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definitions - V

v (adj.)

1.being one more than four

V (n.)

1.the 22nd letter of the Roman alphabet

2.a unit of potential equal to the potential difference between two points on a conductor carrying a current of 1 ampere when the power dissipated between the two points is 1 watt; equivalent to the potential difference across a resistance of 1 ohm whe...

3.the cardinal number that is the sum of four and one

4.a soft silvery white toxic metallic element used in steel alloys; it occurs in several complex minerals including carnotite and vanadinite

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Merriam Webster

VV (vē).
1. V, the twenty-second letter of the English alphabet, is a vocal consonant. V and U are only varieties of the same character, U being the cursive form, while V is better adapted for engraving, as in stone. The two letters were formerly used indiscriminately, and till a comparatively recent date words containing them were often classed together in dictionaries and other books of reference (see U). The letter V is from the Latin alphabet, where it was used both as a consonant (about like English w) and as a vowel. The Latin derives it from a form (V) of the Greek vowel Υ (see Y), this Greek letter being either from the same Semitic letter as the digamma F (see F), or else added by the Greeks to the alphabet which they took from the Semitic. Etymologically v is most nearly related to u, w, f, b, p; as in vine, wine; avoirdupois, habit, have; safe, save; trover, troubadour, trope. See U, F, etc.

See Guide to Pronunciation, § 265; also §§ 155, 169, 178-179, etc.

2. As a numeral, V stands for five, in English and Latin.

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definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - V

see also - V

analogical dictionary





 

form, shape[Dérivé]

shaped[Hyper.]

V-




Wikipedia - see also

Wikipedia

V

                   
V
ISO basic Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd
Ee Ff Gg Hh
Ii Jj Kk Ll
Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt
Uu Vv Ww Xx
Yy Zz

V (named vee /ˈv/)[1] is the twenty-second letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

Contents

  Letter

  Ancient Corinthian vase depicting Perseus, Andromeda and Ketos. The inscriptions denoting the depicted persons are written in an archaic form of the Greek alphabet. Perseus (Greek: ΠΕΡΣΕΥΣ) is inscribed as ΠΕΡΣΕVΣ (from right to left), using V to represent the vowel [u].

The letter V comes from the Semitic letter Waw, as do the modern letters F, U, W, and Y. See F for details.

In Greek, the letter upsilon ⟨Υ⟩ was adapted from waw to represent, at first, the vowel [u] as in "moon". This was later fronted to [y], the front rounded vowel spelled ⟨ü⟩ in German.

In Latin, a stemless variant shape of the upsilon was borrowed in early times as V—either directly from the Western Greek alphabet or from the Etruscan alphabet as an intermediary—to represent the same /u/ sound, as well as the consonantal /w/. Thus, num — originally spelled ⟨NVM⟩ — was pronounced /num/ and via was pronounced /ˈwia/. From the 1st century A.D. on, depending on Vulgar Latin dialect, consonantal /w/ developed into /β/ (kept in Spanish), then later to /v/.

In Roman numerals, the letter V is used to represent the number 5. It was used because it resembled the convention of counting by notches carved in wood, with every fifth notch double-cut to form a "V".

During the Late Middle Ages, two forms of ⟨v⟩ developed, which were both used for its ancestor ⟨u⟩ and modern ⟨v⟩. The pointed form ⟨v⟩ was written at the beginning of a word, while a rounded form ⟨u⟩ was used in the middle or end, regardless of sound. So whereas valor and excuse appeared as in modern printing, have and upon were printed ⟨haue⟩ and ⟨vpon⟩. The first distinction between the letters ⟨u⟩ and ⟨v⟩ is recorded in a Gothic alphabet from 1386, where ⟨v⟩ preceded ⟨u⟩. By the mid-16th century, the ⟨v⟩ form was used to represent the consonant and ⟨u⟩ the vowel sound, giving us the modern letter ⟨u⟩. Capital ⟨U⟩ was not accepted as a distinct letter until many years later.[2]

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, /v/ represents the voiced labiodental fricative. See Help:IPA.

