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World War II casualties

                   
  American corpses sprawled on the beach of Tarawa. The Marines secured the island after 76 hours of intense fighting with around 6,000 dead in total from both sides together. The Pacific War claimed the lives of more than 100,000 US military personnel.

World War II was the deadliest military conflict in history. Over 60 million people were killed, which was over 2.5% of the world population. The tables below give a detailed country-by-country count of human losses.

Contents

Total dead

  Killing of Jews at Ivangorod, Ukraine, 1942. A woman protects a child with her body as Einsatzgruppen soldiers aim their rifles.
  Dead Soviet soldiers, January 1942. Officially, roughly 8.7 million Soviet soldiers died in the course of the war.

World War II fatality statistics vary, with estimates of total dead ranging from 50 million to over 70 million.[1] The sources cited in this article document an estimated death toll in World War II of 62 to 78 million, making it the deadliest war in world history in absolute terms of total dead but not in terms of deaths relative to the world population.

When scholarly sources differ on the number of deaths in a country, a range of war losses is given, in order to inform readers that the death toll is disputed. Civilians killed totaled from 40 to 52 million, including 13 to 20 million from war-related disease and famine. Total military dead: from 22 to 25 million, including deaths in captivity of about 5 million prisoners of war.

Recent historical scholarship

Recent historical scholarship has shed new insight into the topic of Second World War casualties. Research in Russia since the collapse of the Soviet Union has caused a revision of estimates of Soviet war dead.[2] Estimated USSR losses within postwar borders now stand at 26.6 million.[3] In August 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) researchers estimated Poland's dead at between 5.6 and 5.8 million.[4]

The German Army historian Dr. Rüdiger Overmans published a study in 2000 that estimated German military dead and missing at 5.3 million.[5] War dead totals in this article for the British Commonwealth are based on the research of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.[6] Casualties listed here include about 4 to 12 million war-related famine deaths in China, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippines, India that are often omitted from other compilations of World War II casualties.[7][8]

Classification of casualties

  Katyn 1943 exhumation. Photo by Polish Red Cross delegation.

Some nations in World War II suffered disproportionally more casualties than others. This is especially true regarding civilian casualties. The following chart gives data on the number of dead for each country, along with population information to show the relative impact of losses. Military figures include battle deaths (KIA) and personnel missing in action (MIA), as well as fatalities due to accidents, disease and deaths of prisoners of war in captivity. Civilian casualties include deaths caused by strategic bombing, Holocaust victims, Japanese war crimes, population transfers in the Soviet Union, other War Crimes and deaths due to war related famine and disease. Compiling or estimating the numbers of deaths caused during wars and other violent conflicts is a controversial subject. Historians often put forward many different estimates of the numbers killed during World War II.[9] The distinction between military and civilian casualties caused directly by warfare and collateral damage is not always clear cut. For nations that suffered huge losses such as the Soviet Union, China, Poland, Germany and Yugoslavia, our sources can give us only the total estimated population loss caused by the war and a rough estimate of the breakdown of deaths caused by military activity, crimes against humanity and war related famine. The footnotes give a detailed breakdown of the casualties and their sources, including data on the number of wounded where reliable sources are available.

