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White Latin American

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White Latin American
"Latinoamericano blanco"
"Latino-Americano Branco"

1st row:José Hilario López - Fidel Castro - Santiago Creel - León de Greiff - Elena Poniatowska - Jorge Bergoglio - Gisele Bündchen
2nd row: José de San Martín - Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda - Pedro I of Brazil - Clarice Lispector - Guillermo Brown - Nicole - Alexandra Braun Waldeck
3rd row:William H. Phelps, Jr. - Jorge Brown - Juan Williams - Eva Perón - Gabriel Heinze - Carlos Mugica -Carlos Babington
4th row:Juan Antonio Pezet - Juana de Ibarbourou - Maria Montez - Mariano Ignacio Prado - Diego Klimowicz - Che Guevara - Oscar Cox

Total population
White People
190 million – 203 million
33% – 37% of Latin American population
Regions with significant populations
 Brazil93M[1] or 105M[2]
 Argentina34M[3]
 Mexico13.3M[4]or 20M[5]
 Chile8.8M[3]or 10.7M[6]
 Colombia8.8M[2]
 Cuba7.3M[7]
 Venezuela5.6M[8]
 Peru4.4M[2]
 Costa Rica3.8M[9]
 Puerto Rico3.2M[2]
 Uruguay3.1M[2]
 Dominican Republic1.5M[2]
 Bolivia1.4M[2]
 Ecuador1.4M[10]
 Paraguay1.3M[3]
 Nicaragua1M[2]
All other areas1.1M[2]
Languages

Portuguese, Spanish, and other languages.

Religion

Christianity (predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestants); and other religions.

White Latin Americans[11] are the white population of Latin America. They are the descendants of 15th–to–19th century colonial-era settlers and of post-independence immigrants. Original settlers were mostly Spanish and Portuguese, but post-independence immigrants were more diverse, among them many Italian immigrants. Other large sources of immigrants were France, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Poland, and Lebanon. Smaller numbers came from various other European and Middle Eastern countries. The immigrants came principally in the late decades of the nineteenth and early decades of the twentieth centuries. Some twelve million people arrived in South America alone in this period, although many returned or re-migrated to other countries, including the United States and Canada. White Latin Americans number approximately 204 million, or 35.63% of a total population of 572.7 million.[citation needed]

Contents

History

Latin America. Historically, the region has included other areas not shown, such as Quebec.

More than one and a half million Portuguese and Spaniards settled in their American colonies during the colonial period.[12][13] The regions of Mexico and Peru became the principal destinations of Spanish migrants in the 16th century, when nearly 240,000 Spaniards entered American ports. Small numbers of other Europeans also settled in Spain's American colonies, usually as a reward for military service to Spain or Portugal. [14]

For the region as a whole, the number of post-independence immigrants far surpassed that of settlers during the colonial period.[15] Argentina and Uruguay were "inundated" with European immigrants, so that in the early 20th century Buenos Aires had a larger proportion of European-born population than did New York City. Argentina received more than half of the 11-12 million immigrants to South America in this time.[15] In Brazil, the most populous country in the region, the effect was consequently not as great, but the number of immigrants was large, at more than 4 million.

Admixture

Since the European colonization, the evolution of Latin America's population is embedded in a long and widespread history of intermixing, so that many White Latin Americans have Amerindian and/or sub-Saharan African and/or Arab/Middle Eastern/North African and/or possibly even Asian ancestry. Under the casta system of colonial Latin America, a person of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry would legally and automatically regain their limpieza de sangre (lit. "purity of blood") and be classified as criollo with others in that category (a designation denoting "pure" Spaniards born in the Americas), if they were of one-eighth or less Amerindian ancestry. These would be the offspring of a castizo (1/4 Amerindian and 3/4 Spanish) with a Spaniard or a criollo (who may himself have been mixed).[16]

In practice, many castizos did themselves also subversively purchase their Whiteness all over Latin America, for a steep price,[17] with relevant "probanzas de limpieza de sangre" records altered, consolidating themselves within the lawfully white population. Additionally, at least in the parts of Latin America under the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Spanish territory in Mexico, Central America (except Panama), the Caribbean, Florida, and the present Southwestern United States; it later included the Louisiana region, to the Canadian border) officials in the late 16th century did actually decide "to grant limpieza certification to those who had no more than a fourth of native ancestry (called castizos)."[16]

Populations

In terms of absolute numbers, the largest White population in Latin America is found in Brazil, with 95.3 million whites out of 191.9 million total Brazilians, or 49.7% of the total population.[1] Argentina has the second largest white population in Latin America, with 36 million.[citation needed] Mexico has the third largest white population with 20 million.[citation needed]

In terms of percentage of the total population, Argentina has the largest white population, with 88-97% of the country self-identified as "white", although other sources estimate that percentage as low as 70.4 or 88,1 %.[citation needed]

Depending on definition of "Latin America", the smallest White population in Latin America is either in Honduras, with only 1% White, approximately 75,000 people, or in Haiti. Guatemala [18] both have censuses which identify both Whites and Mestizos (people of mixed White and Amerindian ancestry) in one category, so the exact percentage of Whites in those countries is undetermined or unknown.

