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Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg
Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg
Latin: Ruperto Carola Heidelbergensis
MottoSemper apertus (Latin)
Motto in English(The book of learning is) always open.
Established1386
TypePublic
RectorBernhard Eitel
Staff4,196 full time faculty
Students26,741
LocationHeidelberg, Germany
CampusUrban
ColorsSandstone red and Gold         
AffiliationsGerman Excellence Universities
LERU
Coimbra Group
EUA
Websitehttp://www.uni-heidelberg.de/
Data as of 2007

Coordinates: 49°24′37″N 8°42′23″E / 49.41028°N 8.70639°E / 49.41028; 8.70639

The Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg (University of Heidelberg, Ruperto Carola, Heidelberg University, or simply Heidelberg) is a public research university located in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Founded in 1386, it is the oldest university in Germany and was the fourth university established in the Holy Roman Empire.[1] A coeducational institution since 1899, today Heidelberg consists of twelve faculties and offers degree programs at undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral levels in some 100 disciplines.[2] It is a German Excellence University, as well as a founding member of the League of European Research Universities, the Coimbra Group, and the European University Association.

Rupert I, Elector Palatine established the university when Heidelberg was the seat of one of the Prince-Electors of the Holy Roman Empire.[3] Consequently, it served as a center for theologians and law experts from throughout the Holy Roman Empire. Matriculation rates declined with the Thirty Years' War, and the university did not overcome its fiscal and intellectual crises until the early 19th century.[4] Subsequently, the institution once again became a hub for independent thinkers, and develeloped into a "stronghold of humanism and democracy".[5] At this time, Heidelberg served as a role model for the implementation of graduate schools at American universities.[6] However, the university lost many of its dissident professors and was marked a NSDAP cadre university during the Nazi era between 1933 and 1945. It later underwent an extensive denazification after World War II—Heidelberg serving as one of the main scenes of the left-wing student protests in Germany in the 1970s.[7]

Modern scientific psychiatry; psychopharmacology; psychiatric genetics;[8] environmental physics;[9] and modern sociology[10] were introduced as scientific disciplines by Heidelberg faculty. Associated with 30 Nobel Prize laureates, the university continues to emphasize research. It is consistently ranked among Europe's top overall universities,[11] and is an international education venue for doctoral students, with approximately 1,000 doctorates successfully completed every year, and with more than one third of the doctoral students coming from abroad.[12][13] International students from some 130 countries account for more than 20 percent of the entire student body.[14] Heidelberg comprises two major campuses: one in Heidelberg's Old Town and another in the Neuenheimer Feld quarter on the outskirts of the city. The university's noted alumni include eleven domestic and foreign Heads of State or Heads of Government.

Contents

History

Founding

Rupert I founded the University of Heidelberg in 1386

After having received papal permission in 1385, the university was founded in 1386 at the behest of Rupert I, Count Palatine of the Rhine, in order to provide faculties for the study of philosophy, theology, jurisprudence, and medicine. On October 19, 1386, the first lecture was held, making Heidelberg the oldest university in Germany.[15]

The Great Schism in 1378, which split European Christendom into two hostile groups, was initiated by the election of two popes after the death of Pope Gregory XI in the same year. One successor resided in Avignon (elected by the French) and the other in Rome (elected by the Italian cardinals). The German secular and spiritual leaders voiced their support for the successor in Rome, which had far-reaching consequences for the German students and teachers in Paris: they lost their stipends and had to leave. Rupert I recognized the opportunity and initiated talks with the Curia, which ultimately lead to the creation of the Papal Bull Foundation. On October 18, 1386, a special Pontifical High Mass in the Heiliggeistkirche commemorated the opening of the doors of the university. As a motto for the seal, Marsilius von Inghen, the first rector of the university chose semper apertus—i.e., "the book of learning is always open."[4] At this point in time, the city of Heidelberg had approximately 3,500 inhabitants, including 600 students enrolled at the university.[15]

Early development

A solemn holy Mass was offered in the Heiliggeistkirche in 1386 to commemorate and bless the establishment of the University.

The newly-created university acted from the outset as an intellectual center for theology and jurisprudence scholars from throughout the Holy Roman Empire.[16]Nominalism had been prevalent from the time of Marsilius until after 1406, when Jerome of Prague, the friend of John Hus, introduced realism at Heidelberg, on which account he was expelled by the faculty. Six years later, the teachings of John Wycliffe were also condemned. Between 1414 and 1418, several distinguished professors of the University of Heidelberg took part in the Council of Constance and acted as counselors for Louis III, who attended this council as representative of the emperor and chief magistrate of the realm, and had John Hus executed as a heretic. In 1432, the university, pursuant to papal and imperial requests, sent two delegates to the Council of Basle who faithfully supported the legitimate pope.

