Victorian Railways S class
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|Victorian Railways S class|
|Builder's photo of S 300, 1928.|
|Builder||VR Newport Workshops|
|Driver size||73 in|
|Length||85 ft 6 in|
|Axle load||23 t 10 c|
|Weight on drivers||70 t 10 c|
|Weight||194 t 13 c (unstreamlined)|
223 t 17 c (streamlined)
|Tender capacity||(after conversion to oil firing) 2,000 gal oil, 12,600 gal water|
|Boiler pressure||200 psi|
|Fire grate area||50 ft²|
|Heating surface: Total||3,723 ft²|
|Cylinder size||20½×28 in|
|Tractive effort||41,670 lbf at 85% boiler pressure|
|Number in class||4|
The S class was an express passenger steam locomotive that ran on Victorian Railways from 1928 to 1954. Built when the VR was at its zenith and assigned to haul premier interstate express passenger services, the S class remained the VR's most prestigious locomotive class until the advent of diesel electric locomotives in the early 1950s.
The S class was the final design of the VR Chief Mechanical Engineer Alfred E Smith, who had been responsible for the highly successful K class 2-8-0 and N class 2-8-2 designs and closely involved with the earlier A2 class 4-6-0, C class 2-8-0, and Dd class 4-6-0 designs.
The S was VR's first three cylinder locomotive, and A E Smith's design was influenced by Nigel Gresley's GNR A1 class 4-6-2 with its Gresley conjugated valve gear. The S class also showed American design influence in its use of a delta trailing truck and bar frames rather than plate frames. Another notable design innovation was the incorporation of all three cylinders and the smokebox saddle into a single casting.
The S class spent its entire normal service life on the main North-eastern line, its axle load too high for regular service on any other VR lines. Although Annual Reports show the VR planned to upgrade the main Western line and build further S class locomotives to haul Overland services between Ararat and Serviceton, exigencies imposed by the Great Depression and World War II meant the planned upgrade of this service never eventuated.
Although a numerically small class limited to a single line, the S class was highly utilised. S 302 travelled 1,446,468 miles (2,327,367 km) over its 25 year, 2 month service life, averaging 4,773 miles (7,679 km) per month.
Regular Service: 1928-1937
|S 300 as built in 1928, and S 302 after the fitting of smoke deflectors, circa 1936. Note the three rounded caps above the buffer beam on S 302, a modification to allow longer valve travel.|
S 300 hauled its first revenue passenger service between Seymour and Melbourne on 19 March 1928. After ten weeks of trials, it was regularly rostered on the key North-eastern line Sydney Limited and Albury Express services.
With the delivery of a further three locomotives during 1929-30, the S class displaced the earlier A2 class 4-6-0 locomotives from these services. Their superior power had a profound impact on the timetable, shaving half an hour from the previous five hour northbound Sydney Limited schedule set for the A2..
By 1931, a severe reduction in passenger traffic caused by the Great Depression saw the S class locomotives withdrawn from running the Sydney express services, and they were put to use on goods trains on the North Eastern line until passenger traffic picked up.
Initial tests with prototype S 300 revealed only average performance for a locomotive of such size. Further detailed study revealed that insufficient valve travel and narrow port openings were impairing performance, and based on this study changes were made to the three S class locomotives that followed S 300.
During the mid 1930s, all four S class locomotives were equipped with VR's 'Modified Front End' for improved drafting and reduced cylinder back pressure. Smoke deflectors were fitted to compensate for the reduced uplift of smoke from the redesigned exhaust. Tests showed an indicated horsepower increase from 1,560 hp (1,160 kW) to 1,920 hp (1,430 kW) at 30 mph (48 km/h) as a result of these changes.
The boilers were later modified to incorporate thermic siphons. However, unlike its close relative the X class Mikado, the S class was not modified with Belpaire fireboxes and retained its round-top boilers.
A final modification late in the life of the S class was the conversion to oil firing from February 1951 onwards as the scarcity of Maitland coal and unsatisfactory performance when running coal from other fields began to affect locomotive performance and running schedules.