Country% localPopulation
(millions)
Brazil49.7 or 53.7[1]93 or 105
Argentina85[9] or 97[19]35 or 39
Mexico9[20] or ~16[5]13 or 17
Chile52.7[3] or 64[6]8.9 or 10.7
Colombia20[21] or 25[22]8.8 or 11.2
Cuba65.1[7]7.3
Venezuela20[8]5.6
Peru15[23]4.3
Costa Rica80[9]3.8[9]
Puerto Rico80.5[24]3.1
Uruguay93[25]3
Dominican Republic16[26]1.6
Bolivia15[27]1.4
Ecuador10.4[10]1.4
Paraguay20[3]1.3
Nicaragua17[28]1

Central America

Costa Rica

José Figueres Ferrer, President of Costa Rica on three occasions. Spaniard(Catalan) descent


In 2009, Costa Rica had an estimated population of 4,509,290. Together, Whites and Mestizos combined make up 94% of the population, 3% are black people, 1% amerindians, 1% Chinese, and 1% other. Some other sources place the percentage of White people at 80%, or 3.6 million. Costa Rican-white ancestry is mostly Spanish but there are significant numbers of Costa Ricans descended from Italian, Greek, German, English, Dutch, French, Irish, Portuguese, Lebanese and Polish families, as well a sizable Jewish community.[29]

El Salvador

Of the total Salvadoran population, 9% is white.[30] They're mostly of Spanish descent, others of Italian, German, French, and Palestinian ancestry. The majority of the white Salvadorans are in San Salvador, Chalatenango, Northern San Miguel, Northern La Union, and Santa Ana.

Guatemala

The exact percentage of the white Guatemalan population is not known because the Guatemalan census combines mestizos and whites in one category, where they make up a combined total of 59.4%. Whites are mostly of Spanish descent, but there are also those of German, English, Italian, Scandinavian, and American descent.

Some other sources place the percentage of white in 5.1%, or about 649,000 people.

Honduras

Honduras contains perhaps the smallest percentage of whites in Latin America, with only 1% classified as white, or up to 75,000 of the total population. (If included, it might be Haiti, instead.) Of these, the majority are people of Spanish descent.[31]

Nicaragua

Bianca Jagger is a Nicaraguan social and human rights advocate, former actress-model, and fashion icon. She was previously married to Rolling Stones lead vocalist Mick Jagger

White Nicaraguans make up 17%, just over 1 million, of the Nicaraguan population.[28] The majority of White Nicaraguans are of Spanish, German, Italian, Portuguese and French ancestry. In the 1800s Nicaragua experienced several waves of immigration, primarily from Europe. In particular, families from Germany, Italy, Spain, France and Belgium immigrated to Nicaragua, mostly to the departments in the Central and Pacific region. As a result, the Northern cities of Estelí, Jinotega and Matagalpa have significant fourth generation Germans. They established many agricultural businesses such as coffee and sugar cane plantations, and also newspapers, hotels and banks. The Jews of Nicaragua are descendants of Ashkenazi Jews from Eastern Europe.

Also present is a small Middle Eastern-Nicaraguan community of Syrians, Armenians, Palestinian Nicaraguans, and Lebanese Nicaraguans with a total population of about 30,000.

Panama

White Panamanians form 10% ,[32] with the Spanish being the majority. Other ancestries includes Dutch, English, French, German, Irish, Greek, Italian, Lebanese, Portuguese and Russian.

North America

Mexico

Lorena Ochoa - Mexico's number one golfer.

According to different sources, White Mexicans are estimated between 8% and 15% of Mexico's population, or around 13 million people.[4][34][35] The majority of them are of Spanish descent. However, many other non-Iberian immigrants (mostly French) also arrived during the Second Mexican Empire in the 1860's. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, immigrants from Italy, Germany, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Lebanon and Israel also made Mexico their home.[36][37] In the 20th century, White Americans, Canadians, Greeks, Romanians, Portuguese, Armenians, Poles, Russians, Ashkenazi Jews, and immigrants from other Eastern European countries,[37] along with many Spanish refugees fleeing the Spanish Civil War also settled in Mexico.[38]

The northern regions of Mexico, such as the states of Chihuahua and Nuevo Leon particularly the city of Monterrey, hold the greatest European genetic admixture with roughly 50-61% European admixture among the regional population.[39] The white population of central Mexico is ethnically more diverse, as there are large numbers of non-Iberian European and Middle Eastern ethnic groups (mostly Italians, French and Lebanese). Non-Iberian surnames, most notably French, are also more common in central Mexico, especially in Mexico City and the state of Jalisco.[citation needed]

Caribbean

Cuba

* Sissi is a Cuban model and presenter.
* Jose Marti was a Cuban poet, writer, nationalist leader.

