway were originally (ca. 1500) Scottish words for the type of truck used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran, probably derived from Middle Flemish tram "beam, handle of a barrow, bar, rung", a North Sea Germanic word of unknown origin meaning the beam or shaft of a barrow or sledge, also the barrow itself. Tram-car is attested from 1873.
Although tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English; North Americans prefer trolley, trolleycar or streetcar. The term streetcar is first recorded in 1840. When electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or later, trolleys, believed to derive from the troller, a four-wheeled device that was dragged along dual overhead wires by a cable that connected the troller to the top of the car and collected electrical power from the overhead wires, sometimes simply strung, sometimes on a catenary. The trolley pole, which supplanted the troller early on, is fitted to the top of the car and is spring-loaded in order to keep the trolley wheel or alternately, a grooved lubricated "skate", at the top of the pole, firmly in contact with the overhead wire. The terms trolley pole and trolley wheel both derive from the troller. Trams using trolley-pole current collection are normally powered through a single pole, grounded through the wheels and rails. The motor circuit is designed to allow electrical current to flow through the underframe. Although this use of "trolley" for tram was not adopted in Europe, the term was associated with "trolleybus": a rubber-tyred vehicle without tracks, which draws its power from overhead wires.
Modern trolley cars often use a metal shoe with a carbon insert instead of a trolley wheel, or have a pantograph. In North America, trams are sometimes called trolleys, even though strictly this may be incorrect: for example, cable cars, or conduit cars that draw power from an underground supply.
Tourist buses made to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the U.S. (tourist trolley). Open, low-speed segmented vehicles on rubber tires, generally used to ferry tourists short distances, can be called trams, for example on the Universal Studios backlot tour.
Electric buses, which use twin trolley poles (one for live current, one for return) but have wheels with tyres rolling on a hard surface rather than tracks, are called trolleybuses, trackless trolleys (particularly in the Northeastern U.S.), or sometimes (in the UK, as well as in Seattle and Vancouver) simply trolleys.
The very first tram was on the Swansea and Mumbles Railway in south Wales, UK; it was horse-drawn at first, and later moved by steam and electric power. The Mumbles Railway Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1804, and the first passenger railway (similar to streetcars in the US some 30 years later) started operating in 1807. The first streetcars, also known as horsecars in North America, were built in the United States and developed from city stagecoach lines and omnibus lines that picked up and dropped off passengers on a regular route without the need to be pre-hired. These trams were an animal railway, usually using teams of horses and sometimes mules to haul the cars, usually two as a team. Occasionally other animals were put to use, or humans in emergencies. The first streetcar line, developed by Irish-American John Stephenson, was the New York and Harlem Railroad's Fourth Avenue Line which ran along the Bowery and Fourth Avenue in New York City. Service began in 1832. It was followed in 1835 by New Orleans, Louisiana, which has the oldest continuously operating street railway system in the world, according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
These early forms of public transport developed out of industrial haulage routes or from the omnibus that first ran on public streets, using the newly invented iron or steel rail or 'tramway'. These were local versions of the stagecoach lines and picked up and dropped off passengers on a regular route, without the need to be pre-hired. Horsecars on tramlines were an improvement over the omnibus as the low rolling resistance of metal wheels on iron or steel rails (usually grooved from 1852 on), allowed the animals to haul a greater load for a given effort than the omnibus and gave a smoother ride. The horse-drawn streetcar combined the low cost, flexibility, and safety of animal power with the efficiency, smoothness, and all-weather capability of a rail right-of-way.
The first mechanical trams were powered by steam. Generally, there were two types of steam tram. The first and most common had a small steam locomotive (called a tram engine in the UK) at the head of a line of one or more carriages, similar to a small train. Systems with such steam trams included Christchurch, New Zealand; Sydney, Australia; other city systems in New South Wales; Munich, Germany (from August 1883 on) and the Dublin & Blessington Steam Tramway in Ireland. Steam tramways also were used on the suburban tramway lines around Milan; the last Gamba de Legno ("Wooden Leg") tramway ran on the Milan-Magenta-Castano Primo route in late 1958.
Tram engines usually had modifications to make them suitable for street running in residential areas. The wheels, and other moving parts of the machinery, were usually enclosed for safety reasons and to make the engines quieter. Measures were often taken to prevent the engines from emitting visible smoke or steam. Usually the engines used coke rather than coal as fuel to avoid emitting smoke. And condensers or superheating were used to avoid emitting visible steam.