Human losses by country

Total deaths


Human losses of World War II by country
(When the number of deaths in a country are disputed, a range of war losses is given)
(The sources of the figures are provided in the footnotes)
Country Total population
1/1/1939
Military
deaths
Civilian deaths due to
military activity and crimes against humanity
Total
deaths
Deaths as % of
1939 population
 AlbaniaA 1,073,000 30,000 30,000 &100000000000000028100002.81
 AustraliaB 6,998,000 39,800 700 40,500 &100000000000000005700000.57
 Austria (German Controlled)C 6,650,000 Included with German Army 120,000 120,000 &10000000000000001800000 (see table below)
 BelgiumD 8,387,000 12,100 75,900 88,000 &100000000000000010500001.05
 BrazilE 40,289,000 1,000 1,000 2,000 &100000000000000000200000.02
 BulgariaF 6,458,000 22,000 3,000 25,000 &100000000000000003800000.38
 Burma(British)G 16,119,000 22,000 250,000 272,000 &100000000000000016900001.69
 CanadaH 11,267,000 45,400 45,400 &100000000000000004000000.40
 China I 517,568,000 3,000,000
to 4,000,000
7,000,000
to 16,000,000
10,000,000
to 20,000,000
&10000000000000003859999 (1.93 to 3.86)
 CubaJ 4,235,000 100 100 &100000000000000000000000.00
 CzechoslovakiaK 15,300,000 25,000 300,000 325,000 &100000000000000021200002.12
 DenmarkL 3,795,000 2,100 1,100 3,200 &100000000000000000800000.08
 Dutch East IndiesM 69,435,000 3,000,000
to 4,000,000
3,000,000
to 4,000,000
&10000000000000005669999 (4.3 to 5.76)
 Estonia (within 1939 borders)N 1,122,000 Included with the Soviet, German, and Finnish Armies 50,000 50,000 &100000000000000044400004.44
 EthiopiaO 17,700,000 5,000 95,000 100,000 &100000000000000006000000.6
 FinlandP 3,700,000 95,000 2,000 97,000 &100000000000000026200002.62
France FranceQ 41,700,000 217,600 350,000 567,600 &100000000000000013500001.35
 French IndochinaR 24,600,000 1,000,000
to 1,500,000
1,000,000
to 1,500,000
&10000000000000006099999 (4.07 to 6.1)
 GermanyS 69,850,000 5,530,000 1,100,000
to 3,150,000
6,630,000
to 8,680,000
&10000000000000012400000 (see table below)
Greece GreeceT 7,222,000 20,000
to 35,100
300,000
to 770,000
320,000
to 805,100
&10000000000000011150000 (4.44 to 11.15)
Hungary HungaryU 9,129,000 300,000 280,000 580,000 &100000000000000063499996.35
 IcelandV 119,000 200 200 &100000000000000001700000.17
 India (British)W 378,000,000 87,000 1,500,000
to 2,500,000
1,587,000
to 2,587,000
&10000000000000000680000 (0.42 to 0.68)
IranX 14,340,000 200 200 &100000000000000000000000.00
Iraq Iraq'Y 3,698,000 500 500 &100000000000000000100000.01
 IrelandZ 2,960,000 200 200 &100000000000000000000000.00
 ItalyAA 44,394,000 301,400 155,600 457,000 &100000000000000010300001.03
 JapanAB 71,380,000 2,120,000 500,000
to 1,000,000
2,620,000 to 3,120,000 &10000000000000004370000 (3.67 to 4.37)
 Korea (Japanese Colony)AC 23,400,000 378,000
to 483,000
378,000
to 483,000
&10000000000000002060000 (1.6 to 2.06)
 Latvia (within 1939 borders)AD 1,951,000 Included with the Soviet and German Armies 230,000 230,000 &1000000000000001177999911.78
 Lithuania (within 1939 borders)AE 2,442,000 Included with the Soviet and German Armies 350,000 350,000 &1000000000000001433000014.33
 LuxembourgAF 295,000 2,000 2,000 &100000000000000006800000.68
 Malaya(British)AG 4,391,000 100,000 100,000 &100000000000000022799992.28
 Malta(British)AH 269,000 1,500 1,500 &100000000000000005600000.56
 MexicoAI 19,320,000 100 100 &100000000000000000000000.00
 MongoliaAJ 819,000 300 300 &100000000000000000400000.04
Australia Nauru(Australian)AK 3,400 500 500 &1000000000000001469999914.7
 Nepal BG 6,000,000 Included with British Indian Army
 NetherlandsAL 8,729,000 17,000 284,000 301,000 &100000000000000034500003.45
 Newfoundland(British)AM 300,000 included with the U.K. 100 100 &100000000000000000300000.03
 New ZealandAN 1,629,000 11,900 11,900 &100000000000000007300000.73
 NorwayAO 2,945,000 3,000 6,500 9,500 &100000000000000003200000.32
Australia Papua and New Guinea(Australian)AP 1,292,000 15,000 15,000 &100000000000000011699991.17
 Philippines (U.S. Territory)AQ 16,000,000 57,000 500,000
to 1,000,000
557,000
to 1,057,000
&10000000000000006599999 (3.48 to 6.6)
Poland Poland (within 1939 borders)AR 34,849,000 240,000 5,380,000
to 5,580,000
5,620,000
to 5,820,000
&10000000000000016699999 (16.1 to 16.7)
 Portuguese TimorAS 500,000 40,000
to 70,000
40,000
to 70,000
&10000000000000014000000 (8.00 to 14.00)
Romania Romania (within 1939 borders)AT 19,934,000 300,000 500,000 800,000 &100000000000000040099994.01
Belgium Ruanda-Urundi(Belgian)AU 4,200,000 0 to 300,000 0 to 300,000 &10000000000000007099999 (0.00 to 7.1)
 Singapore(British)AV 728,000 50,000 50,000 &100000000000000068700006.87
South Africa South AfricaAW 10,160,000 11,900 11,900 &100000000000000001200000.12
Empire of Japan South Pacific Mandate(Japanese)AX 1,900,000 57,000 57,000 &100000000000000030000003.00
 Soviet Union (see table below) AY 168,524,000 8,800,000
to 10,700,000
12,700,000
to 14,600,000
23,400,000 &1000000000000001388000013.88
Spain SpainAZ 25,637,000 Included with the German Army
 SwedenBA 6,341,000 600 600 &100000000000000000100000.01
 SwitzerlandBB 4,210,000 100 100 &100000000000000000000000.00
 ThailandBC 15,023,000 5,600 2,000 7,600 &100000000000000000400000.04
Turkey TurkeyBD 17,370,000 200 200 &100000000000000000000000.00
 United KingdomBE 47,760,000 383,800 67,100 450,900 &100000000000000009400000.94
 United StatesBF 131,028,000 416,800 1,700 418,500 &100000000000000003200000.32
 YugoslaviaBG 15,400,000 300,000 to
446,000
1,400,00 to
581,000
1,700,000 to
1,027,000
(11.0 to 6.67)
Totals 1,995,537,400 22,426,600
to 25,487,500
37,585,300
to 55,883,000
62,171,600
to 79,184,700
&10000000000000004000000 (3.17 to 4.00)
  • Figures rounded to the nearest hundredth place.
  • Population in 1939 - Source: Population Statistics[10]
  • War losses are for the national boundaries of 1939.
  • Military casualties include deaths of regular military forces from combat as well as non combat causes. Partisan and resistance fighter deaths forces are included with military losses. The deaths of prisoners of war in captivity and personnel missing in action are also included with military deaths. The armed forces of the various nations are treated as single entities, for example the deaths of Austrians, Soviets, French and ethnic Germans in the Wehrmacht are included with German military losses. There is no reliable breakout of the war dead from Africa and Asia in the armed forces of France and the UK. France and the UK have never published an ethnic breakout of their losses.
  • Total Soviet losses in the postwar 1946–91 boundaries[11] were 26.6 million. (13.5% of the total population of 196.7 million)[12]
  • Total Polish losses in the postwar 1946 boundaries[13] were about 3,600,000 (15.8% of the total population of 23.3 million)[14]
  • Total Romanian losses in the postwar 1946 boundaries.[15] were 500,000 (2.5% of the total population of 15.9 million)[16]
  • Total losses of Czechoslovakia in the post war 1946-1991 borders were about 250,000 (1.9% of the total population of 14.6 million.) [17]