White Cubans make up about 70%[7][40] of the total Cuban population, with the majority being of diverse Spanish descent. However, after the mass exodus resulting from Cuba becoming a soviet satellite nation in 1959 the amount of white Cubans actually residing in Cuba diminished. Today various records claiming the percentage of whites in Cuba are conflicting and uncertain; some reports (usually coming from Cuba) still report a less, but similar, pre-1959 number of 65% and others (usually from outside observers) report a 40-45%. Despite most white Cubans being of Spanish descent, many others are of French, Portuguese, German, Italian, and Russian descent.[41] During the 18th, 19th and early part of the 20th century, large waves of Canarians, Catalans, Andalusians, Castilians, and Galicians emigrated to Cuba. Also, one significant ethnic influx is derived from various Middle Eastern nations. Many Jews have also immigrated there, some of them Sephardic.[42] Given Cuba's thriving economic during its capitalistic era, between 1901 and 1958, more than a million Spaniards arrived to Cuba from Spain; many of these and their descendants left after Castro's communist regime took power.

Dominican Republic

File:Maria Montez cropped.JPG
María Montez actress of Spanish descent.[43][44]

 Dominican Republic

White Dominicans represent 16% of the total population[26], with the vast majority being of Spanish descent. Notable other ancestries includes French, Italian, Lebanese, German, and Portuguese.[45][46][47] In addition, the government of Rafael Leónidas Trujillo made a point of increasing the white population, or "whitening" the racial composition of the country by rejecting black immigrants from Haiti and the local blacks as foreigners.[48] He also welcomed Jewish refugees in 1938 and Spanish farmers in the 1950s.[49][50]

Guadeloupe

Haiti

Note: some definitions of Latin America do not include Haiti

Most of the white Haitians are descendants of French settlers, although most French left following the Haitian Revolution of 1791–1804, which resulted in Saint-Domingue's independence as the Republic of Haiti. The white community had numbered 32,000 in 1789.[51] There are also white Haitians that are descendants of Danes, Germans, Italians, Lebanese, Poles, Portuguese, Russians, and Syrians. The country has also small numbers of Haitians of Spanish descent, who are the descendants of the first settlers on the whole of Hispaniola before French rule came to Haiti.

Martinique

Note: Many definitions of Latin America do not include Martinique

White people in Martinique represent 5% of the population, as Martinique is an overseas French department, most whites are French.[52]

Puerto Rico

File:AngelRiveroMendez.gif
* Ángel Rivero was a soldier.[53]
* Ricky Martin is a pop singer.[54]

White Puerto Ricans of European, mostly Spanish descent, are said to comprise the majority. (See: Spanish immigration to Puerto Rico). In the year 1899, one year after the U.S invaded and took control of the island, 61.8% of people identified as White. For the first time in fifty years, the 2000 United States Census asked people to define their race. One hundred years later, the total has risen to 80.5% (3,064,862), less than one percent more than reported in 1950.[55]

From the beginning of the twentieth century American observers remarked on the "surprising preponderance of the white race" on the island. One travel writer called Puerto Rico "the whitest of the Antilles". In a widely distributed piece, a geologist, wrote that the island was "notable among the West Indian group for the reason that its preponderant population is of the white race." In a more academic book he reiterated that "Porto Rico, at least, has not become Africanized.[56]

During the 19th century, hundreds of Corsican, French, Middle Eastern, and Portuguese families, along with large numbers of immigrants from Spain (mainly from Catalonia, Asturias, Galicia, the Balearic Islands, Andalusia, and the Canary Islands) and numerous Spanish loyalists from Spain's former colonies in South America, arrived in Puerto Rico. Other settlers have included Irish, Scots, Germans, Italians, and thousands others who were granted land from Spain during the Real Cedula de Gracias de 1815 (Royal Decree of Graces of 1815), which allowed European Catholics to settle in the island with a certain amount of free land. After the United States took possession of Puerto Rico after the Spanish-American War, an influx of Jews and White Americans began settling in Puerto Rico, continuing to the present day. Spanish refugees arrived in Puerto Rico during Francisco Franco’s rule in Spain.

Saint Barthélemy

Note: Many definitions of Latin America do not include Saint Barthélemy

Most of the population are French-speaking descendants of the first settlers from Normandy and Brittany.[57]

South America

Argentina

Manu Ginóbili, Argentine basketball star.

White Argentines make up 88.1% of Argentina's population, or around 36 million people.[58] White people can be found in all areas of the country, but especially in the central (Pampas) region and the southern (Patagonia) region.

