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definitions - Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole

Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination (n.)

1.(MeSH)This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.

Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (n.)

1.(MeSH)This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.

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Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole

                   
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole
Combination of
Trimethoprim Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor (16.7%)
Sulfamethoxazole Sulfonamide antibiotic (83.3%)
Clinical data
Trade names Bactrim, Bactrimel, Biseptol, Co-trimoxazole, Cotrim, Septrin, Septra, Sulfatrim, Trisul
Pregnancy cat. C (AU) C (US)
Legal status -only (US)
Routes Oral
Identifiers
CAS number 8064-90-2
ATC code J01EE01
PubChem CID 358641
ChemSpider 318412
 YesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or co-trimoxazole (abbreviated SXT, TMP-SMX, TMP-SMZ or TMP-sulfa) is a sulfonamide antibiotic combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, in the ratio of 1 to 5, used in the treatment of a variety of bacterial infections.

The name co-trimoxazole is the British Approved Name, and has been marketed worldwide under many trade names including Septra (GSK), Bactrim (Roche), and various generic preparations. Sources differ as to whether co-trimoxazole usually is a bactericide or a bacteriostatic agent.

Contents

  Medical uses

Co-trimoxazole was claimed to be more effective than either of its components individually in treating bacterial infections, although this was later disputed.[1] Along with its associated greater incidence of adverse effects including allergic responses (see below), its widespread use has been restricted in many countries to very specific circumstances where its improved efficacy is demonstrated.[2] It may be effective in a variety of upper and lower respiratory tract infections, renal and urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal tract infections, skin and wound infections, septicaemias, and other infections caused by sensitive organisms. The global problem of advancing antimicrobial resistance has led to a renewed interest in the use of co-trimoxazole in various settings more recently.[3]

The current British Committee on Safety of Medicines (CSM) guidelines recommend limiting its use to[citation needed]

Specific indications for its use include

  HIV

Being an antibiotic, co-trimoxazole does not have any activity against HIV itself, but it is often prescribed to immunocompromised patients as Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis.

  Bacterial

  Protozoan

  Fungal

  • Treatment and prophylaxis of pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly identified as P. carinii and commonly seen in immunocompromised patients including those suffering from cancer or HIV/AIDS).

  Side effects

There has been some concern about its use, however, since it has been associated with both frequent mild allergic reactions and serious adverse effects, including Stevens–Johnson syndrome, myelosuppression, mydriasis, agranulocytosis, and severe liver damage (cholestatic hepatosis, hepatitis, liver necrosis, and fulminant liver failure).[5][citation needed] Due to displacement of bilirubin from albumin, there is an increased risk of kernicterus in the fetus during the last six weeks of pregnancy. Also, renal impairment up to acute renal failure and anuria have been reported. These side effects are seen especially in the elderly and may be fatal. (Joint Formulary Committee, 2004). However, it should be noted that TMP-SMX may elevate creatinine without causing renal damage. This elevation occurs through the inhibition of the tubular secretion of creatinine by the trimethoprim component[6]. Both folic acid and folinic acid were found equally effective in reducing the adverse effects of TMP-SMX, so unless new evidence is found for folinic acid that shows it is more effective than the cheaper folic acid, the latter will continue to be the preferred treatment method.

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole may have the following adverse reactions:[7]

  Mechanism of action

  Tetrahydrofolate synthesis pathway

The synergy between trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole was first described in a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments published in the late 1960s.[8][9][10] Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole have a greater effect when given together than when given separately; the reason is because they inhibit successive steps in the folate synthesis pathway (see diagram below).

It is unclear whether this synergy occurs at doses used in humans,[11] because, at the concentrations seen in blood and tissues, the ratio of trimethoprim to sulfamethoxazole is 1:20,[12] which is less than the 1:5 ratio needed in vitro for synergy to occur.

Sulfamethoxazole acts as a false-substrate inhibitor of dihydropteroate synthetase. Sulfonamides such as sulfamethoxazole are analogues of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and, thus, are competitive inhibitors of the enzyme, inhibiting the production of dihydropteroic acid.

