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The Venus Throw was the highest roll in the Ancient Roman gambling game of tali, or knucklebones. The game was played with four sheep's or goat's knucklebones, 4-sided rectangular dice numbered I, III, IV and VI . The Venus Throw happened when each talus landed on a different side, i.e. with a total of 14. A gambler would either throw the tali from his or her hand, or use a box (called a fretellus). There were thirty-five different throws possible. While the Venus throw was the highest, the Vulture throw (all aces) — also known as the Dog throw — was the lowest. The Venus throw could be used to designate the master of the revels.
- Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, p. 1095