The transition from scholastic to humanistic culture was effected by the chancellor and bishop Johann von Dalberg in the late 15th century. Humanism was represented at the University of Heidelberg particularly by the founder of the older German Humanistic School Rudolph Agricola, Conrad Celtes, Jakob Wimpfeling, and Johann Reuchlin. Æneas Silvius Piccolomini was chancellor of the university in his capacity of provost of Worms, and later always favored it with his friendship and good-will as Pope Pius II. In 1482, Pope Sixtus IV permitted laymen and married men to be appointed professors in the ordinary of medicine through a papal dispensation. In 1553, Pope Julius III sanctioned the allotment of ecclesiastical benefice to secular professors.[4]

Martin Luther's disputation at Heidelberg in April 1518 made a lasting impact, and his adherents among the masters and scholars soon became leading Reformationists in Southwest Germany. With the Palatinate's turn to the Reformed faith, Otto Henry, Elector Palatine, converted the university into a calvinsitic institution.[17] In 1563, the Heidelberg Catechism was created under collaboration of members of the university's divinity school. As the 16th century was passing, the late humanism stepped beside Calvinism as a predominant school of thought; and figures like Paul Schede, Jan Gruter, Martin Opitz, and Matthäus Merian taught at the university. It attracted scholars from all over the continent and developed into a cultural and academic center.[16] However, with the beginning of the Thirty Years' War in 1618, the intellectual and fiscal wealth of the university declined. In 1622, the then-world-famous Bibliotheca Palatina (the library of the university) was stolen from the University Cathedral and taken to Rome. The reconstruction efforts thereafter were defeated by the troops of King Louis XIV, who destroyed Heidelberg in 1693 almost completely.[17][18]

The Old University from 1735 is today the seat of the Rector and the University Senate

As a consequence of the late Counter-Reformation, the university lost its Protestant character, and was channeled by Jesuits. In 1735, the Old University was constructed at University Square, then known as Domus Wilhelmina. Through the efforts of the Jesuits a preparatory seminary was established, the Seminarium ad Carolum Borromæum, whose pupils were also registered in the university. After the suppression of the Jesuit Order, most of the schools they had conducted passed into the hands of the French Congregation of Lazarists in 1773. They deteriorated from that time forward, and the university itself continued to lose in prestige until the reign of the last elector Charles Theodore, Elector Palatine, who established new chairs for all the faculties, founded scientific institutes such as the Electoral Academy of Science, and transferred the school of political economy from Kaiserslautern to Heidelberg, where it was combined with the university as the faculty of political economy. He also founded an observatory in the neighboring city of Mannheim, where Jesuit Christian Meyer labored as director. In connection with the commemoration of the four hundredth anniversary of the university, a revised statute book, which several of the professors had been commissioned to prepare, was approved by the elector. The financial affairs of the university, its receipts and expenditures, were put in order. At that period, the number of students varied from 300-400; in the jubilee year, 133 matriculated. As a consequence of the disturbances caused by the French Revolution, and particularly because of the Peace of Lunéeville, the university lost all its property on the left bank of the Rhine, so that its complete dissolution was expected.[4]

19th and early 20th century

It was not until 1803 that this decline stopped. In this year, the university was reestablished as a state-owned institution by Karl Friedrich, Grand Duke of Baden, to whom the part of the Palatinate situated on the right bank of the Rhine was allotted. Since then, the university bears his name together with the name of Ruprecht I. Karl Friedrich divided the university into five faculties and placed himself at its head as rector, as did also his successors. During this decade Romanticism found expression in Heidelberg through Clemens Brentano, Achim von Arnim, Ludwig Tieck, Joseph Görres, and Joseph von Eichendorff, and there went forth a revival of the German Middle Ages in speech, poetry, and art.[16]The German Students Association exerted great influence, which was at first patriotic and later political. After Romanticism had eventually died out, Heidelberg became a center of Liberalism and the movement in favor of German national unity.[16] The historians Friedrich Christoph Schlosser and Georg Gottfried Gervinus were the guides of the nation in political history. The modern scientific schools of medicine and natural science, particularly astronomy, were models in point of construction and equipment, and the University of Heidelberg was especially noted for its influential law school.[4] The university as a whole became the role model for the transformation of American liberal arts colleges into research universities, in particular for the then-newly established Johns Hopkins University.[6] Heidelberg’s professors were important supporters of the Vormärz revolution and many of them were members of the the first freely elected German parliament, the Frankfurt Parliament of 1848. During the late 19th century, the university housed a very liberal and open-minded spirit, which was deliberately fostered by Max Weber, Ernst Troeltsch and a circle of colleagues around them. In the Weimar Republic, the university was widely recognized as a center of democratic thinking, coined by professors like Karl Jaspers, Gustav Radbruch, Martin Dibelius and Alfred Weber.[16] Unfortunately, there were also dark forces working within the university: Nazi physicist Philipp Lenard was head of the physical institute during that time. Following the assassination of Walther Rathenau, he refused to half mast the national flag on the institute, thereby provoking its storming by communist students.[17]

