» 
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definitions - Upper_Paleolithic

Upper Paleolithic (n.)

1.the time period during which only modern Homo sapiens was known to have existed; ended about 10,000 years BC

   Advertizing ▼

definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

analogical dictionary

   Advertizing ▼

Wikipedia

Upper Paleolithic

                   
  Venus of Laussel, an Upper Paleolithic (Aurignacian) carving.
The Paleolithic

before Homo (Pliocene)

Lower Paleolithic (c. 2.6 Ma–300 ka)

Oldowan (2.6–1.8 Ma)
Acheulean (1.7–0.1 Ma)
Clactonian (0.3–0.2 Ma)

Middle Paleolithic (300–30 ka)

Mousterian (300–30 ka)
Aterian (82 ka)

Upper Paleolithic (50–10 ka)

Baradostian (36 ka)
Châtelperronian (35–29 ka)
Aurignacian (32–26 ka)
Gravettian (28–22 ka)
Solutrean (21–17 ka)
Magdalenian (18–10 ka)
Hamburg (15 ka)
Ahrensburg (13 ka)
Swiderian (10 ka)
Mesolithic
Stone Age

The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. Very broadly, it dates to between 40,000 and 10,000 years ago, roughly coinciding with the appearance of behavioral modernity and before the advent of agriculture. The terms "Late Stone Age" and "Upper Paleolithic" refer to the same periods. For historical reasons, "Stone Age" usually refers to the period in Africa, whereas "Upper Paleolithic" is generally used when referring to the period in Europe.

Contents

  Overview

Modern humans (i.e. Homo sapiens) are believed to have emerged about 195,000 years ago in Africa.[1][2] Though these humans were modern in anatomy, their lifestyle changed very little from their contemporaries, such as Homo erectus and the Neanderthals. They used the same crude stone tools. Archaeologist Richard G. Klein, who has worked extensively on ancient stone tools, describes the stone tool kit of archaic hominids as impossible to categorize. It was as if the Neanderthals made stone tools, and were not much concerned about their final forms. He argues that almost everywhere, whether Asia or Africa or Europe, before 50,000 years ago all the stone tools are much alike and unsophisticated.

About 50,000 years ago, there was a marked increase in the diversity of artifacts. For the first time in Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archeological record. The first evidence of human fishing is also noted, from artifacts in places such as Blombos cave in South Africa. Firstly among the artifacts of Africa, archeologists found they could differentiate and classify those of less than 50,000 years into many different categories, such as projectile points, engraving tools, knife blades, and drilling and piercing tools. These new stone-tool types have been described as being distinctly differentiated from each other, as if each tool had a specific purpose. Three thousand to 4,000 years later, this tool technology spread with people migrating to Europe. The new technology generated a population explosion of modern humans which is believed to have led to the extinction of the Neanderthals. The invaders, commonly referred to as the Cro-Magnons, left many sophisticated stone tools, carved and engraved pieces on bone, ivory and antler, cave paintings and Venus figurines.[3][4][5]

This shift from Middle to Upper Paleolithic is called the Upper Paleolithic Revolution. The Neanderthals continued to use Mousterian stone tool technology, but were probably extinct by about 22,000 BCE. This period has the earliest remains of organized settlements in the form of campsites, some with storage pits. These were often located in narrow valley bottoms, possibly to make hunting of passing herds of animals easier. Some sites may have been occupied year round, though more generally, they seem to have been used seasonally; peoples moved between them to exploit different food sources at different times of the year. Hunting was important, and caribou/wild reindeer "may well be the species of single greatest importance in the entire anthropological literature on hunting."[6]

Technological advances included significant developments in flint tool manufacturing, with industries based on fine blades rather than simpler and shorter flakes. Burins and racloirs were used to work bone, antler and hides. Advanced darts and harpoons also appear in this period, along with the fish hook, the oil lamp, rope, and the eyed needle.

