|University of Oslo
(The Royal Frederick University)
|Universitetet i Oslo
(Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet)
|Latin: Universitas Osloensis
(Universitas Regia Fredericiana)
|Rector||Ole Petter Ottersen (2009-)|
|Academic staff||3212 (2010)|
|Admin. staff||2598 (2010)|
The University of Oslo (Norwegian: Universitetet i Oslo), formerly The Royal Frederick University (Norwegian: Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet), is the oldest and largest university in Norway, situated in the Norwegian capital of Oslo.
The university has around 27,700 students and employs around 6,000 people. It has faculties of (Lutheran) Theology (Norway's state religion since 1536), Law, Medicine, Humanities, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Social Sciences, Dentistry, and Education. The university's old campus, strongly influenced by Prussian architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel's neoclassical style, is found in the centre of Oslo, near the National Theatre, the Royal Palace, and the Parliament. Today the old campus is occupied by the Faculty of Law, whereas most of the other faculties are located at the Blindern campus in the suburban West End, erected from the 1930s. The Faculty of Medicine is split between several university hospitals in the Oslo area.
The university was founded in 1811 and was modelled after the University of Copenhagen and also after the recently established University of Berlin. It was originally named after King Frederick VI of Denmark and Norway and received its current name in 1939. After the dissolution of the Dano-Norwegian union in 1814, close academic ties between the countries were nevertheless maintained. The University of Oslo was the only university in Norway until 1946, and hence informally often known as simply "universitetet" ("the university"). It was also informally referred to as "The Royal Frederick's" (Det Kgl. Frederiks) for short.
The University of Oslo is home to five Nobel Prize winners. One of the Nobel Prizes, the Nobel Peace Prize, was awarded in the university's Atrium 1947–1989, thus making the University of Oslo the only university to host a Nobel Prize ceremony. Since 2003, the Abel Prize is awarded in the university's Atrium.
The highest position at the university is Professor, i.e. "full Professor". In Norway, the title Professor, which is protected by law, is only used for full professors. Prior to 1990, all Professors were appointed for life to their chairs by the King-in-Council, i.e. by the King upon the advice of the Cabinet. The position below Professor was historically Docent (translated as Reader in a UK context and Professor in an American context). In 1985, all Docents became full professors. The most common positions below that are førsteamanuensis (translated as Associate Professor), and amanuensis or universitetslektor (translated as Lecturer or Assistant Professor). At the University of Oslo, almost all new permanent positions are announced at the Associate Professor level; an Associate Professor may apply for promotion to full professor if he or she holds the necessary competence.
Additionally there are temporary, qualifying positions such as stipendiat (Research Fellow) and postdoktor (Postdoctoral Fellow).
A small number of employees, usually without any teaching obligations and whose qualifications may vary from the Assistant Professor level to the full Professor level, may hold the title forsker (Researcher).
Several other less common academic positions also exist. Historically, only professors had the right to vote and be represented in the governing bodies of the university. Originally, all professors were automatically members of the Collegium Academicum, the highest governing body of the university, but soon afterwards its membership was limited. Docents were granted the right to vote and be represented in 1939 and other academics and students in 1955. In 1975, the technical-administrative support staff was also granted the right to vote and be represented in certain bodies, as the last group. Formerly by law, and now by tradition, the highest positions, such as Rector or Dean, are only held by professors. They are elected by the academic community (academics and students) and by the technical-administrative support staff, but the votes of the academics carry significantly more weight.
The Faculty of Theology conducts research and teaching within theology, Christian studies, inter-religious studies and diaconal studies.
Centres of Excellence:
|This section may require copy-editing for wikification (links to other articles) and 3–5 sub headings.|
In 1811, a decision was made to establish the first university in the Dano-Norwegian Union, after a successful campaign which resulted in an agreement with King Fredrik VI. Fredrick agreed to the establishment of an institution that he had earlier believed might encourage political-separatist tendencies. In 1813, The Royal Fredrik's University was founded in Christiania, a small city during that time. Circumstances then changed dramatically one year into the commencement of the university, as Norway proclaimed independence and adopted its own constitution. However, independence was somewhat restricted, as Norway was obliged to enter into a legislative union with Sweden based on the outcome of the War of 1814. Norway retained its own constitution and independent state institutions, whilst royal power and foreign affairs were shared with Sweden. At a time when Norwegians feared political domination by the Swedes, the new university became a key institution that contributed to Norwegian political and cultural independence.
The main function of The Royal Frederick University was to educate a new class of (higher) civil servants. Although Norway was in a legislative union with Sweden, it was a sovereign state, and needed educated people to run it. Civil servants were needed, as well as parliamentary representatives and ministers. The university also became the centre for a survey of the country—a survey of national culture, language, history and folk traditions. The staff of the university strove to undertake a wide range of practical tasks necessary for developing the infrastructure critical to a modern society. When the union with Sweden was dissolved in 1905, the university became important for producing highly educated men and women who could serve as experts in a society which placed increasing emphasis on ensuring that all its citizens enjoy a life of dignity and security. Education, health services and public administration were among those fields that recruited personnel from among the university’s graduates. In 1939, the university was renamed the University of Oslo and it remained Norway’s only university until 1946. .
Throughout the 1800s, the university’s academic disciplines became more specialised. One of the major changes in the university came during the 1870s when a greater emphasis became placed upon research. The management of the university became more professional, academic subjects were reformed and the forms of teaching evolved. Disciplines became more specialized and classical education came under increasing pressure.
