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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.
1.a handcart that has a frame with two low wheels and a ledge at the bottom and handles at the top; used to move crates or other heavy objects
2.an automotive vehicle suitable for hauling
3.(American)a large truck designed to carry heavy loads; usually without sides
1.convey (goods etc.) by truck"truck fresh vegetables across the mountains"
TruckTruck, v. t. To transport on a truck or trucks.
TruckTruck, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Trucked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. trucking.] [OE. trukken,F. troquer; akin to Sp. & Pg. trocar; of uncertain origin.] To exchange; to give in exchange; to barter; as, to truck knives for gold dust.
We will begin by supposing the international trade to be in form, what it always is in reality, an actual trucking of one commodity against another. J. S. Mill.
TruckTruck, v. i. To exchange commodities; to barter; to trade; to deal.
A master of a ship, who deceived them under color of trucking with them. Palfrey.
Despotism itself is obliged to truck and huckster. Burke.
To truck and higgle for a private good. Emerson.
TruckTruck (?), n. [Cf. F. troc.]
1. Exchange of commodities; barter. Hakluyt.
2. Commodities appropriate for barter, or for small trade; small commodities; esp., in the United States, garden vegetables raised for the market. [Colloq.]
3. The practice of paying wages in goods instead of money; -- called also truck system.
Garden truck, vegetables raised for market. [Colloq.] [U. S.] -- Truck farming, raising vegetables for market: market gardening. [Colloq. U. S.]
1996 NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series • 1997 NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series • 1998 NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series • 1999 NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series • 2000 NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series • 2001 NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series • 2002 Grozny truck bombing • 2002 NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series • 2003 NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series • 2004 NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series • 2005 NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series • 2006 Cape Town truck-train collision • 2006 NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series • 2007 NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series • 2007 Pickup Truck Racing season • AAR type A switcher truck • ARCA Lincoln Welders Truck Series • Arachnaphobia (truck) • Automated truck loading systems • Bad Medicine (truck) • Batman (truck) • Bear Foot (truck) • Belphegor (truck) • Bering Truck • Big Ass Truck • Big Truck (horse) • Bigfoot (truck) • Black Stallion (truck) • Blue Thunder (truck) • Bobby Z (monster truck driver) • Box truck • Bud the Spud (chip truck) • Budget Truck Rental • Bulldozer (truck) • C15TA Armoured Truck • Cabin (truck) • Camping World Truck Series • Chevrolet pickup truck • Class A truck • Class B truck • Clydesdale (truck) • Concrete transport truck • Cyborg (truck) • Daimler-Hyundai Truck • Datsun Truck • Detroit–Windsor Truck Ferry • Double truck • Dover (truck) • Dual-mode truck • Electric platform truck • Excite Truck • Flat bed truck • Flat-Top the Brick Truck • Flatbed truck • Flint Truck Assembly • Fork-lift truck • Forklift truck • Fórmula Truck • Garbage truck • Grapple truck • HT-C truck • Hand truck • Hard Truck Apocalypse • Hayes Truck • Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck • Heavy Expanded Mobility Technical Truck • Heluva Good! 200 (Truck Series race) • Hertz Moving Truck Rental • Highway 7 Truck (Arkansas) • Hired Truck Program • Hull Truck Theatre • Hyundai 4.5 to 5-ton truck • Hyundai 8 to 25-ton truck • Hyundai Mega Truck • Hyundai New Power Truck • Hyundai Super Truck • Hyundai Super Truck Medium • Ibadan tanker truck explosion • Ice Cream Truck • Independent Truck Company • International Truck of the Year • It's the Girl in the Red Truck, Charlie Brown • Juggernaut (truck) • Kentucky Truck Assembly • LM Truck • Light truck • List