Nazi era and Federal Republic

With the advent of the Third Reich in 1933, the university supported the Nazis like all other German universities at the time. It dismissed a large number of staff and students for political and racist reasons. Many dissident fellows had to emigrate and most Jewish and Communist professors that did not leave Germany were deported. At least two professors directly fell victim to Nazi terror. Members of the university faculty and students took part in book burnings at Universitätsplatz ("University Square") and Heidelberg was eventually infamous as a NSDAP cadre university. The inscription above the main entrance of the New University was changed from "The Living Spirit" to "The German Spirit", and many professors paid homage to the new motto. After the end of World War II, the university underwent an extensive denazification. Since Heidelberg was spared from destruction during WWII, the reconstruction of the university was realized rather quickly. With the foundation of the Collegium Academicum, the University of Heidelberg became the home of Germany's first and, until today, only self-governed student hall. Newly laid statutes obliged the university to "The Living Spirit of Truth, Justice and Humanity".[17]During the 1960's and 1970's, the university grew dramatically in size. At this time, it developed into one of the main scenes of the left-wing student protests in Germany. In 1975, a massive police force arrested the entire student parliament AStA. Shortly thereafter, the building of the Collegium Academicum, a progressive college in immediate vicinity to the universities main grounds, was stormed by over 700 police officers and closed once and for all. On the outskirts of the city, in the Neuenheimer Feld area, a large campus for medicine and natural sciences was constructed.[17]Today, about 26,500 students are enrolled for studies at the University of Heidelberg. There are 4,196 full time faculty,[19] including 476 university professors.[13] In 2007, the university was appointed University of Excellence within the scope of an initiative started by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the German Research Foundation in order to enhance the German university system by establishing a small network of exceptionally well-funded universities, which are expected to generate a strong international appeal.[20]

Campuses

"I saw Heidelberg on a perfectly clear morning, with a pleasant air both cool and invigorating. The city, just so, with the totality of its ambiance is, one might say, something ideal."

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe[21]

Heidelberg is a city with approximately 140,000 inhabitants. It is situated in the Rhine Neckar Triangle, a European metropolitan area with approximately 2.4 million people living there, comprising the neighboring cities of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Ludwigshafen, and a number of smaller towns in the perimeter. Heidelberg is known as the cradle of Romanticism, and its old town and castle are among the most frequented tourist destinations in Germany. Its pedestrian zone is a shopping and night life magnet for the surrounding area and beyond. Heidelberg is about 40 minutes by train away from Frankfurt International Airport.[22]The University of Heidelberg’s facilities are, generally speaking, separated in two parts. The faculties and institutes of humanities and social sciences are embedded in the Old Town Campus. The sciences faculties and the medical school, including three large university hospitals, are located on the New Campus in the Neuenheimer Feld on the outskirts of Heidelberg.[23]

Old Town Campus

The New University of 1931 looked at from inside the Old University

The so-called New University is regarded as the center of the Old Town Campus. It is situated at the Universitätsplatz (University Square) in the pedestrian zone, in direct vicinity to the University Library and to the main administration buildings. The New University was officially opened in 1931. Its erection was largely financed by donations of wealthy American families, such as the Goldman, Sachs, Morgan, Chrysler and Ford families, as well as other families, in line with a fundraising campaign of Jacob Gould Schurman, an alumnus of the University of Heidelberg and former U.S. Ambassador to Germany.[24] It houses the new assembly hall, the largest lecture halls, and a number of smaller seminar rooms, mostly used by faculties of humanities and social sciences. Education in humanities and social sciences takes place to a great extent in the respective faculty buildings which are spread all over the ancient part of town, though, they are mostly a maximum of ten minutes walk away from University Square. The faculties maintain own extensive libraries and work spaces for their respective students. Seminars and tutorials are usually held in the faculty buildings.[23]

New Campus

Aerial perspective on the New Campus in the Neuenheimer Feld.

The New Campus is located in the Neuenheimer Feld district. It is now the largest part of the university, and the largest campus for natural sciences and life science in Germany.[13] Almost all science faculties and institutes, the medical school, University Hospital Heidelberg, and the science branch of the University Library are situated on the New Campus. Most of the dormitories and the athletic facilities of the university can be found there as well. Several independent research institutes, such as the German Cancer Research Center and two of the Max-Planck-Institutes have settled there. The New Campus is also the seat of several biomedical spin-off companies. The old part of town can be reached by tram and bus in about 10 minutes. The Neuenheimer Feld campus has extensive parking lots for faculty and student vehicles for long term and short term parking, as well as visitors and patients of the various university hospitals. The Faculty of Physics and Astronomy is not located on either campus, but on the Philosophers' Walk, separated from the Old Town by the River Neckar, and some 2 km (1.2 mi) away from the New Campus. It also maintains observatory facilities on the Königstuhl Mountain.[23]

Bergheim Campus

The Bergheim Campus is located in the former Ludolf Krehl clinic (named after Ludolf von Krehl) in the inner-city suburb of Heidelberg-Bergheim. Since March 2009 it has housed the institutes economics, political science, and sociology (together the Heidelberg University Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences) that formerly resided at the Old Town campus. The Bergheim campus offers one lecture theatre, several seminar rooms, the most modern of the university libraries, and a cafe (rather than the full cafeteria present in the other campuses).