Artistic work blossomed, with Venus figurines, cave painting, carvings and engravings on bone or ivory (such as the Swimming Reindeer), petroglyphs and exotic raw materials found far from their sources, which suggests emergent trading links. More complex social groupings emerged, supported by more varied and reliable food sources and specialized tool types. This probably contributed to increasing group identification or ethnicity.[citation needed] These group identities produced distinctive symbols and rituals which are an important part of modern human behavior.

The changes in human behavior have been attributed to the changes in climate during the period, which encompasses a number of global temperature drops. This meant a worsening of the already bitter climate of what is popularly (but incorrectly) called the last ice age. Such changes may have reduced the supply of usable timber and forced people to look at other materials. In addition, flint becomes brittle at low temperatures and may not have functioned as a tool.

Some scholars have argued that the appearance of complex or abstract language made these behavior changes possible. The complexity of the new human capabilities hints that humans were less capable of planning or foresight before 40,000 years, while the emergence of cooperative and coherent communication marked a new era of cultural development.[7] This theory is not widely accepted, since human phylogenetic separation dates to the Middle Palaeolithic (see Pre-language). While the latter view is better supported by phylogenetic inference, the material "evidence" is ambiguous.[citation needed]

  Changes in climate and geography

  European LGM refuges, 18,000 BCE.
  Solutrean and Proto Solutrean Cultures
  Epi Gravettian Culture

The climate of the period in Europe saw dramatic changes, and included the Last Glacial Maximum, the coldest phase of the last glacial period, which lasted from about 24,500 to 18,000–17,000 BCE, being coldest at the end, before a relatively rapid warming (all dates vary somewhat for different areas, and in different studies). During the Maximum, most of Northern Europe was covered by an ice-sheet, forcing human populations into the areas known as Last Glacial Maximum refugia, including modern Italy and the Balkans, parts of Iberia and areas around the Black Sea. This period saw cultures such as the Solutrean in France and Spain. Human life may have continued on top of the ice sheet, but we know next to nothing about it, and very little about the human life that preceded the European glaciers. In the early part of the period, up to about 30,000 BCE, the Mousterian Pluvial made northern Africa, including the Sahara, well-watered and with lower temperatures than today; after the end of the Pluvial the Sahara became arid.

The Last Glacial Maximum was followed by the Allerød oscillation, a warm and moist global interstadial that occurred around 11,500 to 10,800 BCE. Then there was a very rapid onset, perhaps within as little as a decade, of the cold and dry Younger Dryas climate period, giving sub-arctic conditions to much of northern Europe. The Pre-Boreal rise in temperatures also began sharply around 9600 BCE, and by its end around 8500 BCE had brought temperatures nearly to present day levels, though the climate was wetter. This period saw the Upper Paleolithic give way to the start of the following Mesolithic cultural period.

As the glaciers receded sea levels rose; the English Channel, Irish Sea and North Sea were land at this time, and the Black Sea a fresh-water lake. In particular the Atlantic coastline was initially far out to sea in modern terms in most areas, though the Mediterranean coastline has retreated far less, except in the north of the Adreatic and the Aegean. The rise in sea levels continued until at least 5,500 BCE, so evidence of most of the no doubt busy human activity along Europe's coasts in the Upper Paleolithic is therefore lost, though some traces are recovered by fishing boats and marine archaeology, especially from Doggerland, the lost area beneath the North Sea.

  Events

  Map of findings of Upper Paleolithic art in Europe.

  50,000 BCE

50,000 BCE

43,000—41,000

  40,000 BCE

40,000—35,000 BCE

39,000 BCE

  • Most of the giant vertebrates and megafauna in Australia have gone extinct, due to the arrival of humans.[8]

35,000 BCE

  • Zar, Yataghyeri, Damjili and Taghlar caves in Azerbaijan.

32,000 BCE

  • Europeans understand how to harden clay figures by firing them in an oven at high temperatures.