Trimethoprim acts by interfering with the action of bacterial dihydrofolate reductase, inhibiting synthesis of tetrahydrofolic acid.

Folic acid is an essential precursor in the de novo synthesis of the DNA nucleosides thymidine and uridine. Bacteria are unable to take up folic acid from the environment (i.e., the infection host) and, thus, are dependent on their own de novo synthesis - inhibition of the enzyme starves the bacteria of two bases necessary for DNA replication and transcription.

  Trade names

Co-trimoxazole is manufactured and sold by many different companies. Some of the brand names are listed here, but this list is not complete.

  • Bactrim, Bactrimel (Roche)
  • Co-trimoxazole (Sandoz)
  • Cotrim
  • Septrin, Septra (GlaxoSmithKline and formerly Burroughs Wellcome)
  • Sulfatrim
  • Biseptol
  • Trisul
  • Vactrim (Manufactured and distributed in the country of Laos)
  • Bibactin (Manufactured by PPM and distributed in the country of Cambodia and some others African countries)
  • Graprima Forte Kaplet (Manufactured by PT Graha Farma, distributed in the country of Indonesia)

  References

  1. ^ Brumfitt W, Hamilton-Miller JM (December 1993). "Reassessment of the rationale for the combinations of sulphonamides with diaminopyrimidines". J Chemother 5 (6): 465–9. PMID 8195839. 
  2. ^ "Co-trimoxazole use restricted". Drug Ther Bull 33 (12): 92–3. December 1995. DOI:10.1136/dtb.1995.331292. PMID 8777892. 
  3. ^ Falagas ME, Grammatikos AP, Michalopoulos A (October 2008). "Potential of old-generation antibiotics to address current need for new antibiotics". Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 6 (5): 593–600. DOI:10.1586/14787210.6.5.593. PMID 18847400. 
  4. ^ Lagrange-Xélot M, Porcher R, Sarfati C, et al (February 2008). "Isosporiasis in patients with HIV infection in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era in France". HIV Med. 9 (2): 126–30. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2007.00530.x. PMID 18257775. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=1464-2662&date=2008&volume=9&issue=2&spage=126. 
  5. ^ Jeffrey K. Aronson (5 January 2012). Side Effects of Drugs Annual: A Worldwide Yearly Survey of New Data in Adverse Drug Reactions. Elsevier. pp. 528–529. ISBN 978-0-444-53741-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=zegpAgEt3CcC&pg=PA528. Retrieved 20 May 2012. 
  6. ^ Andreev, E.; M. KOOPMAN & L. ARISZ (1999). "A rise in plasma creatinine that is not a sign of renal failure: which drugs can be responsible?". Journal of Internal Medicine 246 (3): 247-253. PMID 10475992. 
  7. ^ Monarch Pharmaceuticals (March 2008). "Septra Tablets (trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole) Prescribing Information March 2008". USFDA. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2008/017376s058,017598s040,018452s025lbl.pdf. Retrieved 4 September 2011. 
  8. ^ Bushby SRM, Hitchings GH (1968). "Trimethoprim, a sulphonamide potentiator". Brit J Pharmacol 33 (1): 72. PMC 1570262. PMID 5301731. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1570262. 
  9. ^ Böhni E (1969). "Vergleichende bakteriologische untersuchungen mit der Kombination Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole in vitro und in vivo". Chemotherapy 14 (Suppl): 1. DOI:10.1159/000220651. PMID 4908562. 
  10. ^ Böhni E (1969). "Chemotherapeutic activity of the combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in infections of mice". Postgrad Med J 45 (Suppl): 18. PMID 4902845. 
  11. ^ Brumfitt W, Hamilton-Miller JM (February 1994). "Limitations of and indications for the use of co-trimoxazole". J Chemother 6 (1): 3–11. PMID 8071675. 
  12. ^ Kremers P, Duvivier J, Heusghem C (1974). "Pharmacokinetic studies of co-trimoxazole in man after single and repeated doses". J Clin Pharmacol 14: 112–117. PMID 4813080. 
   
               

 

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