The other style of steam tram had the steam engine in the body of the tram, referred to as a tram engine or steam dummy. The most notable system to adopt such trams was in Paris. French-designed steam trams also operated in Rockhampton, in the Australian state of Queensland between 1909 and 1939. Stockholm, Sweden, had a steam tram line at the island of Södermalm between 1887 and 1901. A major drawback of this style of tram was the limited space for the engine, so that these trams were usually underpowered.
The next type of tram was the cable car, pulled along a track by a moving cable. The power to move the cable is normally provided at a site away from the actual operation. The first cable car line in the United States was tested in San Francisco, California, in 1873. The second city to operate cable trams was Dunedin in New Zealand, from 1881 to 1957. A large cable system operated in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, from 1885 to 1940. There were also two isolated cable lines in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. A line in Washington DC ran to Georgetown (where some of the vaults can still be seen today.) In Dresden, Germany, in 1901 an elevated suspended cable car following the Eugen Langen one-railed floating tram system started operating.
They also worked around "Upper Douglas" in the Isle of Man, Cable Car 72/73 being the sole survivor of the fleet.
Cable cars suffered from high infrastructure costs, since an expensive system of cables, pulleys, stationary engines and vault structures between the rails had to be provided. They also require strength and skill to operate, to avoid obstructions and other cable cars. The cable had to be dropped at particular locations and the cars coast, for example when crossing another cable line. Breaks and frays in the cable, which occurred frequently, required the complete cessation of services over a cable route, while the cable was repaired. After the development of electrically powered trams, the more costly cable car systems declined rapidly.
Cable cars were especially effective in hilly cities as their undriven wheels cannot slip on the rails as they climb a steep hill. The cable physically pulls the car up the hill at a steady pace, unlike a low-powered steam or horse-drawn car. Cable cars do have wheel brakes, but the cable can also hold the car going downhill at a constant speed.
This concept partially explains their survival in San Francisco. However, the most extensive cable system in the U.S. was in Chicago, a much flatter city. The largest cable system in the world, in the city of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, had at its peak 592 trams running on 74 kilometres of track.
The San Francisco cable cars, though significantly reduced in number, continue to perform a regular transportation function, in addition to being a tourist attraction. A single line also survives in Wellington, New Zealand (rebuilt in 1979 as a funicular but still called the "Wellington Cable Car").
Electric trams (known as streetcars or trolleys in North America) were first experimentally installed in Saint Petersburg, Russia, invented and tested by Fyodor Pirotsky as early as 1880. These trams, like virtually all others mentioned in this section, used either a trolley pole or a pantograph, to feed power from electric wires strung above the tram route. Nevertheless, there were early experiments with battery-powered trams but these appear to have all been unsuccessful. The first trams in Bendigo, Australia, in 1892, were battery-powered but within as little as three months they were replaced with horse-drawn trams. In New York City some minor lines also used storage batteries. Then, comparatively recently, during the 1950s, a longer battery-operated tramway line ran from Milan to Bergamo.
The first regular electric tram service using pantographs or trolley poles, the Gross-Lichterfelde Tramway, went into service in Lichterfelde, a suburb of Berlin, Germany, by Siemens & Halske AG, in May 1881. The company Siemens still exists.
Another was by John Joseph Wright, brother of the famous mining entrepreneur Whitaker Wright, in Toronto in 1883. Earlier installations proved difficult or unreliable. Siemens' line, for example, provided power through a live rail and a return rail, like a model train, limiting the voltage that could be used, and providing electric shocks to people and animals crossing the tracks. Siemens later designed his own method of current collection, from an overhead wire, called the bow collector.
In 1883, Magnus Volk constructed his 2 feet (610 mm) gauge Volk's Electric Railway along the eastern seafront at Brighton, England. This two kilometer line, re-gauged to 2 feet 9 inches (840 mm) in 1884, remains in service to this day, and is the oldest operating electric tramway in the world. The first tram for permanent service with overhead lines was the Mödling and Hinterbrühl Tram in Austria. It began operating in October 1883, but was closed in 1932.
Multiple functioning experimental electric trams were exhibited at the 1884 World Cotton Centennial World's Fair in New Orleans, Louisiana, but they were not deemed good enough to replace the Lamm fireless engines that then propelled the St. Charles Avenue Streetcar in that city.