of dump truck manufacturers • List of truck types • M35 2-1/2 ton cargo truck • M939 Truck • Mack Truck • Mail truck • Maniac (truck) • Mighty Truck of Stuff • Mississauga Truck and Bus Collision • Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation • Monster Truck Challenge (TV Show) • Monster Truck Madness • Monster Truck Madness 2 • National Association of Truck Stop Owners • Ontario Truck • Oshawa Truck Assembly • Pennsylvania Route 148 Truck • Pennsylvania Route 23 Truck • Pennsylvania Route 27 Truck • Pennsylvania Route 28 Truck • Pennsylvania Route 286 Truck • Pennsylvania Route 304 Truck • Pennsylvania Route 341 Truck • Pennsylvania Route 42 Truck • Pennsylvania Route 441 Truck • Pennsylvania Route 45 Truck • Pennsylvania Route 51 Truck • Pennsylvania Route 56 Truck • Pennsylvania Route 61 Truck • Pennsylvania Route 641 Truck • Pennsylvania Route 653 Truck • Pennsylvania Route 711 Truck • Pennsylvania Route 770 Truck • Pennsylvania Route 8 Truck • Pennsylvania Route 851 Truck • Pennsylvania Route 88 Truck • Penske Truck Rental • Pickup Truck Racing • Pickup truck • Plymouth Arrow Truck • Police truck • Police truck (disambiguation) • Pony truck • Powered platform truck vehicle • Predator (truck) • Production truck • Professional Truck Driver Institute • Professional Van and Light Truck Magazine • Raminator (truck) • Refrigerator truck • Republic Motor Truck Company • Robur (truck) • Runaway truck ramp • SPA Truck Company • Sack truck (disambiguation) • Saltillo Truck Assembly • Satellite truck • Say What You Will, Clarence...Karl Sold the Truck • Semi-trailer truck • Snake Bite (truck) • Sound truck • Squad truck • St. Louis Truck Assembly • Stadium truck • Stanford Fire Truck House • Studebaker E Series Truck • Studebaker M Series Truck • Sudden Impact (truck) • Taco truck • Tank truck • Tarrytown Truck Assembly • Thunder Truck Rally • Tow Truck (album) • Tow Truck Pluck • Towasaurus Wrex (truck) • Transfer Truck • Transfer truck • Trick My Truck • Trophy Truck • Truck (band) • Truck (book) • Truck Act • Truck Acts • Truck Canopy • Truck Festival • Truck Robinson • Truck Turner • Truck accessory • Truck and trailer • Truck and trailers • Truck bedliner • Truck camper • Truck classification • Truck farming • Truck nuts • Truck racing • Truck route • Truck scale • Truck scale software • Truck wages • Two Men and a Truck • U.S. Military M274 Truck, Platform, Utility 1/2 Ton, 4X4 • U.S. Route 2 Truck (St. Johnsbury, Vermont) • U.S. Route 301 Truck (Delaware) • U.S. Route 322 Truck (Downingtown, Pennsylvania) • U.S. Route 9 Truck • U.S. Route 9 Truck (Georgetown, Delaware) • U.S. Routes 98-301 Truck (Dade City, Florida) • Uncle Otto's Truck • Walk-in/Truck-in ovens • Walking truck • Warren Truck Assembly • Wig wag (truck braking systems)
véhicule utilitaire routier (fr)[Classe]
(lorry; truck; camion)[Thème]
lorry; truck; camion[ClasseHyper.]
truck (n.) [American]
chariot et charrette (fr)[Classe]
outil pour transporter (fr)[Thème]
outil pour transporter (fr)[Classe]
chariot tracté par l'homme (fr)[Classe]
motor vehicle; automotive vehicle[ClasseHyper.]
métier : transport routier (fr)[Classe]
métier : conducteur (fr)[Classe]
(lorry; truck; camion)[termes liés]
conveyance, means of conveyance, means of transport, transport, transportation - transit, transportation, transportation system, transport system - transporter - car transporter, transporter - convey, haul - cart, drag, hale, haul - truck[Dérivé]
||The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. (September 2010)|
A truck (North American and Australian English) or lorry (British and Commonwealth English) is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configuration, with the smallest being mechanically similar to an automobile. Commercial trucks can be very large and powerful, and may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case of fire trucks and concrete mixers and suction excavators. Modern trucks are powered by either gasoline or diesel engines, with diesel dominant in commercial applications. In the European Union vehicles with a gross combination mass of less than 3,500 kilograms (7,716 lb) are known as Light commercial vehicles and those over as Large goods vehicles.