Like J, K, Q, W, and Y, V is not used very frequently in English. However, it appears frequently in the Spanish (where its pronunciation is the same as B) and French languages.

This letter, like Q and X, is not used in the Polish alphabet. /v/ is spelled with the letter ⟨w⟩ instead, following the convention of German.

In English, V is unusual in that it has not traditionally been doubled to indicate a short vowel, the way for example P is doubled to indicate the difference between super and supper. However, that is changing with newly coined words, such as divvy up and skivvies.

V is the only letter that cannot be used to form an English two-letter word in the game of Scrabble.[citation needed]

  Other names

In Japanese, V is often called "bui" (ブイ). This name is an approximation of the English name which substitutes the voiced bilabial plosive for the voiced labiodental fricative (which does not exist in native Japanese phonology) and differentiates it from "bī" (ビー), the Japanese name of the letter B. The sound can be written with the relatively recently developed katakana character 「ヴ」 (vu)[4] va, vi, vu, ve, vo (ヴァ, ヴィ, ヴ, ヴェ, ヴォ?), though in practice the pronunciation is usually not the strictly labiodental fricative found in English. Moreover, some words are more often spelled with the b equivalent character instead of vu due to the long-time use of the word without it (e.g. "violin" is more often found as baiorin (バイオリン?) than as vaiorin (ヴァイオリン?) due partly to inertia, and to some extent due to the more native Japanese sound).

  Pronunciation

In most languages which use a Latin alphabet, ⟨v⟩ has a [v]-like sound. In most dialects of Spanish, it is pronounced the same as ⟨b⟩, [b] or [β̞]. In German it is [f].

In Chinese pinyin, letter ⟨v⟩ is missing, as there is no sound [v] in Standard Mandarin but the letter ⟨v⟩ is used by most input methods to enter letter ⟨ü⟩, since it is missing on most keyboards. Romanised Chinese is a popular method to enter Chinese text phonetically.

In Irish, the letter ⟨v⟩ is mostly used in loanwords, such as veidhlín from English violin. However the sound [v] appears naturally in Irish when /b/ is lenited or "softened", represented in the orthography by ⟨bh⟩, so that bhí is pronounced [vʲiː], an bhean (the woman) is pronounced [ən̪ˠ ˈvʲan̪ˠ], etc.

In the 19th century, ⟨v⟩ was sometimes used to transcribe a palatal click, [ǂ], a function since partly taken over by ⟨ç⟩.

  Related letters and other similar characters

  Computing codes

character V v
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER V LATIN SMALL LETTER V
character encoding decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 86 0056 118 0076
UTF-8 86 56 118 76
Numeric character reference V V v v
EBCDIC family 229 E5 165 A5
ASCII 1 86 56 118 76

1 and all encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

  Other representations

  See also

  References

  1. ^ "V" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "vee," op. cit.
  2. ^ Pflughaupt, Laurent (2008). Letter by Letter: An Alphabetical Miscellany. trans. Gregory Bruhn. Princeton Architectural Press. pp. 123–124. ISBN 978-1-56898-737-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=63Qnbt2CMiMC&pg=PA124. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 
  3. ^ Díez Losada, Fernando (2004) (in Spanish). La tribuna del idioma. Editorial Tecnologica de CR. p. 176. ISBN 9977-66-161-8, ISBN 978-9977-66-161-2. 
  4. ^ Not an entirely new character, 「ヴ」 is simply the character for u (ウ) with the addition of a dakuten, the same mark used to change the sound of other kana. The dakuten is, for example, used to transform ka (カ) to ga (ガ), hi (ヒ) to bi (ビ) and ta (タ) to da (ダ).

  External links

  • Media related to V at Wikimedia Commons
  • The Wiktionary entry for V
  • The Wiktionary entry for v


Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter V with diacritics
Ṽṽ Ṿṿ Ʋʋ
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