Electric trams were first tested in service in the United States in Richmond, Virginia, in 1888, in the Richmond Union Passenger Railway built by Frank J. Sprague, though the first commercial installation of an electric streetcar in the United States was built in 1884 in Cleveland, Ohio and operated for a period of one year by the East Cleveland Street Railway Company.
The first electric street tramway in Britain, the Blackpool Tramway, was opened on 29 September 1885 using conduit collection along Blackpool Promenade. Since the closure of the Glasgow Corporation Tramways in 1962, this has been the only first-generation operational tramway in the UK.
Sarajevo had the first electric trams on the continent of Europe, with a city-wide system in 1885. Budapest established its tramway system in 1887, and this line has grown to be the busiest tram line of Europe. Its tram cars run every 60 seconds at rush hour. Bucharest and Belgrade ran a regular service from 1894. Ljubljana introduced its tram system in 1901 and abolished it in 1958.
In Australia there were electric systems in Sydney, Newcastle, Broken Hill, Melbourne, Geelong, Ballarat, Bendigo, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth, Kalgoorlie, Laverton, Hobart and Launceston. By the 1970s, the only trams remaining in Australia were the Melbourne system and a single line connecting Adelaide to the beachside suburb of Glenelg. An unusual line that operated from 1889 to 1896 connected Box Hill, then an outer suburb of Melbourne, to Doncaster, then a favoured picnic spot but now a dormitory suburb. In recent years the Melbourne system, generally recognised as one of the largest in the world, has been considerably moderrnised and expanded. The Adelaide line has also been extended to the Entertainment Centre, and there are plans to expand further.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries a number of systems in various parts of the world employed trams powered by gas, naphtha gas or coal gas in particular. Gas trams are known to have operated between Alphington and Clifton Hill in the northern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia (1886–1888); in Berlin and Dresden, Germany; in Estonia (1920s–1930); between Jelenia Góra, Cieplice, and Sobieszów in Poland (from 1897); and in the UK at Lytham St Annes, Neath (1896–1920), and Trafford Park, Manchester (1897–1908).
Comparatively little has been published about gas trams. However, research on the subject was carried out for an article in the October 2011 edition of "The Times", the historical journal of the Australian Association of Timetable Collectors. 
In some places, other forms of power were used to power the tram. Hastings and some other tramways, for example Stockholms Spårvägar in Sweden and some lines in Karachi, used petrol trams. Paris operated trams that were powered by compressed air using the Mekarski system.
Although Portland, Victoria promotes its tourist tram as being a cable car it actually operates using a hidden diesel motor. The tram, which runs on a circular route around the town of Portland, uses dummies and salons formerly used on the extensive Melbourne cable tramway system and now beautifully restored.
The latest generation of light rail vehicles is of partial or fully low-floor design, with the floor 300 to 360 mm (11.8 to 14.2 in) above top of rail, a capability not found in older vehicles. This allows them to load passengers, including those in wheelchairs, directly from low-rise platforms that are not much more than raised footpaths/sidewalks. This satisfies requirements to provide access to disabled passengers without using expensive wheelchair lifts, while at the same time making boarding faster and easier for other passengers. Various companies have developed particular low-floor designs, varying from part-low-floor (with internal steps between the low-floor section and the high-floor sections over the bogies), e.g. Citytram and Siemens S70, to 100% low-floor, where the floor passes through a corridor between the drive wheels, thus maintaining a relatively constant (stepless) level from end to end of the tram. However, prior to the introduction of the Škoda ForCity, this carried the mechanical penalty of requiring bogies to be fixed and unable to pivot (except for less than 5 degrees in some trams) and thus reducing curve negotiation. This creates undue wear on the tracks and wheels. However, passengers appreciate the ease of boarding and alighting from low-floor trams and moving about inside 100% low-floor trams. Passenger satisfaction with low-floor trams is high. Low-floor trams are now running in many cities around the world, including Dublin, Hiroshima, Houston, Istanbul, Melbourne, Milan, Prague, Riga, Strasbourg, Vienna, Zagreb, and Zürich.