Third Reich

Human Losses of The Third Reich in World War II (Included in above figures of total war dead)
Country Population
1939
Military
deaths
Civilian
deaths
Total
deaths
Deaths as
% of 1939
population
Austria &100000000066500000000006,650,000 &10000000000260000000000260,000 &10000000000120000000000120,000 &10000000000380000000000380,000 &100000000000000057000005.7
Germany (within 1937 borders, Danzig & Memel Territory) &1000000006985000000000069,850,000 &100000000044500000000004,450,000 &10000000002450000000000 1,050,000 to 2,450,000 &10000000006900000000000 5,500,000 to 6,900,000 &10000000000000010000000 7.9 to 10.0
Ethnic Germans and other nations &100000000067000000000006,700,000 &10000000000600000000000600,000 &10000000000700000000000 50,000 to 700,000 &10000000001300000000000 650,000 to 1,300,000 &10000000000000019399999 9.7 to 19.4
Soviet citizens in the German military &10000000000800000000000800,000 &10000000000220000000000220,000 &10000000000220000000000220,000 &1000000000000002750000027.5
Totals 84,000,000 5,530,000 1,220,000 to 3,270,000 6,750,000 to 8,800,000 &10000000000000010500000 8.0 to 10.5
Sources: See footnotes for Germany and Austria [8]