Libraries

The main building of the University Library, built in 1905

The University Library is the main library of the university, and constitutes together with the decentralized libraries of the faculties and institutes, the integral university library system comprising approximately 6.7 million printed books. It is Germany’s most frequently used library, and it is currently placed second in a ranking of Germany's best libraries.[25] The University Library's stocks exceeded one million in 1934. Today, it holds about 3.2 million books, about 500,000 other media such as microfilms and video tapes, as well as 10,732 scientific periodicals. Moreover, it holds 6,600 manuscripts, most notably the Codex Manesse, 1,800 incunabula, 110,500 autographs, and a collection of old maps, paintings, and photographs. The further 83 decentralized libraries of the faculties and institutes hold another 3.5 million printed books. In 2005, 34,500 active users of the University Library accessed 1.4 million books a year. The conventional book supply is complemented by numerous electronic services. Around 3,000 commercial scientific journals can be accessed via e-journal.[26] The University Library of today traces its roots back to the purchase of a chest of documents by the first Rector Marsilius von Inghen in 1388, which was stored in the Heiliggeistkirche, then the University Cathedral. Since 1978, the science branch of the University Library serves the institutes of natural sciences and medicine on the New Campus.[26]

Facilities abroad

Heidelberg Center in Santiago, Chile

The University of Heidelberg has founded a Center for Latin America in Santiago, Chile in 2001.[27] It has the task of organizing, managing, and marketing the courses of study maintained either independently by the University of Heidelberg or in cooperation with the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile and the University of Chile. The University of Heidelberg has arranged cooperation agreements with both of these universities. The center has responsibility for programs of postgraduate education. It also coordinates the activities of the University of Heidelberg in Latin America, and provides a platform for scientific cooperation.[27] The university is now also represented by a liaison office in New York. Its main tasks include promoting existing collaborations, building up new networks, creating joint study programs, and maintaining and expanding academic contacts with American universities.[28]

Organization

Governance

The Rectorate is the 'executive body' of the university, headed by rector Bernhard Eitel. The rectorate consists of the chancellor, Marina Frost, who is the head of the central administration and responsible for the university's budgeting, and three pro-rectors, who are responsible for international relations, teaching and communication, and research and structure respectively.

The Senate is the 'legislative branch' of the university. The rector and the members of the rectorate are senators ex officio, as are also the deans of the faculties, as well as the medical and managing directors of the University Hospital, and the university's equal opportunities officer. Another 20 senators are elected for four-year terms, within the following quotas: eight university professors; four academic staff; four delegates of the student body; and four employees of the university administration.

The University Council is the advisory board to the aforementioned entities and encompasses, among others, the former Israeli Ambassador to Germany Avi Primor, as well as CEOs of German industries.[29]

Faculties

After a structural reformation in 2003, the university consists of 12 faculties which in turn comprise several disciplines, departments, and institutes. As a consequence of the Bologna process, most faculties now offer Bachelor's, Master's, and Ph.D. degrees in order to comply with the new European degree standard. Notable exceptions are the undergraduate programs in law, medicine, dentistry and pharmacy, from which students still graduate with the State Examination, a central examination at Master's level held by the State of Baden-Württemberg.

Associated institutions

The university is organizationally and personally interlinked with the following independent and semi-independent institutions. Besides joint research, they take also part in the educational tasks at undergraduate and graduate level.

File:MPIA Photo.jpeg
The Max Planck Institute for Astronomy

Academic profile

School statistics

The university employs more than 15,000 academic staff, most of them are engaged in the University Hospital.[46] As of 2008, the faculty encompasses 4,196 full-time staff, excluding visiting professors as well as graduate research and teaching assistants. 673 faculty members have been drawn from abroad. Heidelberg University also attracts more than 500 international scholars as Visiting Professors each academic year. The university enrolls a total of 26,741 students, including 5,118 international students. In addition there are 1,467 international exchange students at Heidelberg. 23,636 students pursue taught degrees, 4,114 of whom are international students, and 919 are international exchange students. 3,105 students pursue a doctoral degree, including 1,004 international doctoral students and 15 international exchange students. In 2007, the university awarded 994 Ph.D. degrees.[47]

Rankings

The THES - QS World University Rankings, in the United States published by U.S. News & World Report,[48] ranked the University of Heidelberg overall between 12th and 15th in Europe, between 45th and 60th in the world, and consistently as the foremost German university. Based on the overall academic peer review score of 2005, Heidelberg ranked 6th in Europe and 28th in the world. In the separate THES - QS rankings of broad subject areas, Heidelberg ranked globally between 17th and 43rd in life science and biomedicine, between 22nd and 45th in science, between 41st and 61st in arts and humanities, and between 54th and 78th in social sciences.[49][50][51][52]

The Shanghai Jiao Tong University's Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked Heidelberg between 2nd and 3rd nationally, between 12th and 18th in Europe, and between 58th and 66th in the world.[53]

The Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities, issued by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan, placed Heidelberg 2nd in Germany, 12th in Europe, and 61st globally.[54]

The Scientometrics Journal Gatekeepers Indicator Ranking (ISSRU Ranking), created by Eötvös Loránd University of Budapest, ranks the University of Heidelberg at the top of German universities, 12th in Europe, and 73rd globally.[55]

The Russian Global University Ranking places Heidelberg 4th nationally, 15th in Europe, and 63rd world-wide.[56]

According to the Ranking of Scientific Impact of Leading European Research Universities compiled by the European Commission, Heidelberg ranks 4th nationally and 9th in Europe.[57][58]

The German Center for Higher Education Development Excellence Ranking, which measures academic performance of European graduate programs in biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics, placed Heidelberg in the excellence group for physics and chemistry, and in the top group for mathematics and biology, which is overall a 2nd place in Germany, and a joint 9th place in Europe.[59]

Ranked by the number of Nobel Laureates affiliated with the university at the time of Nobel Prize announcement, Heidelberg is placed 1st in Germany, 4th in Europe and 13th in the world by 2008.[60]

The Times (London) referred to the University of Heidelberg as "the oldest and most eminent in the country of Luther and Einstein" and as "the jewel of German learning".[61]

Organization and length of courses

Main auditorium in the New University

The academic year is divided into two semesters. The winter semester runs from October 1-March 31 and the summer semester from April 1-September 30. Classes are held from mid-October to mid-February and mid-April to mid-July. Students can generally begin their studies either in the winter or the summer semester. However, there are several subjects students can begin only in the winter semester. The standard time required to finish a Bachelor's degree is principally six semesters, and a further four semesters for consecutive Master's degrees. The normal duration of Ph.D. programs for full-time students is 6 semesters. The overall period of study for an undergraduate degree is divided into two parts: a period of basic study, lasting at least four semesters, at the end of which students must sit a formal examination, and a period of advanced study, lasting at least two semesters, after which students take their final examinations.[62]

Admission

In the winter-semester 2006/2007, the university offered 3,926 places in undergraduate programs restricted by numerus clausus, with an overall acceptance rate of 16.3%.[63] Most selective are the undergraduate programs in clinical medicine, molecular cell biology, political science, and law, with acceptance rates of 3.6%,[64] 3.8%,[63] 7.6%[65] and 9.1%[66] respectively. The selection is exercised by allocating the best qualified applicants to a given number of places available in the respective discipline, thus depending primarily on the chosen subjects and the grade point average of the Abitur or its equivalent. For some majors and minors in humanities, particularly for those which are conceptually non-vocational like classics, philosophy, and ancient history, unrestricted admission is granted if certain criteria (e.g. relevant language proficiency) are fulfilled, as applications regularly do not exceed the number of places available. For prospective international undergraduate students, a language test for German — such as the DSH — is required. Admission to consecutive Master's programs always requires at least an undergraduate degree equivalent to the German grade "good" (i.e., normally B+ in American, or 2:1 in British terms). Except for the Master's programs taught in English, a language test for German must be passed as well. Ph.D. admission prerequisite is normally a strong Master's-level degree, but specific admission procedures vary and cannot be generalized.[67] International applicants usually make up considerably more than 20% of the applicant pool and are considered individually by the merits achieved in their respective country of origin.[68]

Finances

Studying at German universities is heavily subsidized by the state in order to keep higher education affordable regardless of socio-economic background.[69]Since 2007, Heidelberg charges tuition fees of approximately € 1,200 p.a., including student union fees, for undergraduate, consecutive Master's, and doctoral programs, for both EU and non-EU citizens, and for any subject area. The usual housing costs for on-campus dormitories range from € 2,200 to € 3,000 p.a.[70]

In the fiscal year 2005, the University of Heidelberg had an overall operating budget of approximately € 856 M, consisting of approximately € 413 M government funds, approximately € 311 M basic budget, and approximately € 132 M from external grants. The university spent approximately € 529 M in payroll costs and approximately € 326 M in other expenditures.[71] Additionally, the university will receive another € 150 M in research grants, distributed over 5 years from 2007 onwards, due to the German Universities Excellence Initiative. In the fiscal year 2007, the university for the first time raised approximately € 19 M through tuition fees, exclusively to further improve the conditions of study. Only approximately € 9.5 M of these were spent at the end of the year and the rectorate had to urge the faculties to make use of their additional means.[72]

Research

The Center for Advanced Study Marsilius Kolleg, situated in House Buhl, was founded in 2007