Articulated trams, invented and first used by the Boston Elevated Railway in 1912-13 at a total length of about twelve meters long (40 ft) for each pioneering example of twin-section articulated tram car, have two or more body sections, connected by flexible joints and a round platform at their pivoting midsection(s). Like articulated buses, they have increased passenger capacity. In practice, these trams can be up to 53 metres (174 ft) long (such as in Budapest, Hungary), while a regular tram has to be much shorter. With this type, the articulation is normally suspended between carbody sections. In the Škoda ForCity, which is the world's first 100% low floor tram with pivoting bogies, a Jacobs bogie supports the articulation between the two or more carbody sections. An articulated tram may be low-floor variety or high (regular) floor variety. Newer model trams may be up to 72 metres (236 ft) long and carry 510 passengers at a comfortable 4 passengers/m2. At crush loadings this would be even higher.
Hobart, Tasmania, Australia made extensive use of double decker trams. Arguably the most unusual double decker tram used to run between the isolated Western Australian outback village of Laverton and its small suburb of Gwalia.
Tram-train operation uses vehicles such as the Flexity Link and Regio-Citadis, which are suited for use on urban tram lines and also meet the necessary indication, power, and strength requirements for operation on main-line railways. This allows passengers to travel from suburban areas into city-centre destinations without having to change from a train to a tram.
It has been primarily developed in Germanic countries, in particular Germany and Switzerland. Karlsruhe is a notable pioneer of the tram-train.
Goods have been carried on rail vehicles through the streets, particularly near docks and steelworks, since the 19th century (most evident on the Weymouth Harbour Tramway in Weymouth, Dorset), and Belgian vicinal tramway routes were used to haul timber and coal from Blégny colliery. Several of the US interurbans carried freight. At the turn of the 21st century, a new interest has arisen in using urban tramway systems to transport goods. The motivation now is to reduce air pollution, traffic congestion and damage to road surfaces in city centres. Dresden has a regular CarGoTram service, run by the world's longest tram trainsets (59.4 metres (195 ft)), carrying car parts across the city centre to its Volkswagen factory. Vienna and Zürich use trams as mobile recycling depots. Kislovodsk had a freight-only tram system comprising one line which was used exclusively to deliver bottled Narzan mineral water to the railway station.
In the spring of 2007, Amsterdam piloted a cargo tram operation, aiming to reduce particulate pollution by 20% by halving the number of lorries—currently 5,000—unloading in the inner city during the permitted timeframe from 07:00 till 10:30. The pilot, operated by City Cargo Amsterdam, involved two cargo trams, operating from a distribution centre and delivering to a "hub" where electric trucks delivered to the final destination.
The trial was successful, releasing an intended investment of €100 million in a fleet of 52 cargo trams distributing from four peripheral "cross docks" to 15 inner-city hubs by 2012. These specially built vehicles would be 30 feet (9.14 m) long with 12 axles and a payload of 30 tonnes (33.1 short tons; 29.5 long tons). On weekdays, trams are planned to make 4 deliveries per hour between 7 a.m. and 11 a.m. and two per hour between 11 a.m. and 11 p.m. With each unloading operation taking on average 10 minutes, this means that each site would be active for 40 minutes out of each hour during the morning rush hour. In early 2009 the scheme was suspended owing to the financial crisis impeding fund-raising.
Specially appointed hearse trams were used for funerals in Milan, Italy, from the 1880s (initially horse-drawn) to the 1920s. The main cemeteries, Cimitero Monumentale and Cimitero Maggiore, included funeral tram stations. Additional funeral stations were located at Piazza Firenze and at Porta Romana.
In the mid-1940s at least one special hearse tram was used in Turin, Italy. It was introduced due to the wartime shortage of automotive fuel.
Two former passenger cars from the Melbourne system were converted and used as mobile offices within the Preston Workshops between 1969 and 1974, by personnel from Commonwealth Engineering and ASEA who were connected with the construction of Melbourne's Z Class cars.
A number of systems have introduced restaurant trams, particularly as a tourist attraction. This is specifically a modern trend. Inter alia, tram systems which have or have had restaurant trams include: Adelaide, Australia; Bendigo, Australia; Brussels, Belgium, Christchurch, New Zealand, (currently suspended pending post earthquake infrastructure assessment); Melbourne, Australia; Milan, Italy; Moscow, Russia; Turin, Italy; Zürich, Switzerland.
These type of vehicles are particularly popular in Melbourne where three of the iconic "W" class trams have been converted to restaurant trams. All three often run in tandem and there are usually different sittings for meals. Bookings often close months in advance.