White Argentines are mainly descendants of immigrants who came from Europe in the mid 19th and early 20th centuries.[2][59] The main contributors were Italy, Spain, Poland, Russia, and France.[60] Other significant contributors were Jews, Arabs, Germans, Portuguese, Croatians, Montenegrins, Czechs, English, Irish, Welsh, Dutch, Scandinavians (mainly from Sweden), Bulgarians, and Greeks. Smaller waves of settlers from Australia, South Africa and the United States are recorded in Argentine immigration records. By the 1910s, after immigration rates peaked, over 30 percent of the country's population was from outside Argentina, and over half of Buenos Aires' population was foreign-born.[61][62] By then, 80 % of the Argentine population were either European immigrants, their children or grandchildren.[63]

It is estimated that Argentina received a total amount of 6.6 million European and Middle-Eastern immigrants during the period 1857-1940.[64]

Bolivia

Álvaro García Linera, a Bolivian politician and current Vice President with Spaniard descent
EJorge Quiroga, 76th President of Bolivia.

White Bolivians make up 15% of the nation's population, or up to 1.4 million.[27] The white population consists mostly of criollos, which consist of families of relatively unmixed Spanish ancestry from the Spanish colonists and also Spanish refugees fleeing the 1936–1939 Spanish Civil War. These have formed much of the aristocracy since independence. Other smaller groups within the white population are Germans, who founded the national airline Lloyd Aereo Boliviano, as well as Italians, Americans, Basques, Lebanese, Croats, Russians, Polish, and other minorities, many of whose members descend from families that have lived in Bolivia for several generations.

Brazil

According to 2009 estimates, White Brazilians make up 49.7% of Brazil's population, or 95.3 million people.[1] Whites are found in the entire territory of Brazil, although the main concentrations are in the South and Southeastern parts of the country.

By 1822, an estimated 500,000–700,000 Europeans had left for Brazil, most of them male colonial settlers from Portugal.[67][68] Rich immigrants, who established the first sugarcane plantations in Pernambuco and Bahia, and, on the other hand, banished New Christians and Gypsies fleeing from religious persecution were among the early settlers. In the 18th century, an estimated 600,000 Portuguese arrived, including wealthier immigrants, as well as poor peasants attracted by the Brazil Gold Rush that was going on in Minas Gerais.[69]

After independence Brazil started to attract larger numbers of European immigrants. It happened particularly after 1850, as a result of the end of the Atlantic slave trade and the expansion of coffee plantations in the region of São Paulo.[70][71] The immigration boom occurred between the mid–19th and mid–20th centuries, when nearly five million Europeans immigrated to Brazil, most of them Italians, Portuguese, Germans, Spaniards, Poles, Lithuanians, Ukrainians, and Ashkenazi Jews. From 1877 to 1903, 1,927,992 immigrants entered Brazil, which was an annual average of 71,000. The peak occurred in 1891, when 215,239 Europeans arrived.[72] The period was characterized by an intense immigration of Italians (58.49%) and a decrease on the participation of the Portuguese (20%).[73]

After World War I, the Portuguese were once again the main group of immigrants, and Italians dropped to the third place. Spanish immigrants rose to second place, as a result of the poverty that affected millions of rural Spanish workers.[74] Germans came in fourth, mainly during the Weimar Republic, due to the poverty and unemployment brought by World War I.[75] From 1914 to 1918, the entry of immigrants of "other nationalities" increased. This category was composed of immigrants from Poland, Russia and Romania, who immigrated probably for political reasons, as well Jewish immigrants, who arrived in the 1920s. The other important group was composed of Syrian and Lebanese people.[73] After World War II, the European immigration reduced greatly, although from 1931 to 1963 1.1 million immigrants entered Brazil, mostly Portuguese.[72] And in mid-1970s, Portuguese refugees immigrated to Brazil after leaving their former African colonies because of their independence and others from Macau because of strict dictatorial rule[76][77].

Chile

Girls belonging to the selection Polo of Chile[78]
File:Manuel Pellegrini.JPG
Manuel Pellegrini, former Chilean footballer and current coach of Real Madrid[79]

In 2009, Chile had an estimated population of 16,970,000, of which approximately 8.8 million or 52,7% are white european, with mestizos estimated at 44%.[3] Other studies, found a white majority that would exceed 64% to 90% of the Chilean population.[80][81][82] Chile's various waves of immigrants consisted Spanish, Italians, Irish, French, Greeks, Germans, English, Scots, Croats, and Palestinian arrivals.