USSR

Human Losses of The USSR in World War II (Included in the above figures of total war dead)
Country Population
1939
Military
deaths
Civilian
deaths
Total
deaths
Deaths as
% of 1939
population
 Soviet Union
(within 1939 borders)[9]
168,524,000 8,800,000
to 10,700,000
14,600,000
to 12,700,000
23,400,000 13.9
 Estonia
(within 1939 borders)
1,122,000 50,000 50,000 4.5
 Latvia
(within 1939 borders)
1,951,000 230,000 230,000 11.6
 Lithuania
(within 1939 borders[18][19])
2,442,000 350,000 350,000 14.5
 Poland
Eastern Regions-
(figures included with Poland)
11,591,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 17.2
 Romania
Bessarabia & Bukovina
(figures included with Romania)
3,700,000 300,000 300,000 8.1
 Czechoslovakia[10]-Carpathian Ruthenia
(figures included with Czechoslovakia)
700,000 50,000 50,000 7.1
Less: Population Transfers -Net[20][21][22] (1,237,000)
Growth of Population 1939–mid-1941 7,923,000
Soviet deaths included in the German Military 220,000 220,000
Total population of USSR in June 1941, within postwar 1946-1991 borders[11] 196,716,000 8,800,000
to 10,700,000
17,800,000
to 15,900,000
26,600,000 13.5
  • Source for Population of Poland, Romania and Baltic States is League of Nations Yearbook 1942-1944[23]
  • The borders of the USSR in 1941 are de facto not de jure.
  • The occupation of the Baltic States by the USSR was considered illegal and never recognized by the United States.

The estimated breakdown for each Soviet Republic of total war dead is as follows

Soviet Republic Population 1940 Military Dead Civilian Dead Total Deaths as % 1940 Pop.
Azerbaijan 3,270,000 210,000 90,000 300,000 9.1%
Armenia 1,320,000 150,000 30,000 180,000 13.6%
Belarus 9,050,000 620,000 1,670,000 2,290,000 25.3%
Estonia 1,050,000 30,000 50,000 80,000 7.6%
Georgia 3,610,000 190,000 110,000 300,000 8.3%
Kazakhstan 6,150,000 310,000 350,000 660,000 10.7%
Kyrgyzstan 1,530,000 70,000 50,000 120,000 7.8%
Latvia 1,890,000 30,000 230,000 260,000 13.7%
Lithuania 2,930,000 25,000 350,000 375,000 12.7%
Moldova 2,470,000 50,000 120,000 170,000 6.9%
Russia 110,100,000 6,750,000 7,200,000 13,950,000 12.7%
Tajikistan (See Note Below) 1,530,000 50,000-90,000 70,000 120,000 7.8%
Turkmenistan 1,300,000 70,000 30,000 100,000 7.7%
Uzbekistan 6,550,000 330,000 220,000 550,000 8.4%
Ukraine 41,340,000 1,650,000 5,200,000 6,850,000 16.3%
Unidentified - 165,000 130,000 295,000
Total USSR 194,090,000 10,700,000 15,900,000 26,600,000 13.7%
  • The source of the figures on the table is Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 pp. 23–35 Erlikman notes that these figures are his estimates.
  • Figure of 15.9 million civilian war dead includes 3-4 million deaths due to war related famine and disease in the interior regions not occupied by Nazi Germany.
  • Figures for Belarus and the Ukraine include about 2 million civilian dead that are also listed in the total war dead of Poland.

Holocaust deaths

Included in the above figures of total war dead are the victims of the Holocaust

Jewish Deaths

The Holocaust is the term generally used to describe the genocide of approximately six million European Jews during World War II, Martin Gilbert estimates 5.7 million (78%) of the 7.3 million Jews in German occupied Europe were Holocaust victims.[25] Other estimates for Holocaust deaths range between 4.9 to 6.0 million Jews.[26]

Statistical breakdown of Jewish Dead:

  • Yad Vashem has identified the names of four million Jewish Holocaust dead.[30]

The following figures are from The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust.[31]

Country Pre War Jewish population Low Estimate High Estimate
Austria 191,000 50,000 65,000
Belgium 60,000 25,000 29,000
Czech Republic(Bohemia & Moravia) 92,000 77,000 78,300
Denmark 8,000 60 116
Estonia 4,600 1,500 2,000
France 260,000 75,000 77,000
Germany 566,000 135,000 142,000
Greece 73,000 59,000 67,000
Hungary(borders 1940)[32] 725,000 502,000 569,000
Italy 48,000 6,500 9,000
Latvia 95,000 70,000 72,000
Lithuania 155,000 130,000 143,000
Luxembourg 3,500 1,000 2,000
Netherlands 112,000 100,000 105,000
Norway 1,700 800 800
Poland 3,250,000 2,700,000 3,000,000
Romania(Borders 1940) 441,000 121,000 287,000
Slovakia 89,000 60,000 71,000
Soviet Union(Borders 1939) 2,825,000 700,000 1,100,000
Yugoslavia 68,000 56,000 65,000
Total 9,067,000 4,869,860 5,894,716

Non Jewish Dead

Some scholars maintain that the definition of the Holocaust should also include the other victims persecuted and killed by the Nazis.[33][34][35][36][37] Using this definition, the total number of Holocaust victims is between 11 million and 17 million people.[38]