Spirit of Progress
From 1937, the S class was assigned to haul the VR's glamour streamliner, the Spirit of Progress. At the time, they were the only passenger locomotives on the VR with enough power to take the Spirit's trailing load of up to 600 tons unassisted over the 1 in 50 gradients between Melbourne and Albury. Their appearance was dramatically altered with the addition of streamlining and a royal blue and gold livery designed to seamlessly match the train carriages. They were also equipped with enormous tenders with enough water and coal capacity to enable the train to travel the entire 191 mile journey non-stop at an average speed of 52 mph (83 km/h), with a maximum permissible speed of 70 mph (112 km/h).
At this time, the locomotives were also named after prominent figures in early Victorian history:
On the initial demonstration run of the Spirit of Progress to Geelong, S 302 Edward Henty set an official Australian rail speed record of 79.5 mph (128 km/h). While in the context of the British locomotive Mallard reaching a recorded 126 mph (203 km/h) the following year this speed was hardly remarkable, it is nevertheless indicative of the strong performance of the S class that the record speed was achieved on level track by an eight year old locomotive hauling a trailing load of around 500 tons.
A minor change to the appearance of the streamlining was the removal of the locomotives' solid cowcatcher and replacement with an open type when it was discovered that the original design created a partial vacuum behind the cowcatcher, sucking dust and grime into the slide bars for the third (inside) cylinder and leading to maintenance problems.
On 25 September 1933, S 301 broke a driving axle while hauling the 4:00 pm express to Albury, causing the left centre driving wheel to separate from the locomotive. There were no casualties, although the locomotive suffered significant damage.
On Monday 1 September 1935, two S class locomotives each hauling empty passenger trains were involved in a fatal collision when one train collided at speed into the rear of the other, the locomotive of the following train completely destroying the guards van and fatally injuring the guard in the impact. Damage was estimated at nearly £10,000.
The side valances of the locomotives in streamlined form were prone to damage in the event of collision with trackside objects. During 1950, the valances were shortened to end at the buffer beam rather than extending to the base of the cowcatcher.
On 15 August 1952, S 301 was involved in a fatal level crossing accident when it collided at high speed with a circus truck and trailer at Euroa, killing three people travelling in the truck. The accident caused significant damage to the streamlined cowling of the front of the locomotive. S 301 was temporarily repaired with a semi-streamlined appearance, featuring a standard VR pressed steel slotted cowcatcher and an unstreamlined smokebox.
The S class was the first casualty of the Victorian Railways dieselisation program, which began in earnest with the delivery of B class mainline diesel electric locomotives in 1952. Because of the relatively high maintenance cost associated with their Gresley valve gear, very limited route availability due to their high axle load, and relatively high mileage, the S class locomotives were progressively withdrawn as mechanical condition dictated. First to go was S 301 Sir Thomas Mitchell in September 1953 with worn cylinders, being recorded as scrapped on the 16th of October, 1953. S 303 C J LaTrobe and S 302 Edward Henty were withdrawn in May 1953, S 302 being recorded as scrapped on 2nd of July, 1954 and S 303 being recorded as scrapped on the 28th of May, 1954. In June 1954 the last remaining example, S 300 Matthew Flinders, was withdrawn, being recorded as scrapped thee months later on the 17th of September, 1954.
Despite their key place in Australian transport history, the S class locomotives were all scrapped before the preservation movement had gathered enough momentum to ensure at least one example was preserved. However, the Australian Railway Historical Society has noted that the loss of the S class helped to galvanise railway enthusiasts into lobbying for the preservation of other VR locomotives (beginning with the X class) and the establishment of the ARHS Railway Museum.
The enormous tender tanks of the S class found a new use as tankers for weed-spraying of VR tracks, and the tender frames and bogies were also converted into heavy duty flat wagons. One of the 2,000 gallon oil tanks retrieved from an S class tender was used in April 1954 to convert an R class 4-6-4, R 748, to oil firing.
Three of the four tender frames have been preserved by the Australian Railway Historical Society, and a fourth has been allocated to the Seymour Railway Heriage Centre, which has had a tender body placed on it.