The largest ethnic group in Chile arrived from Spain and the Basque regions in the south of France. Estimates of the number of descendants from Basques in Chile range from 10% (1,600,000) to as high as 27% (4,500,000).[83][84][85][86][87][88][89][90]

In 1848 an important and substantial German immigration took place, laying the foundation for the German-Chilean community. Sponsored by the Chilean government for the colonization of the southern region, the Germans (including German-speaking Swiss, Silesians, Alsatians and Austrians), strongly influenced the cultural and racial composition of the southern provinces of Chile. The German Embassy in Chile estimated 500.000 to 600.000 Chileans are of German origin.[91]

It is estimated that near the 5% of the Chilean population is of Asian origin immigrants descendant, chiefly of the Middle East (i.e. Palestinians, Syrians, Lebanese and Middle East Armenians), are around 800,000.[92][93]

Note that Israelis, both Jewish and non-Jewish citizens of the nation of Israel may be included. Chile is home to a large population of immigrants, mostly Christian, from the Levant.[94] Roughly 500,000 Palestinian descendants are believed to reside in Chile.[95][96][97][98][99]

Other historically significant immigrant groups include: Croatia whose number of descendants today is estimated to be 380,000 persons, the equivalent of 2.4% of the population.[100][101] Other authors claim, on the other hand, that close to 4.6% of the Chilean population must have some Croatian ancestry.[102] Over 700,000 Chileans may have British (English, Scottish and Welsh) origin. 4.5% of Chile's population.[103] Chileans of Greek descent are estimated 90,000 to 120,000.[104] Most of them live either in the Santiago area or in the Antofagasta area, and Chile is one of the 5 countries with the most descendants of Greeks in the world.[105] The descendants of Swiss add 90,000[106] and it is estimated that about 5% of the Chilean population has some French ancestry.[107] 600,000 to 800,000 are descendants of Italians. Other groups of European descendants have followed, but are found in smaller numbers. They did transform the country culturally, economically and politically.

Colombia

León de Greiff, a Colombian poet with Swedish and German ancestry.
José Eusebio Otalora-16th Colombian president, Spaniard decent.
Colombian writer, politician and soldier. Son of an English Jewish father who converted to Christianity and a Spaniard mother.

The white Colombian population is approximately 25% of the total population.[108] Mestizo Colombians make up another 50% of the population.[21] White Colombians are mostly descendants of Spaniards, but others are also of Italians, Germans, British, French, Belgians, Irish, Portuguese, and from the Middle-East: Lebanese, Arab diaspora in Colombia

The Colombian Paisa Region received a strong immigration wave from Spain (Basques, and others from Extremadura and Andalusia) during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. In a sample test, examining polymorphism taken from individuals with confirmed Antioquian ancestry, the data indicates that 94% of the Y chromosomes are European, 5% are African, and 1% are Amerind. In stark contrast with the Y chromosomes, 90% of the mtDNA gene pool of Antioquia is Amerind, with the frequency of the four Amerind founder lineages being closest to Native Americans living in the area. The results indicate a pattern of mating between mostly immigrant men and local native women in early Antioquia.[109] However, classical marker data suggest that that the genetic background of Antioquia is largely 70% European, with considerably smaller Native American and African contributions of 15% each. If this is correct, then mtDNA lineages are expected to be no more than 30% Native American.[110] The autosomal data indicate that the ancestry of the population(Antioquia) is 79% European, 15% Amerind, and 6% African. In the table, X-linked markers also show a predominant European ancestry (69%), with smaller Amerind (25%) and African (6%) contributions.

Admixture proportions in Antioquia

Genetic systemNEuropeanAfricanAmerind
Y chromosome8094 ± 65 ± 51 ± 3
mtDNA1132 ± 18 ± 390 ± 3
Autosomes8079 ± 66 ± 216 ± 6
X chromosome9669 ± 106 ± 925 ± 6

N indicates the number of chromosomes typed[111]

Ecuador

White Ecuadorians, mostly criollos, descendants of Spanish colonists and also Spanish refugees fleeing the 1936—1939 Spanish Civil War, account for 7%[original research?], or approximately 960,000,[112] of the Ecuadorian population. Most still hold large amounts of lands, mainly in the northern Sierra, and live in Quito or Guayaquil. There is also a large number of white people in Cuenca, a city in the southern Andes of Ecuador, due to the arrival of Frenchmen in the area, in order to measure the arc of the Earth. Cuenca, Loja, and the Galápagos attracted German immigration during the early 20th century, and the Galápagos also had a small Norwegian fishing community until they were asked to leave.

French Guiana

Note: Many definitions of Latin America do not include French Guiana

12% of the population, mostly French.[113]

Paraguay

Ethnically, culturally, and socially, Paraguay has one of the most homogeneous populations in South America. The exact percentage of the white Paraguayan population is not known because the Paraguayan census does not include racial or ethnic identification, save for the indigenous population,[114] which reached 1.7% of the country's total in the last census in 2002.[115] Other sources estimate the other groups. The mestizo population is estimated at 95% by the CIA World Factbook, and all other groups at 5%.[116] Thus, Whites and the remaining groups (Asians, Afro-Paraguayans, others, if any) combine for approximately 3.3% of the total population. The majority of whites are of Spanish descent with others being of Italian, German, or of other European descent.