  • Roma: Most estimates of Roma (Gypsies) victims range from 130,000 to 500,000[36][39][40] Ian Hancock, Director of the Program of Romani Studies and the Romani Archives and Documentation Center at the University of Texas at Austin, has argued in favour of a higher figure of between 500,000 and 1,500,000 Roma dead[41] Hancock writes that, proportionately, the death toll equaled "and almost certainly exceed[ed], that of Jewish victims."[42]
  • Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians: Sources in the English language estimate 4.5 to 11.7 million Soviet civilians were victims of Nazi ethnic cleansing and the war;[47][48][49] A report published by the Russian Academy of Science in 1995 put the civilian death toll due to the German occupation at 13.7 million[50][51] Contemporary Russian sources use the terms "genocide" and "premeditated extermination" when referring to civilian losses in the occupied USSR. Civilians killed in reprisals during the Soviet partisan war and wartime related famine account for a major part the huge toll.[52] Russian sources include Jewish Holocaust deaths with total civilian deaths and do not list them separately
  • Homosexuals: 10,000-15,000 Gay men perished in Nazi concentration camps.[53]
  • Other victims of Nazi persecution: Between 1,000 to 2,000 Roman Catholic clergy[54] about 1,000 Jehovah's Witnesses;[55] and an unknown number of Freemasons.[56] "The fate of black people from 1933 to 1945 in Nazi Germany and in German-occupied territories ranged from isolation to persecution, sterilization, medical experimentation, incarceration, brutality, and murder."[57] During the Nazi era Communists, Socialists, Social Democrats, and trade union leaders were victims of Nazi persecution.[58]
  • Serbs: The Croatian allies of Nazi Germany murdered between 320,000 and 340,000 ethnic Serb residents of Croatia and Bosnia during the war.[59]

Roma losses by country

Included in the figures of total war dead are the Roma victims of the Nazi persecution, some scholars include the Roma deaths with the Holocaust.

The following figures are from The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust.[60]

Country Pre War Roma population Low Estimate High Estimate
Austria 11,200 6,800 8,250
Belgium 600 350 500
Czech Republic(Bohemia & Moravia) 13,000 5,000 6,500
Estonia 1,000 500 1,000
France 40,000 15,150 15,150
Germany 20,000 15,000 15,000
Greece ? 50 50
Hungary 100,000 1,000 28,000
Italy 25,000 1,000 1,000
Latvia 5,000 1,500 2,500
Lithuania 1,000 500 1,000
Luxembourg 200 100 200
Netherlands 500 215 500
Poland 50,000 8,000 35,000
Romania 300,000 19,000 36,000
Slovakia 80,000 400 10,000
Soviet Union(Borders 1939) 200,000 30,000 35,000
Yugoslavia 100,000 26,000 90,000
Total 947,500 130,565 285,650
  • In a 2010 publication, Ian Hancock stated that he agrees with the view that the number of Romanis killed has been underestimated as a result of being grouped with others in Nazi records under headings such as "remainder to be liquidated", "hangers-on" and "partisans".[61]

Japanese war crimes

Included with total war dead are victims of Japanese war crimes.

  • R. J. Rummel estimates the civilian victims at 5,424,000. Detailed by country: China 3,695,000; Indochina 457,000; Korea 378,000; Indonesia 375,000; Malaya-Singapore 283,000; Philippines 119,000, Burma 60,000 and Pacific Islands 57,000. Rummel estimates POW deaths in Japanese custody at 539,000 Detailed by country: China 400,000; French Indochina 30,000; Philippines 27,300; Netherlands 25,000; France 14,000; UK 13,000; UK-Colonies 11,000; US 10,700; Australia 8,000.[8][62]
  • Werner Gruhl estimates the civilian victims at 20,365,000. Detailed by country: China 12,392,000; Indochina 1,500,000; Korea 500,000; Dutch East Indies 3,000,000; Malaya and Singapore 100,000; Philippines 500,000; Burma 170,000; Forced laborers in Southeast Asia 70,000, 30,000 interned non-Asian civilians; Timor 60,000; Thailand and Pacific Islands 60,000.[63] Gruhl estimates POW deaths in Japanese captivity at 331,584. Detailed by country: China 270,000; Netherlands 8,500; U.K. 12,433; Canada 273; Philippines 20,000; Australia 7,412; New Zealand 31; and the United States 12,935[63]
  • Out of “60,000" Indian Army POWs taken at the Fall of Singapore, 11,000 died in captivity[65]