Most systems had cars that were converted to specific uses on the system, other than simply the carriage of passengers. As just one example, the Melbourne system used or uses the following: a Ballast Motor, Ballast Trailers, a Blow Car, Breakdown Cars, Conductors and/or Drivers' Instruction Cars, a Laboratory Testing Car, a Line Marking Car, a Pantograph Testing Car, Per Way Locomotives, Rail Grinders, a Rail Hardner Loco., a Scrapper Car, Scrubbers, Sleeper Carriers, Track Cleaners, a Welding Car, a Wheel Transport Car and a Workshops Locomotive.
Many systems have passenger carrying vehicles with all-over advertising on the exterior and/or the interior.
There are two main types of Tramways, the classic tramway build in the early 20th century with the tram system operating in mixed traffic and the latter type which is most often associated with the tram system having it own right of way. Tram systems that have their own right of way are often call Light Rail but this does not always hold true. Though these two systems have difference in their operation their equipment is much the same.
Throughout the world there are many tram systems; some dating from the late 19th or early 20th centuries. However a large number of the old systems were closed during the mid-20th century because of such perceived drawbacks as route inflexibility and maintenance expense. This was especially the case in North American, British, French and other West European cities. Some traditional tram systems did however survive and remain operating much as when first built over a century ago. In the past twenty years their numbers have been augmented by modern tramway or light rail systems in cities that had discarded this form of transport.
Tramways with tramcars (British English) or street railways with streetcars (American English) were common throughout the industrialised world in the late 19th and early 20th centuries but they had disappeared from most British, Canadian, French and U.S. cities by the mid-20th century.
Since 1980 trams have returned to favour in many places, partly because their tendency to dominate the roadway, formerly seen as a disadvantage, is now considered to be a merit. New systems have been built in the United States, Great Britain, Ireland, France and many other countries.
In Milan, Italy, the old "Ventotto" trams are considered by its inhabitants a "symbol" of the city.
The Silesian Interurbans in Poland and the Trams in Melbourne, Australia, are claimed to be the largest tram networks in the world. Before its decline the BVG in Berlin operated a very large network with 634 km of route. The largest tram system ever with 857 km existed in Buenos Aires before the 1960s. During a period in the 1980s the world's largest tram system was in Leningrad, USSR, being included in Guinness World Records.
The longest single tram line in the world is the Belgian Coast tram, which runs almost the entire length of the Belgian coast. Other large systems include (but not limited to) Vienna , Budapest, Leipzig, Prague, Kiev, Turin, Milan, Warsaw, Amsterdam, Brussels, Zagreb, Zurich, Bucharest and Toronto.
Until the system started to be converted to trolleybus (and later bus) in the 1930s, the first-generation London network was also one of the world's largest, with 526 km (327 mi) of route in 1934. While the largest streetcar network in the world used to be located in Chicago, with over 850 kilometres (530 mi) of track, all of it was converted to bus service by the late 1950s.
On the basis of work effectiveness, another measure of size is patronage. The ten largest systems are (figures in millions of passengers carried per year):
Tramway systems were well established in the Asian region at the start of the 20th century, but started a steady decline during the mid to late 30s. The 1960s marked the end of its dominance in public transportation with most major systems closed and the equipment and rails sold for scrap; however, some extensive original lines still remain in service in Hong Kong and Japan. In recent years there has been renewed interest in the tram with modern systems being built in Japan, the Philippines, and South Korea.
Trams still operate in Calcutta, India. Trams were discontinued in Bombay, India in 1960. There were Trolley Buses also in Bombay (now called Mumbai, the last of which operated between Mazagon and Grant Road, which got discontinued in the late '70s.
The first Japanese tram line was inaugurated in 1895 as the Kyoto Electric Railroad. The tram reached its zenith in 1932 when 82 rail companies operated 1,479 kilometers of track in 65 cities. The tram declined in popularity through the remaining years of the 30s, a trend that was accelerated by the damages of the War and continued through the Occupation and rebuilding years. During the 1960s many of the remaining operational tramways were shut down and dismantled in favor of auto, bus, and rapid rail service; however, when one compares the number of operational lines that survived this era to their American counterparts, they can be defined as quite extensive.