Peru

File:Mulanovich.jpeg

White Peruvians represent 15% of the population, or 4.4 million people according to the CIA Factbook.[23] They are descendants primarily of Spanish colonists, and also of Spanish refugees fleeing the Spanish Civil War, after world war 2 many German refuges fled to Peru and settled in large cities, while many others descend from Italian, French (mainly Basques), Austrian or German, Portuguese, British, Russians, Croatians, Lebanese and Syrian immigrant families. The majority of the whites live in the largest cities, concentrated usually in the northern coastal cities of Trujillo, Chiclayo, Piura, and of course the capital Lima. The only southern city with a significant white population is Arequipa. To the north Cajamarca and San Martín Region are also places with a strong Spanish influence and ethnic presence.

Uruguay

White Uruguayans represent approximately 93% of the population and are of prevalently European descent,[25] mainly Spaniards (both colonial settlers, post-Independence immigrants, and refugees fleeing Spanish Civil War), followed closely by Italians, then British, Germans, French, Swiss, Russians, Portuguese, Poles, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Estonians, Latvians, Dutch, Belgians, Croatians, Lebanese, Armenians, Greeks, Scandinavians, and Irish.

Venezuela

Venezuela has no official race percentages; however, unofficial estimates put the white Venezuelan percentage at 21.6 or 5.7 million people. The majority of white Venezuelans are of Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, German, and other European descent. Nearly half a million European immigrants, mostly from Spain (as a sequel of the Spanish Civil War), and from Italy and Portugal, entered the country during and after World War II, attracted by a prosperous, rapidly developing country where educated and skilled immigrants were welcomed.