Repression in the Soviet Union

The total war dead in the USSR includes victims of Soviet repression. The number of deaths in the Gulag labor camps increased as a result of wartime overcrowding and food shortages.[68] The Stalin regime deported the entire populations of ethnic minorities considered to be potentially disloyal.[69] Since 1990 Russian scholars have been given access to the Soviet-era archives and have published data on the numbers of persons executed and those who died in Gulag labor camps and prisons.[70] The Russian scholar Viktor Zemskov puts the death toll from 1941-1945 at about 1 million based on data from the Soviet archives.[71] The Soviet-era archive figures on the Gulag labor camps has been the subject of a vigorous academic debate outside Russia since their publication in 1991. J. Arch Getty and Stephen G. Wheatcroft maintain that Soviet-era figures more accurately detail the victims of the Gulag labor camp system in the Stalin era.[72][73] Robert Conquest and Steven Rosefielde have disputed the accuracy of the data from the Soviet archives, maintaining that the demographic data and testimonials by survivors of the Gulag labor camps indicate a higher death toll.[74][75] Rosefielde believes that the release of the Soviet Archive figures is disinformation generated by the modern KGB.[76] Rosefielde maintains that the data from the Soviet archives is incomplete; for example, he pointed out that the figures do not include the 22,000 victims of the Katyn massacre.[77] Rosefielde's demographic analysis puts the number of excess deaths due to Soviet repression at 2,183,000 in 1939-1940 and 5,458,000 from 1941-1945.[78] Michael Haynes and Rumy Husun accept the figures from the Soviet archives as being an accurate tally of Stalin's victims, they maintain that the demographic data depicts an underdeveloped Soviet economy and the losses in World War Two rather than indicating a higher death toll in the Gulag labor camps.[79]

In August 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) researchers estimated 150,000 Polish citizens were killed due to Soviet repression. Since the collapse of the USSR, Polish scholars have been able to do research in the Soviet archives on Polish losses during the Soviet occupation.[80] Andrzej Paczkowski puts the number of Polish deaths at 90,000–100,000 of the 1.0 million persons deported and 30,000 executed by the Soviets.[81] In 2005 Tadeusz Piotrowski estimated the death toll in Soviet hands at 350,000.[82]

The Estonian State Commission on Examination of Policies of Repression put civilian deaths due to the Soviet occupation in 1940–1941 at 33,900 including (7,800 deaths) of arrested people, (6,000) deportee deaths, (5,000) evacuee deaths, (1,100) people gone missing and (14,000) conscripted for forced labor. After the reoccupation by the U.S.S.R., 5,000 Estonians died in Soviet prisons during 1944–45.[83]

The following is a summary of the data from the Soviet archives:
Reported deaths for the years 1939-1945: 1,187,783, including Judicial Executions: 46,350; Deaths in Gulag labor camps: 718,804 Deaths in labor colonies and prisons: 422,629.[84]

Deported to Special Settlements:(figures are for deportations to Special Settlements only, not including those executed, sent to Gulag labor camps or conscripted into the Soviet Army. Nor do the figures include additional deportations after the war).
Deported from annexed territories 1940-41- 380,000 to 390,000 persons including Poland 309-312,000; Lithuania 17,500; Latvia 17,000; Estonia 6,000; Moldova 22,842.[85] In August 1941, 243,106 Poles living in the Special Settlements were amnestied and released by the Soviets.[86]
Deported during the War 1941-1945- About 2.3 million persons of Soviet ethnic minorities including: Soviet Germans 1,209,000; Finns 9,000; Karachays 69,000; Kalmyks 92,000;Chechens and Ingush 479,000; Balkars 37,000; Crimean Tatars 191,014; Meskhetian Turks 91,000; Greeks, Bulgarians and Armenians from Crimea 42,000; Ukranian OUN members 100,000; Poles 30,000.[87]
A total of 2,230,500 [88] persons were living in the settlements in October 1945 and 309,100 deaths were reported in Special Settlements for the years 1941-1948[89]

Russian sources list Axis prisoner of war deaths of 580,589 in Soviet captivity based on data in the Soviet archives(Germany 381,067; Hungary 54,755; Romania 54,612; Italy 27,683; Finland 403 and Japan 62,069)[90] However some western scholars estimate the total at between 1.7 and 2.3 million.[91]