Among historical scientific achievements of Heidelberg researchers features prominently the invention of spectroscopy,[73] and of the Bunsen burner;[74] the discovery of chemical elements Caesium and Rubidium;[73] the identification of the absolute point of ebullition;[75] and the identification and isolation of nicotine as the main pharmacologically active component of tobacco.[76] Modern scientific psychiatry; psychopharmacology; psychiatric genetics;[77] environmental physics;[78] and modern sociology[79] were introduced as scientific disciplines by Heidelberg faculty. Almost 800 dwarf planets, the North America Nebula, and the return of Halley's Comet have been discovered and documented at institutes of the Heidelberg Center for Astronomy.[80] Moreover, Heidelberg researchers invented the process of Plastination to preserve body tissue,[81] conducted the first successful transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells,[82] and recently developed a new strategy for a vaccination in order to prevent certain forms of cancer.[83]

Today, the university puts an emphasis on natural sciences and medicine, but it retains its traditions with highly ranked faculties of humanities and social sciences. The Marsilius Kolleg, named after Marsilius of Inghen, was established in 2007 as a Center for Advanced Study to promote interdisciplinary dialogue and research especially between the sciences and the humanities.[84] Other institutes such as the Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing, the Interdisciplinary Center for Neurosciences, the Heidelberg Center for American Studies, and the South Asia Institute also build a bridge between faculties and thus emphasize the concept of a comprehensive university.

Noted regular publications of the Center for Astronomy include the Gliese catalog of nearby stars, the fundamental catalogues FK5 and FK6 and the annual published Apparent places, a high precision catalog with pre-calculated positions for over 3,000 stars for each day.[85] The Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research publishes the annual Conflict Barometer, which describes the recent trends in global conflict developments, escalations, de-escalations, and settlements.[86] Regular publications by the Max Planck Institute for International Law include the "Heidelberg Journal for International Law", the "Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law"; the "Journal of the History of International Law"; the "Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law"; and the semi-annual bibliography "Public International Law".[87]

The German Research Foundation (DFG) currently funds twelve long-term Collaborative Research Centers (SFB) with a duration of up to 12 years at Heidelberg,[88] four Priority Programs (SPP) with a duration of six years, two Research Units (FOR) with a duration of up to six years, as well as numerous individual projects at the university's faculties and institutes.[89] As a result of the German Universities Excellence Initiative, two Clusters of Excellence are funded with € 6.5 M each - "Cellular Networks: From Molecular Mechanisms to Quantitative Understanding of Complex Functions",[90] and "Asia and Europe in a Global Context: Shifting Asymmetries in Cultural Flows"[91]

International cooperations

The Max Weber Haus is the center for international students at Heidelberg

Heidelberg is a founding member of the League of European Research Universities, the Coimbra Group, and the European University Association, and it participates in 7 European exchange schemes for researchers and students, such as ERASMUS. Furthermore it is actively involved in the development of the German-speaking Andrássy University of Budapest, and co-runs the school of German law at the Jagiellonian University of Krakow.[92] Beyond Europe, the university and its faculties maintain specific agreements with 58 partner universities in Africa, the Americas, Asia, Australia and the Russian Federation. In total, the Higher Education Compass of the German Rector's Conference lists staff and student exchange agreements as well as research cooperations with 236 universities worldwide.[93]

Student life

The university offers a broad variety of athletics, such as teams in 16 different court sports from American football to volleyball, courses in 11 different martial arts, 26 courses in physical fitness and body building, 9 courses in health sports from aquapower to yoga, and groups in 12 different dance styles. Moreover equestrian sports, sailing, rowing, skiing in the French alps, track and field, swimming, fencing, cycling, acrobatics, gymnastics, and much more. Most of the sports are free of charge.[94] Heidelberg’s competition teams are particularly successful in soccer, volleyball, equestrian sports, judo, karate, track and field, and basketball. The track and field team regularly achieves best placings at the German university championships. The University Sports Club men's basketball team, USC Heidelberg, is the championship record holder, won 13 national championships, and is the only university team playing at a professional level in the second division of Germany's national league.[95]

Collegium Musicum performing in the Old Assembly Hall

Moreover, the university supports a number of student groups in various fields of interest. Among them are the student parliament AStA, the student councils of the 12 faculties, four drama clubs, the university orchestra Collegium Musicum, four choirs, six student media groups, six groups of international students, nine groups of political parties and NGO’s, several departments of European organizations of students in certain disciplines, four clubs dedicated to fostering international relations and cultural exchange, a chess club, a literature club, a debate society, two student management consulting groups, and four religious student groups.[96]

Heidelberg’s student newspaper "ruprecht" is — with editions of more than 10,000 copies — one of Germany’s largest student-run newspapers. It was recently distinguished by the MLP Pro Campus Press Award as Germany’s best student newspaper. The jury, consisting of journalists of major newspapers, commended its “well balanced, though critical attitude”, and its “simply great” layout which “suffices highest professional demands”. The ruprecht is financed entirely by advertising revenues, thus retaining its independence from the university's management. Some very renowned journalists emerged from ruprecht's editorial board.[97] However, the critical online student newspaper "UNiMUT", which is run by the joint student council of the faculties, criticized the ruprecht often for being conformed, and exceedingly layout-oriented.[98]Heidelberg is also home of Germany’s oldest student law review "StudZR". The journal is published quarterly, at the beginning and end of each semester break, and is circulated throughout all of Germany.[99]