See also





Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c d "PNAD" (in Portuguese). 2006. http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/trabalhoerendimento/pnad2006/brasilpnad2006.pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-14. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j CIA - The World Factbook - Argentina
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" (PDF). http://convergencia.uaemex.mx/rev38/38pdf/LIZCANO.pdf. 
  4. ^ a b The World Factbook, CIA
  5. ^ a b "Mexico: Ethnic Groups". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-27384/Mexico. 
  6. ^ a b "Genetic epidemiology of single gene defects in Chile.". http://ukpmc.ac.uk/articlerender.cgi?artid=1352132. 
  7. ^ a b c "TABLA II.3 POBLACION POR COLOR DE LA PIEL Y GRUPOS DE EDADES, SEGUN ZONA DE RESIDENCIA Y SEXO" (in Spanish). CubaGob.cu. http://www.cubagob.cu/otras_info/censo/tablas_html/ii_3.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  8. ^ a b "Venezuela". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-32719/Venezuela. Retrieved 2007-08-25. ""...about one-fifth of Venezuelans are of European lineage"." 
  9. ^ a b c d "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" (PDF). p. 218. http://convergencia.uaemex.mx/rev38/38pdf/LIZCANO.pdf. 
  10. ^ a b Nacional de Estadística y Censo del Ecuador INEC.
  11. ^ The term "White Latin American" has been occasionally used for the commonalities of the different white groups in Latin America. For examples, see Repression: the recognition of human rights, page 15 excerpted from the book Cry of the People: The struggle for human rights in Latin America and the Catholic Church in conflict with US policy, by Penny Lernoux, Penguin Books, 1980, paper; or Globalization Dynamics in Latin America: South Cone and Iberian Investments, Mario Gómez Olivares, Department of Economy, ISEG/UTL, and Cezar Guedes, Departament of Economy, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro.
  12. ^ "L’emigració dels europeus cap a Amèrica". http://www.edualter.org/material/vld/amlat13.pdf. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  13. ^ "Presença portuguesa: de colonizadores a imigrantes". http://www.ibge.gov.br/brasil500/portugueses.html. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  14. ^ http://www.let.leidenuniv.nl/history/migration/chapter53.html
  15. ^ a b "South America: Postindependence overseas immigrants". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-41807/South-America. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  16. ^ a b Martínez, María Elena. "The Black Blood of New Spain: Limpieza de Sangre, Racial Violence, and Gendered Power in Early Colonial Mexico". History Cooperative. http://www.historycooperative.org/cgi-bin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url=http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/wm/61.3/martinez.html. Retrieved 2007-08-25. 
  17. ^ Frank W. Sweet (2000). Legal History of the Color Line: The Rise And Triumph of the One-drop Rule. Backintyme. pp. 215–235. ISBN 0-939479-23-0. 
  18. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ci.html
  19. ^ "Argentina: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html#People. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  20. ^ "Mexico: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mx.html#People. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  21. ^ a b "Colombia: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/co.html#People. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  22. ^ Genetica en Colombia.
  23. ^ a b "Peru: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pe.html#People. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  24. ^ "Puerto Rico: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pe.html#People. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  25. ^ a b "Uruguay: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/uy.html#People. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  26. ^ a b "D.R.: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/dr.html#People. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  27. ^ a b "Bolivia: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bl.html#People. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  28. ^ a b "Nicaragua: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/nu.html#People. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  29. ^ "Cost Rica". The World Factbook. CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cs.html#People. [dead link]
  30. ^ "El Salvador: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/es.html#People. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  31. ^ "Honduras; People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ho.html#People. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  32. ^ "Panama; People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pm.html#People. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  33. ^ http://www.learnnc.org/lp/multimedia/4861
  34. ^ http://convergencia.uaemex.mx/rev38/38pdf/LIZCANO.pdf
  35. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/379167/Mexico/27384/Ethnic-groups
  36. ^ "Asociaciones de Inmigrantes Extranjeros en la Ciudad de México. Una Mirada a Fines del Siglo XX". http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/redalyc/pdf/151/15103202.pdf. 
  37. ^ a b "Los Extranjeros en México, La inmigración y el gobierno ¿Tolerancia o intolerancia religiosa?". http://historiamexicana.colmex.mx/pdf/13/art_13_1938_16335.pdf. 
  38. ^ "Refugiados españoles en México". http://www.historyenespanol.com/espanol/tdih.jsp?day=15329380&month=15329369. 
  39. ^ http://www.pnas.org/content/suppl/2009/05/11/0903045106.DCSupplemental/0903045106SI.pdf#nameddest=ST1
  40. ^ "Cuba; Ethnic Makeup". The Financial Times World Desk Reference. http://dev.prenhall.com/divisions/hss/worldreference/CU/people.html. Retrieved 2007-12-08. 
  41. ^ "Etat des propriétés rurales appartenant à des Français dans l'île de Cuba". http://www.cubagenweb.org/french/index.htm#refugees.  (from Cuban Genealogy Center)
  42. ^ "In Cuba, Finding a Tiny Corner of Jewish Life - New York Times". http://travel.nytimes.com/2007/02/04/travel/04journeys.html?em&ex=1170824400&en=254a263b2686376e&ei=5087%0A. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
  43. ^ www.mariamontez.net
  44. ^ Maria Montez Biography
  45. ^ "Origen de la población dominicana". http://www.suncaribbean.net/rd_laisla_origen_poblacion.htm. 
  46. ^ "Revista Electrónica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales". Universidad de Barcelona. http://www.ub.es/geocrit/sn-94-65.htm. 
  47. ^ "Sitios patrimonio de la humanidad: San Pedro de Macorís, República Dominicana". http://www.lacult.org/sitiospatrimonio/showitem.php?id=158. 
  48. ^ Sagás, Ernesto. "A Case of Mistaken Identity: Antihaitianismo in Dominican Culture". http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/misctopic/dominican/antihaiti.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-08. 