In many European cities much tramway infrastructure was lost in the mid-20th century, though not always on the same scale as in other parts of the world such as North America. Most of Eastern Europe retained tramway systems until recent years but some cities are now reconsidering their transport priorities. In contrast, some Western European cities are rehabilitating, upgrading, expanding and reconstructing their old tramway lines. Many Western European towns and cities are also building new tramway lines.
In most North American cities, streetcar lines were largely torn up in the mid-20th century for a variety of financial, technological and social reasons, mainly as a result of the Great American Streetcar Scandal. Exceptions included Boston, New Orleans, Newark, Seattle, Philadelphia (with a much smaller network than once had existed), Pittsburgh, San Francisco and Toronto. In a trend started in the 1980s, some American cities have brought back streetcars, examples of these being Memphis, Portland, Tampa, Little Rock and Seattle. Several additional cities, such as Washington, D.C., Tucson and Detroit are planning or proposing to do the same. Pittsburgh kept most of its streetcar system serving the city and many suburbs until January 27, 1967, making it the longest-lasting large-network U.S. streetcar system. In the late 20th century, several cities installed light rail systems, in part along the same corridor as the old streetcars.
Toronto currently has the largest streetcar system in the Americas in terms of track length and ridership, operated by the Toronto Transit Commission. It is the only streetcar system existing in Canada, not including the light rail systems that some Canadian cities currently operate, or heritage streetcar lines operating only seasonally. Toronto's system uses Canadian Light Rail Vehicles and Articulated Light Rail Vehicles, after a history of using PCCs, Peter Witt cars, and horse-drawn carriages. The system is currently proposing to replace its current fleet with Bombardier's Flexity Outlook models, which is also used in some European tram systems. Streetcars once existed in Edmonton and Calgary, but both cities have since converted their systems to support light rail vehicles instead. Streetcars also once existed in Ottawa, Montreal, Kitchener, Hamilton, Kingston and Peterborough. Some cities have restored their old streetcars and run them as a heritage feature for tourists, like the Vancouver Downtown Historic Railway.
In Australia, trams are used extensively only in Melbourne, and to a lesser extent, Adelaide, all other major cities having largely dismantled their networks by the 1970s. Sydney reintroduced its tram in 1997 as a modern system (Metro Light Rail), while Ballarat and Christchurch reintroduced their trams as heritage systems. Bendigo had a heritage system for a while which has recently been upgraded to a simple public transport system through an increase in frequency.
A distinctive feature of many Australian trams was the early use of a lowered central section between bogies (wheel-sets). This was intended to make passenger access easier, by reducing the number of steps required to reach the inside of the vehicle. It is believed that the design first originated in Christchurch in the first decade of the 20th century. Cars with this design feature were frequently referred to as "drop-centres". Trams built since the 1970s have had conventional high or low floors.
The trams made by Boon & Co. of Christchurch, New Zealand in 1906–07 for use in Christchurch may have been the first with this feature; they were referred to as drop-centres or Boon cars. Trams for Christchurch and Wellington built in the 1920s with an enclosed section at each end and an open-sided middle section were also known as Boon cars, but did not have the drop-centre.
Buenos Aires in Argentina had once one of the most extensive tramway networks in the world with over 857 km (535 mi) of track, most of it dismantled during the 1960s in favor of bus transportation. Now slowly coming back, the 2 km Puerto Madero Tramway running in the Puerto Madero district is spearheading the move with extensions to Retiro station and La Boca in the planning stages. Another line, the PreMetro line E2 system feeding the Line E of the Buenos Aires Subway has been operating for the past few years on the outskirts of Buenos Aires, and a unique leisure "Tren de la Costa", an artery that stretches for 15 kilometres by the River Plate, from Olivos to the village of Tigre has also been running in Buenos Aires.
Also in the city Mendoza, in Argentina, a new tramway system is in construction, the Metrotranvía of Mendoza, which will have a route of 12.5 km and will link five districts of the Greater Mendoza conurbation. The opening of the system is scheduled for August 2011.
All transit services, except personal rapid transit, involve a trade-off between speed and frequency of stops. Services that stop frequently have a lower overall speed, and are therefore less attractive for longer trips. Metros, light rail, monorail, and bus rapid transit are all forms of rapid transit, which generally signifies high speed and widely spaced stops. Trams are often used as a form of local transit, making frequent stops. Thus, the most meaningful comparison of advantages and disadvantages is with other forms of local transit, primarily the local bus.