Academic fencing in Heidelberg, 1900

Heidelberg hosts 34 student corporations, which were largely founded in the 19th century. Corporations are to some extent comparable to the fraternities in the US. As traditional symbols (couleur) corporation members wear colored caps and ribbons at ceremonial occasions (Kommers) and some still practice the traditional academic fencing, a kind of duel, in order to "shape their members for the challenges of life". In the 19th and early 20th century, corporations played an important role in Germany's student life. Today, however, corporations include only a relatively small number of students. Their self-declared mission is to keep academic traditions alive and to create friendships for life. The corporations' often representative 19th century mansions are present throughout the Old Town.[15]

Heidelberg is not least famous for its student night life.[100] Besides the various parties regularly organized by the student councils of the faculties, the semester opening and closing parties of the university, the dormitory parties, and the soirées of Heidelberg's 34 student fraternities, the city, and the metropolitan area even more, offers night life for any taste and budget.[101] Adjacent to University Square is Heidelberg's major night life district, where one pub is placed next to each other. From Thursday on, it is all night very crowded and full of atmosphere. Moreover, Heidelberg has five major discos. The largest of them is located at the New Campus. The city of Mannheim, which is about triple as large as Heidelberg, is 15 minutes by train away, and offers an even more diverse night life, having a broad variety of clubs and bars well-frequented by Heidelberg's and Mannheim's student community.[102]

Noted people

Helmut Kohl - Chancellor of Germany (1982 - 1998) and architect of German Reunification - M.A. 1956; Ph.D. 1958

Alumni and faculty of the university include many founders and pioneers of academic disciplines, and a large number of internationally acclaimed philosophers, poets, jurisprudents, theologians, natural and social scientists. 30 Nobel Laureates, at least 18 Leibniz Laureates, and two "Oscar" winners have been associated with the University of Heidelberg. Eight Nobel Laureates received the award during their tenure at Heidelberg.[60]

Besides several Federal Ministers of Germany and Prime Ministers of German States, five Chancellors of Germany have attended the university, the latest being Helmut Kohl, the "Chancellor of the Reunification". Heads of State or Government of Belgium, Bulgaria, Greece, Nicaragua, Serbia, Thailand, a Secretary General of NATO and a director of the International Peace Bureau have also been educated at Heidelberg; among them Nobel Peace Laureates Charles Albert Gobat and Auguste Beernaert. Former university affiliates in the field of religion include Pope Pius II, Cardinals, Bishops, and with Philipp Melanchthon and Zacharias Ursinus two key leaders of Protestant Reformation. Outstanding university affiliates in the legal profession include at least 16 Justices of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany, a President of the Federal Court of Justice of Germany, a President of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, a Vice President of the International Criminal Court, two Attorney Generals of Germany, and a British Law Lord. In business, Heidelberg alumni and faculty notably (co-)founded or presided over ABB Group; Astor corporate enterprises; BASF; BDA; Daimler AG; Deutsche Bank; EADS; Krupp AG; Siemens AG; and Thyssen AG.

Alumni in the field of arts include classical composer Robert Schumann, philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach, poet Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff and writers Christian Friedrich Hebbel, Gottfried Keller, Heinrich Hoffmann, Sir Muhammad Iqbal, José Rizal, W. Somerset Maugham, Jean Paul, and Literature Nobel Laureate Carl Spitteler. Amongst Heidelberg alumni in other disciplines are the "Father of Psychology" Wilhelm Wundt, the "Father of Physical Chemistry" J. Willard Gibbs, the "Father of American Anthropology" Franz Boas, Dmitri Mendeleev, who created the periodic table of elements, as well as political theorist Hannah Arendt, political scientist Carl Joachim Friedrich, and sociologists Robert E. Park and Talcott Parsons.

Philosophers Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Karl Jaspers, Hans-Georg Gadamer, and Jürgen Habermas served as faculty, as did also the pioneering scientists Hermann von Helmholtz, Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, Emil Kraepelin, the founder of scientific psychiatry, and outstanding social scientists such as Max Weber, the founder of modern sociology.

Present faculty include Medicine Nobel Laureates Bert Sakmann (1991) and Harald zur Hausen (2008), 7 Leibniz Laureates, former Justice of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany Paul Kirchhof, and Rüdiger Wolfrum, the former President of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea.