Research changed qualitatively around the turn of the century, i.e. new methods, scientific theories and forms of practice changed the nature of research. It was decided that teachers should arrive at their posts as highly-qualified academics and continue their academic researcher alongside their role as teachers. Scientific research—whether to launch or test out new theories, to innovate or to pave the way for discoveries across a wide range of disciplines—became part of the increased expectations placed on the university. Developments in society created a need for more and more specialised and practical knowledge, not merely competence in theology or law, for example. The university strove to meet these expectations through increasing academic specialisation.
The position of rector was established by Parliament in 1905 following the Dissolution of the Union. Waldemar Christofer Brøgger was Professor of Geology and became the university's first rector. Brøgger vacillated between a certain pessimism and a powerfully energetic attitude regarding how to procure finances for research and fulfil his more general funding objectives. With the establishment of the national research council after World War II, Brøgger's vision was largely fulfilled; research received funding independent of teaching. This coincided with a massive rise in student enrolment during the 1960s, which again made it difficult to balance research with the demands for teaching. In the years leading up to 1940, research was more strongly linked with the growth of the nation, with progress and self-assertion; research was also seen to contribute to Norway’s commitment to international academic and cultural development.
During the period after World War I, research among Norwegian researchers resulted in two Nobel prizes. The Nobel prize in Economics was awarded to Ragnar Frisch. The Nobel prize in Chemistry was awarded to Odd Hassel. In the field of linguistics, several Norwegian researchers distinguished themselves internationally. Increased research activity during the first half of the 1900s was part of an international development that also included Norway. Student enrolment doubled between 1911 and 1940, and students were recruited from increasingly broad geographical, gender and social bases. The working class was still largely left behind, however.
During the German occupation, which lasted from 1940-1945, the university’s rector, Didrik Arup Seip, was imprisoned, and the university was placed under the management of a rector appointed by the Norwegian Nazi Party, NS. NS Adolf Hoel. A number of students participated in the Norwegian resistance movement; after a fire was set in the university auditorium, Reich Commissar Terboven ordered the university closed and the students arrested. A number of students and teachers were detained by the Germans nearly until the end of the war.
After WWII, public authorities made loans available to students whose families were unable to provide financial assistance; the State Educational Loan Fund for Young Students was established in 1947. As a result, the post-war years saw a record increase in student numbers. Many of these students had been unable to begin their studies or had seen their studies interrupted because of the war; they could now enrol. For the 1945 autumn semester, 5951 students registered at the university. This represented the highest student enrolment at UiO up to that time. In 1947, the number had risen to more than 6000 students. This reprecented a 50 per cent increase in the number of students compared to the number enrolled prior to the war.
In no previous period had a single decade brought so many changes for the university as the 1960s. The decade represented an unparalleled period of growth. From 1960 to 1970, student enrolment tripled, rising from 5,600 to 16,800. This tremendous influx would have been enough in itself to transform the way the university was perceived, from both the inside and the outside. As it turned out, the changes were even more comprehensive. The university campus at Blindern was expanded, and the number of academic and administrative employees rose. The number of academic positions doubled, from fewer than 500 to around 1,200. The increase in the number of students and staff transformed traditional forms of work and organisation. The expansion of the Blindern complex allowed the accommodation of 7,000 students. The explosive rise in student numbers during the 1960s impacted the Blindern campus in particular. The faculties situated in central Oslo—Law and Medicine—experienced only a doubling in student enrolment during the 1960s, while the number of students in the humanities and social sciences tripled.
By 1968, revolutionary political ideas had taken root in earnest among university students. The "Student Uprising" became a turning point in the history of universities throughout the western world. Often, the outlook for students in the 1960s was bleak. More than ever before came from non-academic backgrounds and had few role models. The "University of the Masses" was unable to lift all its students to the "lofty, elite positions" enjoyed by previous generations of academics. Many students dissociated themselves, therefore, from the so-called "establishment" and the way the establishment functioned. Many were impatient and wanted to use their knowledge to change society. It was thought that academics should stand in solidarity with the underprivileged.
The most fundamental change in the student population was the increasing proportion of women students. Throughout the 1970s, the number of women increased until it made up the majority of students. At the same time, the university became a centre for the organised women's liberation movement, which emerged in the 1970s.
Up until the millennium, the number of students enrolled at the university rose exponentially. In 1992, UiO implemented a restriction on admissions for all of its faculties for the first time. A large part of the explanation for the high student numbers was thought to be found in the poor job market. In 1996, there were 38,265 students enrolled at UiO. This level was approximately 75 per cent above the average during the 1970s and 1980s. The strong rise in student numbers during the 1990s was attributed partially to the poor labour market.
The University of Oslo has a long list of notable academics and alumni, spanning the fields of scholarship covered by the university.
Like all public institutions of higher education in Norway, the university does not charge tuition fees. However, a small fee of NOK 510 (roughly US$70) per term goes to the student welfare organisation Foundation for Student Life in Oslo, to subsidise kindergartens, health services, housing and cultural initiatives, the weekly newspaper Universitas and the radio station Radio Nova.
In addition a the students are charged a copy and paper fee of NOK 100 (roughly US$17) for full-time students and NOK 50 (roughly US$8.50) for part-time students. Lastly a voluntary sum of NOK 30 (roughly US$5) is donated to SAIH (Studentenes og Akademikernes Internasjonale Hjelpefond).
The Shanghai Jiao Tong University's Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked UiO 75th worldwide (and best in Norway), while The Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked UiO 186th worldwide in 2010 (2nd in Norway behind the University of Bergen).
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