  49. ^ Levy, Lauren. "The Dominican Republic's Haven for Jewish Refugees". Jerusalem Post. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/sosua.html. Retrieved 2007-12-08. 
  50. ^ "...no hicieron Las Américas". El País. http://portal.constanza.net/historia/historia/losquenohicieronlasamericas.php. Retrieved 2007-12-08. 
  51. ^ "Slavery and the Haitian Revolution". http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/chap8a.html. 
  52. ^ Martinique: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  53. ^ Angel Rivero Mendez in the Spanish-American war.
  54. ^ Boricua Pop: Ricky Martin
  55. ^ Puerto Rico's History on race
  56. ^ Representation of racial identity among Puerto Ricans and in the u.s. mainland
  57. ^ Fact Sheet on St. Barthélemy
  58. ^ Argentina
  59. ^ Enrique Oteiza y Susana Novick sostienen que «la Argentina desde el siglo XIX, al igual que Australia, Canadá o Estados Unidos, se convierte en un país de inmigración, entendiendo por esto una sociedad que ha sido conformada por un fenómeno inmigratorio masivo, a partir de una población local muy pequeña.» (Oteiza, Enrique; Novick, Susana. Inmigración y derechos humanos. Política y discursos en el tramo final del menemismo. [en línea]. Buenos Aires: Instituto de Investigaciones Gino Germani, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 2000 [Citado FECHA]. (IIGG Documentos de Trabajo, N° 14). Disponible en la World Wide Web:http://www.iigg.fsoc.uba.ar/docs/dt/dt14.pdf); El antropólogo brasileño Darcy Ribeiro incluye a la Argentina dentro de los «pueblos trasplantados» de América, junto con Uruguay, Canadá y Estados Unidos (Ribeiro, Darcy. Las Américas y la Civilización (1985). Buenos Aires:EUDEBA, pp. 449 ss.); El historiador argentino José Luis Romero define a la Argentina como un «país aluvial» (Romero, José Luis. «Indicación sobre la situación de las masas en Argentina (1951)», en La experiencia argentina y otros ensayos, Buenos Aires: Universidad de Belgrano, 1980, p. 64)
  60. ^ Argentina.gov: Cuadro de proyección Inmigratoria periodo 1895-1946
  61. ^ Dinámica migratoria: coyuntura y estructura en la Argentina de fines del XX
  62. ^ http://www.buenosaires.gov.ar/areas/hacienda/sis_estadistico/anu_estadistico/01/web01/c110.htm
  63. ^ Rock, David. Argentina: 1516 - 1982. University of California Press, 1987. p.166.
  64. ^ Yale immigration study
  65. ^ Girl from Ipanema fights for title
  66. ^ "World Cup 2006: Priveleged Kaka could be Brazil's best | Football | The Guardian ". http://www.guardian.co.uk/football/2006/jun/17/worldcup2006.sport7. Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
  67. ^ Brasil 500 anos colonial
  68. ^ The Phylogeography of Brazilian Y-Chromosome Lineages
  69. ^ Século XVIII
  70. ^ Fim da escravidão gera medidas de apoio a imigração no Brasil - 16/02/2005 - Resumos | História do Brasil
  71. ^ Café atrai imigrante europeu para o Brasil - 22/02/2005 - Resumos | História do Brasil
  72. ^ a b Entrada de estrangeiros no Brasil
  73. ^ a b O papel da migração internacional na evolução da população brasileira (1872 a 1972)
  74. ^ IBGE espanhóis
  75. ^ A assimilação dos imigrantes como questão nacional
  76. ^ Portuguese Immigration (History)
  77. ^ Flight from Angola, The Economist, August 16, 1975
  78. ^ (Spanish) Chile polo
  79. ^ (Spanish) El chileno Manuel Pellegrini aseguró en su presentación como nuevo entrenador del Real Madrid
  80. ^ Argentina, como Chile y Uruguay, su población está formada casi exclusivamente por una población blanca e blanca mestiza procedente del sur de Europa, más del 90% E. García Zarza, 1992, 19.
  81. ^ Genetic epidemiology of single gene defects in Chile.
  82. ^ The Chilean population is rather homogeneous with 95.4 % of its population having European ancestors.
  83. ^ Diariovasco.
  84. ^ entrevista al Presidente de la Cámara vasca.
  85. ^ vascos Ainara Madariaga:Autora del estudio "Imaginarios vascos desde Chile La construcción de imaginarios vascos en Chile durante el siglo XX".
  86. ^ Basques au Chili.
  87. ^ Contacto Interlingüístico e intercultural en el mundo hispano.instituto valenciano de lenguas y culturas. Universitat de València Cita: " Un 20% de la población chilena tiene su origen en el País Vasco".
  88. ^ (Spanish) La población chilena con ascendencia vasca bordea entre el 15% y el 20% del total, por lo que es uno de los países con mayor presencia de emigrantes venidos de Euskadi.
  89. ^ El 27% de los chilenos son descendientes de emigrantes vascos. DE LOS VASCOS, OÑATI Y LOS ELORZA Waldo Ayarza Elorza.
  90. ^ (Spanish) Presencia vasca en Chile.
  91. ^ German Embassy in Chile.
  92. ^ (Spanish) Arabes de Chile.
  93. ^ (Spanish) En Chile viven unas 700.000 personas de origen árabe y de ellas 500.000 son descendientes de emigrantes palestinos que llegaron a comienzos del siglo pasado y que constituyen la comunidad de ese origen más grande fuera del mundo árabe.
  94. ^ Arab.
  95. ^ Chile: Palestinian refugees arrive to warm welcome.
  96. ^ (Spanish) 500,000 descendientes de primera y segunda generación de palestinos en Chile.
  97. ^ (Spanish) Santiago de Chile es un modelo de convivencia palestino-judía.
  98. ^ Exiling Palestinians to Chile.
  99. ^ (Spanish) Chile tiene la comunidad palestina más grande fuera del mundo árabe, unos 500.000 descendientes.
  100. ^ (Spanish) Diaspora Croata..
  101. ^ Splitski osnovnoškolci rođeni u Čileu.
  102. ^ hrvatski.
  103. ^ "Historia de Chile, Británicos y Anglosajones en Chile durante el siglo XIX". http://www.biografiadechile.cl/detalle.php?IdContenido=1673&IdCategoria=91&IdArea=488&TituloPagina=Historia%20de%20Chile. Retrieved 2009-04-26. 
  104. ^ (Spanish) Embajada de Grecia en Chile.
  105. ^ (Spanish) Griegos de Chile
  106. ^ 90,000 descendants Swiss in Chile.
  107. ^ (Spanish) 5% de los chilenos tiene origen frances
  108. ^Library of Congress Country Studies. Race and Ethnicity Retrieved November 10, 2007.
  109. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11032790
  110. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1464326/
  111. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1464326/table/T5/
  112. ^ "Ecuador: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ec.html#People. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  113. ^ French Guiana: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  114. ^ Paraguayan Census form
  115. ^ II CENSO NACIONAL INDÍGENA DE POBLACIÓN Y VIVIENDAS 2002. Pueblos Indígenas del Paraguay. Resultados Finales
  116. ^ "Paraguay: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pa.html#People. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  117. ^ Catching a wave with Sofia
  118. ^ http://www.elcomercio.com/noticiaEC.asp?id_noticia=300163&id_seccion=329 Stefanía Fernández is of Galician origin

 

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