Military casualties by branch of service

Casualties of World War II by Branch of Service
Country Branch of service Number served Killed/missing Wounded Prisoners of war Captured Percent killed
Germany Army[92] 13,600,000 4,202,000 30.9
Air Force(including infantry units)[92] 2,500,000 433,000 17.3
Navy[92] 1,200,000 138,000 11.5
Waffen SS[92] 900,000 314,000 34.9
Volkssturm and other Paramilitary Forces[92] 231,000
Soviet citizens in German military service[93][94] 215,000
Unidentified by branch of service (see note below) 6,035,000[95] 11,100,000[96]
Total Germany 18,200,000 5,533,000 6,035,000 11,100,000 30.4
|
Japan[97][98] Army1937-1945 6,300,000 1,326,076 85,600 30,000 24.22
Navy1941-1945 2,100,000 414,879 8,900 10,000 19.76
POW dead after Surrender.[99][100][101] 381,000
Total Japan 2,121,955
|
Italy All branches of service 3,430,000[102] 291,376[103] 320,000 1,300,000[104] 8.49
|
Soviet Union 1939–40 All branches of service[105] 136,945 205,924
Soviet Union 1941–45 All branches of service[106] 34,476,700 8,668,400 14,685,593 4,050,000 25.1
Conscripted Reservists not yet in active service (see note below)[107] 500,000
Civilians in POW Camps (see note below)[108] 1,000,000 1,750,000
Paramilitary and Soviet partisan units[109] 400,000
Total USSR 10,725,345 14,915,517 5,750,000
|
British Commonwealth[6][110][111] All branches of service 11,115,000 580,497 475,000 318,000 5.2
|
United States[112] Army[113] 11,260,000 318,274 565,861 2.8
Air Force (included with Army)[114] (3,400,000) (88,119) (17,360) 2.5
Navy 4,183,446 62,614 37,778 1.5
Marine Corps 669,100 24,511 68,207 3.66
United States Coast Guard[115] 241,093 1,917 0.78
United States Merchant Marine[116] 243,000 9,521 12,000 3.9
Unidentified by branch of service[117] c.130,000
Total US 16,596,639 416,837 683,846 C.130,000 2.5

Germany

  1. The number killed in action was 2,303,320; died of wounds, disease or accidents 500,165; 11,000 sentenced to death by court martial; 2,007,571 missing in action or unaccounted for after the war; 25,000 suicides; 12,000 unknown;[118] 459,475 confirmed POW deaths, of whom 77,000 were in the custody of the U.S., UK and France; and 363,000 in Soviet custody. POW deaths includes 266,000 in the post war period after June 1945, primarily in Soviet captivity;;.[119]
  2. Dr. Rüdiger Overmans believes that "It seems entirely plausible, while not provable,that one half of the 1.5 million missing on the eastern front were killed in action, the other half (700,000) however in fact died in Soviet custody";[120]
  3. Soviet sources list the deaths of 474,967 of the 2,652,672 German Armed Forces POW taken in the War.[121]

USSR

  1. Estimated total Soviet military war dead from 1941–45 on the Eastern Front (World War II) including missing in action, POWs and Soviet partisans range from 8.6 to 10.6 million.[109] There were an additional 127,000 war dead in 1939–40 during the Winter War with Finland[122]
  2. The official figures for military war dead and missing from 1941–45 are 8,668,400 comprising 6,329,600 combat related deaths, 555,500 non combat deaths.[123] 500,000 missing in action and 1,103,300 POW dead and another 180,000 liberated POWs who most likely emigrated to other countries.[124][125][126] Figures include Navy losses of 154,771.[127] Non combat deaths include 157,000 sentenced to death by court martial.[128]
  3. Casualties in 1939–40 include the following dead and missing, Battle of Khalkhin Gol in 1939 (8,931); Invasion of Poland of 1939 (1,139); Winter War with Finland (1939–40) (126,875).[105]
  4. The number of wounded includes 2,576,000 permanently disabled.[129]
  5. The official Russian figure for total POW held by the Germans is 4,059,000; the number of Soviet POW who survived the war was 2,016,000, including 180,000 who most likely emigrated to other countries, and an additional 939,700 POW and MIA who were redrafted as territory was liberated. This leaves 1,103,000 POW dead. However, western historians put the number of POW held by the Germans at 5.7 million and about 3 million as dead in captivity (in the official Russian figures 1.1 million are military POW and remaining balance of about 2 million are included with civilian war dead).[124][130]
  6. Conscripted reservists is an estimate of men called up, primarily in 1941, who were killed in battle or died as POWs before being listed on active strength. Soviet and Russian sources classify these losses as civilian deaths.[131]