30,000 BCE

  • Invention of the bow and arrow.[9]
  • end of the Mousterian Pluvial in North Africa

30,000 BCE—26,000 BCE

  30,000 BCE

29,000—25,000 BCE

28,000 BCE

  • People start to live in Japan.

25,000 BCE—17,000 BCE

  • Wall painting with horses, rhinoceroses and aurochs, Chauvet Cave, Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Ardéche gorge, France, is made. Discovered in December 1994.

24,000 BCE

23,000 BCE

22,000 BCE

20,000 BCE

  • end of the second Mousterian Pluvial in North Africa.

  20,000 BCE

  Paleo-İndian life in Museum of Florida History.

18,000 BCE—15,000 BCE

  • Last Glacial Maximum. Mean Sea Levels are believed to be 110 to 120 meters (361 to 394 ft) lower than present,[10] with the direct implication that many coastal and lower riverine valley archaeological sites of interest are today under water.

18,000 BCE

  • Spotted Horses, Pech Merle cave, Dordogne, France are painted. Discovered in December 1994.

18,000 BCE—11,000 BCE

  • Ibex-headed spear thrower, from Le Mas d'Azil, Ariège, France, is made. It is now at Musée de la Préhistoire, Le Mas d'Azil.

18,000 BCE—12,000 BCE

17,000 BCE

  • Spotted human hands, Pech Merle cave, Dordogne, France are painted. Discovered in December 1994.

17,000 BCE—15,000 BCE

  • Hall of Bulls, Lascaux caves, is painted. Discovered in 1940. Closed to the public in 1963.
  • Bird-Headed man with bison and Rhinoceros, Lascaux caves, is painted.
  • Lamp with ibex design, from La Mouthe cave, Dordogne, France, is made. It is now at Musée des Antiquités Nationales, St.-Germain-en-Laye.

16,500 BCE

  • Paintings in Cosquer cave, where the cave mouth is now under water at Cap Margiou, France were made.

15,000 BCE

  • Bison, Le Tuc d'Audoubert, Ariège, France.

  16,000 BCE

15,000 BCE–12,000 BCE

  • Paleo-Indians move across North America, then southward through Central America.
  • Pregnant woman and deer (?), from Laugerie-Basse, France was made. It is now at Musée des Antiquités Nationales, St.-Germain-en-Laye.

14,000 BCE

13,000 BCE

  12,000 BCE

11,500 BCE—10,000 BCE

11,000 BCE

  • First evidence of human settlement in Argentina.
  • The Arlington Springs Man dies on the island of Santa Rosa, off the coast of California.
  • Human remains deposited in caves which are now located off the coast of Yucatán.[12]

  Cultures

  Reindeer Age articles

The Upper Paleolithic in the Franco-Cantabrian region:

  • The Châtelperronian culture was located around central and south western France, and northern Spain. It appears to be derived from the earlier Mousterian culture, and represents the period of overlap between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens. This culture lasted from approximately 33,000 BCE to 27,000 BCE.
  • The Aurignacian culture was located in Europe and south west Asia, and flourished between 32,000 BCE and 21,000 BCE. It may have been contemporary with the Périgordian (a contested grouping of the earlier Châtelperronian and later Gravettian cultures).
  • The Gravettian culture was located across Europe. Gravettian sites generally date between 26,000 BCE to 20,000 BCE.
  • The Solutrean culture was located in eastern France, Spain, and England. Solutrean artifacts have been dated to around 19000 BCE before mysteriously disappearing around 15,000 BCE.
  • The Magdalenian culture left evidence from Portugal to Poland during the period from 16,000 BCE to 8000 BCE.