The word "truck" might have come from a back-formation of "truckle" with the meaning "small wheel", "pulley", from Middle English trokell, in turn from Latin trochlea. Another explanation is that it comes from Latin trochus with the meaning of "iron hoop". In turn, both go back to Greek trokhos (τροχός) meaning "wheel" from trekhein (τρέχειν, "to run"). The first known usage of "truck" was in 1611 when it referred to the small strong wheels on ships' cannon carriages. In its extended usage it came to refer to carts for carrying heavy loads, a meaning known since 1771. With the meaning of "motor-powered load carrier", it has been in usage since 1930, shortened from "motor truck", which dates back to 1916.
"Lorry" has a more uncertain origin, but probably has its roots in the railroad industry, where the word is known to have been used in 1838 to refer to a type of truck (a freight car as in British usage, not a bogie as in the American), specifically a large flat wagon. It probably derives from the verb lurry (to pull, tug) of uncertain origin. With the meaning of "self-propelled vehicle for carrying goods" it has been in usage since 1911.
In the United States, Canada and Philippines "truck" is usually reserved for commercial vehicles larger than normal cars including pickups and other vehicles having an open load bed. In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the word "truck" is mostly reserved for larger vehicles; in Australia and New Zealand, a pickup truck is usually called a ute (short for "utility"), while in South Africa it is called a bakkie (Afrikaans: "container"). In the United Kingdom, India, Malaysia, Singapore, Ireland and Hong Kong lorry is used instead of truck, but only for the medium and heavy types.
In American English, the word "truck" is often preceded by a word describing the type of vehicle, such as a "fire truck" or "tanker truck". In British English these would be referred to as "fire engine" and "tanker" or "petrol tanker", respectively. In Canada and the United States, "fire engine" is also used.
In Australia and New Zealand, the term 'ute' (short for 'coupé utility') is used to describe a pickup truck with an open cargo carrying space but a front similar to a passenger car, and which requires only a passenger car license to drive. The concept was developed in 1933 by Lewis Bandt of the Ford Motor Company in Geelong following a request from a Gippsland farmer's wife for a vehicle that they could go to church in on Sunday without getting wet and also use to take the pigs to market on Monday.
The United Kingdom and the rest of Europe now have common, yet complex rules (see European driving licence). As an overview, to drive a vehicle weighing more than 7,500 kilograms (16,535 lb) for commercial purposes requires a specialist licence (the type varies depending on the use of the vehicle and number of seats). For licences first acquired after 1997, that weight was reduced to 3,500 kilograms (7,716 lb), not including trailers.
There is also a heavy vehicle transmission condition for a licence class HR, HC or MC test passed in a vehicle fitted with an automatic or synchromesh transmission, a driver’s licence will be restricted to vehicles of that class fitted with a synchromesh or automatic transmission . To have the condition removed, a person needs to pass a practical driving test in a vehicle with non synchromesh transmission (constant mesh or crash box).
Almost all trucks share a common construction: they are made of a chassis, a cab, an area for placing cargo or equipment, axles, suspension and roadwheels, an engine and a drivetrain. Pneumatic, hydraulic, water, and electrical systems may also be identified. Many also tow one or more trailers or semi-trailers.
There are several possible cab configurations:
The oldest truck was built in 1896 by Gottlieb Daimler. Most small trucks such as sport utility vehicles (SUVs) or pickups, and even light medium-duty trucks in North America and Russia will use petrol engines (gasoline engines), but many diesel engined models are now being produced. Most heavier trucks use four stroke diesel engine with a turbocharger and aftercooler. Huge off-highway trucks use locomotive-type engines such as a V12 Detroit Diesel two stroke engine. Diesel engines are becoming the engine of choice for trucks ranging from class 3 to 8 GVWs.