The names and numbers of the four S class steam locomotives were also carried over when the VR introduced a new class of mainline diesel electric locomotives introduced in 1957.
An assortment of remnants such as the rusting hulks of giant tender tanks, some of the Spirit of Progress locomotive name and number plates, and a few other relics such as one of the locomotives' whistles are all that remains of the S class steam locomotives today.
- Dunn et al., Super Power on the VR - Part 1, Train Hobby Publications, 2006 ISBN 1-876249-94-3
- Dunn et al., Super Power on the VR - Part 2, Train Hobby Publications, 2006 ISBN 1-921122-05-6
- Dee et al., Power Parade, VicRail Public Relations Division, Melbourne, 1981, ISBN 0-7241-3323-2
- Pearce et al., North Williamstown Railway Museum, ARHS, Melbourne, 1980, ISBN 0-85849-018-8
- ^ AHRS Railway Museum History 1900 - 1950 - retrieved on 6 September 2006
- ^ a b c Oberg, Leon (2007). Locomotives of Australia 1854-2007. Rosenberg Publishing. p. 201. ISBN 1877058548.
- ^ Graham, Neil (May/June 1994). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Class S - Victorian Railways Finest?"]. Australian Model Engineering (54): p. 16. ISSN: 0819-4734.
- ^ Public Record Office Victoria photograph of cylinder castings for VR S class - retrieved 4 October 2006
- ^ Dunn et al., Super Power on the VR - Part 2, p. 9
- ^ Dunn et al., Super Power on the VR - Part 1, p. 10
- ^ "VICTORIA'S MOST POWERFUL LOCOMOTIVE". The Argus: p. 5. 1931-08-19. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4394636. Retrieved 2010-01-04.
- ^ Dunn et al., Super Power on the VR - Part 1, p. 13
- ^ Carlisle, R M & Abbott, R L (1985). Hudson Power. ARHS. p. 92. ISBN 0-85849-028-5.
- ^ ""Spirit Of Progress" Engines To Become Oil Burners". The Canberra Times: p. 1. 1951-01-03. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2814849.
- ^ Dunn et al., Super Power on the VR - Part 1, p. 25, 27
- ^ Dunn et al., Super Power on the VR - Part 1, p. 3
- ^ Dunn et al., Super Power on the VR - Part 1, p. 30
- ^ [Expression error: Missing operand for > Way and Works Casualty Report], Victorian Railways, 1933, No. 6881
- ^ "RAILWAY CRASH AT SEYMOUR. TWO EMPTY TRAINS INVOLVED GUARD MORTALLY INJURED". The Argus: p. 9. 1935-09-02. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article11763478. Retrieved 2010-01-03.
- ^ Dunn et al., Super Power on the VR - Part 1, p. 42
- ^ Dunn et al., Super Power on the VR - Part 2, p. 8
- ^ "Third Victim of Euroa Crossing Smash Dies". The Canberra Times: p. 1. 1952-08-19. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2862113. Retrieved 2010-01-04.
- ^ "Two killed when "Spirit" Wrecks Caravan At Euroa". The Canberra Times: p. 1. 1952-08-16. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2862113. Retrieved 2010-01-04.
- ^ Dunn et al., Super Power on the VR - Part 2, p. 47
- ^ AHRS Railway Museum - About Us - retrieved on 15 October 2006
- ^ victorianrailways.net QH wagon page - retrieved 13 October 2006
- ^ "707operations.com.au - R Class - A Brief History". http://www.707operations.com.au/default.aspx?page=R%20Class%20-%20A%20Brief%20History. Retrieved 2006-11-06.
- ^ victorianrailways.net S class d/e locomotives - retrieved 16 October 2006
- ^ australiansteam.com photograph of S class tender tank - retrieved 16 October 2006
- victorianrailways.net S class locomotive page Details and further photographs of S class locomotives
- victorianrailways.net S class locomotive diagram
- Museum of Victoria - S Class 'Pacific' Locos further photographs of S class locomotives