From the Synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures:

  • central and east Europe:
  • north and west Africa, and Sahara:
  • central, south, and east Africa:
    • 50,000 BCE, Fauresmithian culture
    • 30,000 BCE, Stillbayan culture
    • 10,000 BCE, Lupembian culture
    • 9000 BCE, Magosian culture
    • 7000 BCE, Wiltonian culture
    • 3000 BCE, beginning of hunter-gatherer art in southern Africa
  • West Asia (including Middle East):
  • south, central and northern Asia:
    • 30,000 BCE, Angara culture
    • 9000 BCE, Khandivili culture

  See also

  References

  1. ^ Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia Nature 423, 742-747 (12 June 2003) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v423/n6941/pdf/nature01669.pdf
  2. ^ Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: middle and later Pleistocene hominins in Africa and Southwest Asia Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 22 September 2009;106(38):16046-50. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2752549/pdf/zpq16046.pdf
  3. ^ Biological origins of modern human behavior part3
  4. ^ Biological origins of modern human behavior part 1
  5. ^ "'Modern' Behavior Began 40,000 Years Ago In Africa", Science Daily, July 1998
  6. ^ "In North America and Eurasia the species has long been an important resource—in many areas the most important resource—for peoples' inhabiting the northern boreal forest and tundra regions. Known human dependence on caribou/wild reindeer has a long history, beginning in the Middle Pleistocene (Banfield 1961:170; Kurtén 1968:170) and continuing to the present....The caribou/wild reindeer is thus an animal that has been a major resource for humans throughout a tremendous geographic area and across a time span of tens of thousands of years." Ernest S. Burch, Jr. "The Caribou/Wild Reindeer as a Human Resource", American Antiquity, Vol. 37, No. 3 (July 1972), pp. 339–368.
  7. ^ "No Last Word on Language Origins", Bellarmine University
  8. ^ "Humans killed off Australia's giant beasts". BBC News. 24 March 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17488447. 
  9. ^ McClellan, pg 11
  10. ^ Sea level data from main article: Cosquer cave
  11. ^ Lloyd, J. & Mitchinson, J.: The Book of General Ignorance. Faber & Faber, 2006.
  12. ^ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5955043/
  13. ^ Carpenter, Jennifer (20 June 2011). "Early human fossils unearthed in Ukraine". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-13846262. Retrieved 21 June 2011. 

  External links

   
               

 

All translations of Upper_Paleolithic


sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

Dictionary and translator for handheld

⇨ New : sensagent is now available on your handheld

   Advertising ▼

sensagent's office

Shortkey or widget. Free.

Windows Shortkey: sensagent. Free.

Vista Widget : sensagent. Free.

Webmaster Solution

Alexandria

A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code

SensagentBox

With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.


Please, email us to describe your idea.

WordGame

The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

last searches on the dictionary :

2129 online visitors

computed in 0.468s

   Advertising ▼

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
other
please precise:

Advertize

Partnership

Company informations

My account

login

registration

   Advertising ▼

The Dawn of Belief: Religion in the Upper Paleolithic of Southwestern Europe, Di (5.67 USD)

Commercial use of this term

The Upper Paleolithic of the Central Russian Plain (33.96 USD)

Commercial use of this term

The Early Upper Paleolithic beyond Western Europe, , New Book (55.07 USD)

Commercial use of this term

The Dawn of Belief: Religion in the Upper Paleolithic. Dickson. Paperback - 1996 (9.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Sterling Silver 925 Venus Figurine Upper Palaeolithic Era Europe Statue NECKLACE (30.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Paleolithic. Exceptional Upper Paleolithic collection (350.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

UPPER PALEOLITHIC END SCRAPER, FRANCE (525.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

NEW Upper Paleolithic by Paperback Book (English) Free Shipping (28.81 USD)

Commercial use of this term

NEW Upper Paleolithic Behavioral Modernity C by Books LLC Paperback Book (Englis (29.32 USD)

Commercial use of this term

NEW Upper Palaeolithic Revolution in Global Perspective by Ofer Bar-yosef Hardco (83.41 USD)

Commercial use of this term

From Kostenki to Clovis: Upper Paleolithic-Paleo-Indian Adaptions (1993 Edition) (303.45 USD)

Commercial use of this term