In fiction and popular culture

In 1880, Mark Twain wrote as detailed as humorously about his impressions of Heidelberg's student life in A Tramp Abroad. He painted a picture of the university as a school for aristocrats, whose students pursued a dandy-like lifestyle, and described the great influence the student corporations exerted on the whole Heidelberg student life.[103]

In William Somerset Maugham's 1915 masterpiece novel Of Human Bondage, he described the one-year stay of the protagonist Philip Carey at the University of Heidelberg, in a largely autobiographical way. Heidelberg also featured in the respective film versions of the novel, released in 1934 (starring Leslie Howard as Philip, and Bette Davis as Mildred), 1946 (with Paul Henreid and Eleanor Parker in the lead roles), and 1964 (with Laurence Harvey and Kim Novak in the lead roles).[104]

The 1927 silent film The Student Prince in Old Heidelberg, based on Wilhelm Meyer-Förster's play Alt Heidelberg (1903), starring Ramon Novarro and Norma Shearer, continued Mark Twain's image of Heidelberg, showing the story of a German prince who comes to Heidelberg to study there, but falls in love with his innkeeper's daughter. Having been very popular in the first half of the 20th century, it presents the typical student life of the 19th and early 20th century, and it is today considered a masterpiece of the late silent film era.[105] MGM's 1954 color remake The Student Prince, featuring Mario Lanza, is based on Sigmund Romberg's operetta version of the story.[106]

In Bernhard Schlink's semi-autobiographical 1995 novel The Reader, Heidelberg University is one of the main scenes of part II. Nearly a decade after his affair with an older woman came to a mysterious end, Michael Berg, a law student at the university, re-encounters his former lover as she defends herself in a war-crime trial, which he observes as part of a seminar. The university is also featured in the Academy Award-winning 2008 film version The Reader, starring Kate Winslet, David Kross and Ralph Fiennes.[107][108]

In 2000, the university was the main scene of the award-winning German thriller Anatomy. The medical student Paula Henning (played by Franka Potente) wins a place in a summer course at the prestigious Heidelberg Medical School. When the body of a young man she met on the train turns up on her dissection table, she begins to investigate the mysterious circumstances surrounding his death, uncovering a gruesome conspiracy perpetrated by an antihippocratic secret society operating within the university.[109]

In 2009, MTV filmed the pilot and did research for a new reality show based on competition show choir. This was filmed during the week Show Choir Camps of America was held at the campus.

Non-fictional literature

  • Steven P. Remy: The Heidelberg Myth: The Nazification and Denazification of a German University. Cambridge, Harvard University Press 2002. ISBN 0-674-00933-9
  • Andreas Cser: Kleine Geschichte der Stadt Heidelberg und ihrer Universität. Verlag G. Braun, Karlsruhe 2007, ISBN 978-3-7650-8337-2
  • Dagmar Drüll: Heidelberger Gelehrtenlexikon, Bd. 1: 1803-1932, Bd. 2: 1652-1802, Bd. 3: 1386-1651. Heidelberg 1986, 1991, 2002. (Bd. 4: 1933-1986 in Vorbereitung)
  • Sabine Happ, Werner Moritz: Die Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Ansichten - Einblicke - Rückblicke. Erfurt 2003.
  • Wolfgang U. Eckart, Volker Sellin, [Eike Wolgast (Hrsg.)]: Die Universität Heidelberg im Nationalsozialismus. Springer Verlag, Berlin 2006. ISBN 3540214429
  • H. Krabusch: Das Archiv der Universität Heidelberg. Geschichte und Bedeutung, in: Aus der Geschichte der Universität Heidelberg und ihrer Fakultäten. Sonderbd. der Ruperto Carola, hrsg. von G. Hinz (1961), S. 82-111;
  • Die Rektorbücher der Universität Heidelberg, Bd. I-II, bearb. von Heiner Lutzmann u. a. hrsg. v. Jürgen Miethke. (Bd. 1: 1386-1410, Heft 1-3, Heidelberg 1986/1990/1999. Bd. 2: 1421-1451, Heft 1, Heidelberg 2001)
  • Peter Moraw: Heidelberg: Universität, Hof und Stadt im ausgehenden Mittelalter, in: Studien zum städtischen Bidlungswesen des späten Mittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit, hrsg. von Bernd Moeller, Hans Patze, Karl Stackmann, Redaktion Ludger Grenzmann (Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen, Philol.-hist. Klasse, III.137), Göttingen 1983, S. 524-552.
  • Werner Moritz: Die Aberkennung des Doktortitels an der Universität Heidelberg während der NS- Zeit, In: Armin Kohnle/ Frank Engehausen: Zwischen Wissenschaft und Politik. Studien zur deutschen Universitätsgeschichte. Festschrift für Eike Wolgast zum 65. Geburtstag, Stuttgart 2001, S. 540-562
  • Gerhard Ritter: Die Heidelberger Universität im Mittelalter (1386-1508), Ein Stück deutscher Geschichte, Heidelberg 1936, Neudruck 1986.
  • Gotthard Schettler (Hrsg.): Das Klinikum der Universität Heidelberg und seine Institute. Berlin-Heidelberg, Springer 1986. ISBN 3540160337
  • Wilhelm Doerr u.a. (Hrsg.): ‚Semper apertus', Sechshundert Jahre Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg 1386-1986, Festschrift in sechs Bänden. Berlin-Heidelberg, Springer 1985
  • Eduard Winkelmann (Hrsg.): Urkundenbuch der Universität Heidelberg, Bd. I-II, Heidelberg 1886.
  • Eike Wolgast: Die Universität Heidelberg, 1386-1986, Berlin-Heidelberg, Springer 1986.

See also

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