Toyama Light rail Portram.
Trams in Helsinki
Solaris Tramino on motorshow
Trams in Calcutta
Trams in Miskolc
Tram in Rome
KTM-5 tram in Lipetsk. 14,369 units of this tram were produced, making it the most numerous tram in history
Trams in Tallinn.
Published in 1878, the novel is set in the 1840s, though horse trams were not introduced in Boston till the 1850s. Note how the tram's efficiency surprises the European visitor; how two "remarkably small" horses sufficed to draw the "huge" tramcar.
James also makes comical reference to the novelty and excitement of trams in Portrait of a Lady (1881):
A quarter of a century later, Joseph Conrad described Amsterdam's trams in chapter 14 of The Mirror of the Sea (1906): From afar at the end of Tsar Peter Straat, issued in the frosty air the tinkle of bells of the horse tramcars, appearing and disappearing in the opening between the buildings, like little toy carriages harnessed with toy horses and played with by people that appeared no bigger than children.
In his fictionalised but autobiographical Memoirs of an Infantry Officer, published in 1930, Siegfried Sassoon's narrator ruminates from his hospital bed in Denmark Hill, London, in 1917 that "Even the screech and rumble of electric trams was a friendly sound; trams meant safety; the troops in the trenches thought about trams with affection."
Danzig trams figure extensively in the early stages of Günter Grass's Die Blechtrommel (The Tin Drum). In the last chapter the novel's hero Oskar Matzerath and his friend Gottfried von Vittlar steal a tram late at night from outside Unterrath depot on the northern edge of Düsseldorf.
It is a surreal journey. Von Vittlar drives the tram through the night, south to Flingern and Haniel and then east to the suburb of Gerresheim. Meanwhile, inside, Matzerath tries to rescue the half-blind Victor Weluhn (who had escaped from the siege of the Polish post office in Danzig at the beginning of the book and of the war) from his two green-hatted would-be executioners. Mazerath deposits his briefcase, which contains Sister Dorotea's severed ring finger in a preserving jar, on the dashboard "where professional motorman put their lunchboxes". They leave the tram at the terminus and the executioners tie Weluhn to a tree in von Vittlar's mother's garden and prepare to machine-gun him. But Matzerath drums, Weluhn sings, and together they conjure up the Polish cavalry, who spirit both victim and executioners away. Matzerath asks von Vittlar to take his briefcase in the tram to the police HQ in the Fürstenwall, which he does.
In his 1967 spy thriller An Expensive Place to Die, Len Deighton misidentifies the Flemish coast tram: "The red glow of Ostend is nearer now and yellow trains rattle alongside the motor road and over the bridge by the Royal Yacht Club..."
Model trams are popular in HO scale (1:87) and O scale (1:48 in the US and generally 1:43,5 and 1:45 in Europe and Asia). They are typically powered and will accept plastic figures inside. Common manufacturers are Roco and Lima, with many custom models being made as well. The German firm Hödl and the Austrian Halling specialize in 1:87 scale.
In the US, Bachmann Industries is a mass supplier of HO trams and kits. Bowser Manufacturing has produced white metal models for over 50 years. There are many boutique vendors offering limited run epoxy and wood models. At the high end are highly detailed brass models which are usually imported from Japan or Korea and can cost in excess of $500. Many of these run on 16.5 mm (0.650 in) gauge track, which is correct for the representation of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) (standard gauge) in HO scale as in US and Japan, but incorrect in 4 mm (1:76.2) scale, as it represents 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm). This scale/gauge hybrid is called OO scale. O scale trams are also very popular among tram modellers because the increased size allows for more detail and easier crafting of overhead wiring. In the US these models are usually purchased in epoxy or wood kits and some as brass models. The Saint Petersburg Tram Company produces highly detailed polyurethane non-powered O Scale models from around the world which can easily be powered by trucks from vendors like Q-Car.
It is thought that the first example of a working model tramcar in the UK built by an amateur for fun was in 1929, when Frank E. Wilson created a replica of London County Council Tramways E class car 444 in 1:16 scale, which he demonstrated at an early Model Engineer Exhibition. Another of his models was London E/1 1800, which was the only tramway exhibit in the Faraday Memorial Exhibition of 1931. Together with likeminded friends, Frank Wilson went on to found the Tramway & Light Railway Society in 1938, establishing tramway modelling as a hobby.
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