North American manufactured highway trucks almost always use an engine built by a third party, such as CAT, Cummins, or Detroit Diesel. The only exceptions to this are Volvo and its subsidiary Mack Trucks, which are available with their own engines. Freightliner Trucks, Sterling Trucks and Western Star, subsidiaries of Daimler AG, are available with Mercedes-Benz and Detroit Diesel engines. Trucks and buses built by Navistar International usually also contain International engines. The Swedish manufacturer Scania claims they stay away from the U.S. market because of this third party tradition.
Small trucks use the same type of transmissions as almost all cars, having either an automatic transmission or a manual transmission with synchromesh (synchronizers). Bigger trucks often use manual transmissions without synchronisers, saving bulk and weight, although synchromesh transmissions are used in larger trucks as well. Transmissions without synchronizers, known as "crash boxes", require double-clutching for each shift, (which can lead to repetitive motion injuries), or a technique known colloquially as "floating", a method of changing gears which doesn't use the clutch, except for starts and stops, due to the physical effort of double clutching, especially with non power assisted clutches, faster shifts, and less clutch wear.
Double-clutching allows the driver to control the engine and transmission revolutions to synchronize, so that a smooth shift can be made, e.g., when upshifting, the accelerator pedal is released and the clutch pedal is depressed while the gear lever is moved into neutral, the clutch pedal is then released and quickly pushed down again while the gear lever is moved to the next higher gear. Finally, the clutch pedal is released and the accelerator pedal pushed down to obtain required engine speed. Although this is a relatively fast movement, perhaps a second or so while transmission is in neutral, it allows the engine speed to drop and synchronize engine and transmission revolutions relative to the road speed. Downshifting is performed in a similar fashion, except the engine speed is now required to increase (while transmission is in neutral) just the right amount in order to achieve the synchronization for a smooth, non-collision gear change. Skip changing is also widely used; in principle operation is the same as double-clutching, but it requires neutral be held slightly longer than a single gear change.
Common North American setups include 9, 10, 13, 15, and 18 speeds. Automatic and semi-automatic transmissions for heavy trucks are becoming more and more common, due to advances both in transmission and engine power. In Europe 8, 10, 12 and 16 gears are common on larger trucks with manual transmission, while automatic or semi-automatic transmissions would have anything from 5 to 12 gears. Almost all heavy truck transmissions are of the "range and split" (double H shift pattern) type, where range change and so-called half gears or splits are air operated and always preselected before the main gear selection.
A truck frame consists of two parallel boxed (tubular) or C-shaped rails, or beams, held together by crossmembers. These frames are referred to as ladder frames due to their resemblance to a ladder if tipped on end. The rails consist of a tall vertical section (two if boxed) and two shorter horizontal flanges. The height of the vertical section provides opposition to vertical flex when weight is applied to the top of the frame (beam resistance). Though typically flat the whole length on heavy duty trucks, the rails may sometimes be tapered or arched for clearance around the engine or over the axles. The holes in rails are used either for mounting vehicle components and running wires and hoses, or measuring and adjusting the orientation of the rails at the factory or repair shop.
Though they may be welded, crossmembers are most often attached to frame rails by bolts or rivets. Crossmembers may be boxed or stamped into a c-shape, but are most commonly boxed on modern vehicles, particularly heavy trucks.
The frame is almost always made of steel, but can be made (whole or in part) of aluminium for a lighter weight. A tow bar may be found attached at one or both ends, but heavy trucks almost always make use of a fifth wheel hitch.
Trucks contribute to air, noise, and water pollution similarly to automobiles. Trucks may emit lower air pollution emissions than cars per equivalent vehicle mass, although the absolute level per vehicle distance traveled is higher, and diesel particulate matter is especially problematic for health. With respect to noise pollution, trucks emit considerably higher sound levels at all speeds compared to typical car; this contrast is particularly strong with heavy-duty trucks. There are several aspects of truck operations that contribute to the overall sound that is emitted. Continuous sounds are those from tires rolling on the roadway, and the constant hum of their diesel engines at highway speeds. Less frequent noises, but perhaps more noticeable, are things like the repeated sharp-pitched whistle of a turbocharger on acceleration, or the abrupt blare of an exhaust brake retarder when traversing a downgrade. There has been noise regulation put in place to help control where and when the use of engine braking retarders are allowed.
Concerns have been raised about the effect of trucking on the environment, particularly as part of the debate on global warming. In the period from 1990 to 2003, carbon dioxide emissions from transportation sources increased by 20%, despite improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency.
Between 1985 and 2004, in the U.S., energy consumption in freight transportation grew nearly 53%, while the number of ton-miles carried increased only 43%. "Modal shifts account for a nearly a 23% increase in energy consumption over this period. Much of this shift is due to a greater fraction of freight ton-miles being carried via truck and air, as compared to water, rail, and pipelines."
According to a 1995 U.S. Government estimate, the energy cost of carrying one ton of freight a distance of one kilometer averages 337 kJ for water, 221 kJ for rail, 2,000 kJ for trucks, and nearly 13,000 kJ for air transport. Many environmental organizations favor laws and incentives to encourage the switch from road to rail, especially in Europe.
The European Parliament is moving to ensure that charges on heavy-goods vehicles should be based in part on the air and noise pollution they produce and the congestion they cause, according to legislation approved by the Transport Committee. The Eurovignette scheme has been proposed, whereby new charges would be potentially levied against things such as noise and air pollution and also weight related damages from the lorries themselves.
|1||Daimler AG (Mercedes-Benz, Freightliner Trucks, Sterling Trucks, Unimog, Western Star, Fuso, BharatBenz)||478,535|
|2||Volvo Group (Volvo, Mack, Renault, UD Nissan Diesel)||438,954|
|4||Volkswagen Group (Scania, Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles, MAN)||203,102|
|5||Tata Group (Tata Motors, Daewoo Commercial Vehicle)||159,237|
|6||Hyundai Kia Automotive Group (Hyundai)||157,781|
|7||Toyota Group (Hino Motors, Isuzu)||129,107|
|8||Fiat Group (Iveco, Magirus, Astra, Seddon Atkinson, Yuejin)||127,542|
|9||PACCAR (DAF Trucks, Kenworth, Peterbilt, Leyland Trucks)||126,960|
Primary liability Insurance coverage protects the truck from damage or injuries to other people as a result of a truck accident. This truck insurance coverage is mandated by U.S. state and federal agencies, and proof of coverage is required to be sent to them. Insurance coverage limits range from $35,000 to $1,000,000. Pricing is dependent on region, driving records, and history of the trucking operation.
Motor truck cargo insurance protects the transporter for his responsibility in the event of damaged or lost freight. The policy is purchased with a maximum load limit per vehicle. Cargo insurance coverage limits can range from $10,000 to $100,000 or more. Pricing for this insurance is mainly dependent on the type of cargo being hauled.
|This unreferenced section requires citations to ensure verifiability.|
In 2004, there were over 5,000 fatalities related to trucking accidents. Since, the trucking industry has made significant efforts in increasing safety regulations. In 2008, the industry had successfully lowered the fatality rate to just over 4,000 deaths. Even with this decrease, trucking accidents are still an issue that causes thousands of deaths and injuries each year.
Fatalities are not the only issue caused by trucking accidents. Here are some of the environmental issues that arise with trucking accidents:
The most common reasons for trucking accidents include driving while sleep-deprived, and driving while under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
In the UK, three truck shows are popular - Shropshire Truck Show in Oswestry Showground during May, The UK Truck Show held in June at Santa Pod Raceway, and FIA European Drag Racing Championships from the home of European Drag-Racing. The UK Truck Show features drag-racing with 6-tonne trucks from the British Truck Racing Association, plus other diesel-powered entertainment.
Truck shows provide operators with an opportunity to win awards for their trucks.
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