British Commonwealth

  1. Number served: UK & Crown Colonies (5,896,000); India (2,582,000), Australia (993,000); Canada (1,100,000); New Zealand (295,000); South Africa (250,000).[132]
  2. Total war related deaths reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission: UK & Crown Colonies (383,786); Undivided India (87,032), Australia (40,464); Canada (45,383); New Zealand (11,929); South Africa (11,903);[6]
  3. Wounded: UK & Crown Colonies (284,049); India (64,354), Australia (39,803); Canada (53,174); New Zealand (19,314); South Africa (14,363)[110][133][134]
  4. Prisoner of war: UK & Crown Colonies (180,488); India (79,481); Australia (26,358); South Africa (14,750); Canada (9,334); New Zealand (8,415))[110][133][134]
  5. The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the 1.7m men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars.[135]

U.S.

  1. Battle deaths were 292,131, Army 234,874, Navy 36,950, Marine Corps 19,733, Coast Guard 574, and United States Army Air Forces (included in Army) 52,173. (185,924 deaths occurred in the European/Atlantic theater of operations and 106,207 deaths occurred in Asia/Pacific theater of operations.)[136][137]
  2. The United States Merchant Marine war dead of 9,521 are included with military losses. U.S. Merchant Mariners in “ocean-going service” during World War II have Veteran Status.[138]
  3. During World War II, 1.2 million African Americans served in the Armed Forces and 708 were killed in combat. 350,000 American women served in the military during World War II and 16 were killed in action[139]

Commonwealth military casualties

The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2009-2010[140] is the source of the military dead for the British Empire The war dead totals listed in the report are based on the research by the CWGC to identify and commemorate Commonwealth war dead. The statistics tabulated The Commonwealth War Graves Commission are representative of the number of names commemorated for all servicemen/women of the Armed Forces of the Commonwealth and former U.K. Dependencies, whose death was attributable to their war service. Some auxiliary and civilian organizations are also accorded war grave status if death occurred under certain specified conditions. For the purposes of C.W.G.C. the dates of inclusion for Commonwealth War Dead are 03/09/1939 to 31/12/1947.

Charts and graphs

Footnotes

  1. ^A Albania
    No reliable statistics on Albania's wartime losses exist, but the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration reported about 30,000 Albanian war dead. Albanian official statistics claim somewhat higher losses.[142]
    Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 200, these Jews were Yugoslav citizens resident in Albania. Jews of Albanian origin survived the Holocaust[143]
  2. ^B Australia
    The Australian War Memorial[144] reports 39,761 military deaths. This figure includes all personnel who died from war-related causes during 1939–47.
    The Australian government does not regard merchant mariners as military personnel and the 349 Australians killed in action while crewing merchant ships around the world,[145] are included in the total civilian deaths. Other civilian fatalities were due to air raids and attacks on passenger ships.
    The preliminary 1945 data for Australian losses was 23,365 killed, 6,030 missing, 39,803 wounded and 26,363 POWs.[134]
  3. ^C Austria
    Military war dead reported by Dr. Rüdiger Overmans of 260,749 are included with Germany.[118] The Austrian government provides the following information on human losses during the rule of the Nazis. For Austria the consequences of the Nazi regime and the Second World War were disastrous: During this period 2,700 Austrians had been executed and more than 16,000 citizens murdered in the concentration camps. Some 16,000 Austrians were killed in prison, while over 67,000 Austrian Jews were deported to death camps, only 2,000 of them lived to see the end of the war. In addition, 247,000 Austrians lost their lives serving in the army of the Third Reich or were reported missing, and 24,000 civilians were killed during bombing raids.[146] These figures include the genocide of Romani people of 6,500 persons[147] and Jewish Holocaust victims totaling 65,000.[143]
  4. ^D Belgium
    Belgian government sources reported that military war dead included 8,800 killed, 500 missing in action, 200 executed, 800 resistance movement fighters and 1,800 POWs. Civilian losses included deaths due to military operations of 32,200 and 16,900 non-Jewish victims of Nazi reprisals and repression.[148] Losses of about 10,000 in the German Armed Forces are not included in these figures, they are included with German military casualties.[149] The genocide of Roma people was 500 persons.[147] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 24,387.[143]
  5. ^E Brazil
    The Brazilian Expeditionary Force war dead were 510,[150] Navy losses in the Battle of the Atlantic were 492. Civilian losses due to attacks on merchant shipping were 470 merchant mariners and 502 passengers.[151]
  6. ^F Bulgaria
    Bulgarian military war dead were as follows, 2,000 military with Axis in Yugoslavia and Greece; 10,124 military dead as allies of the USSR and 10,000 Anti-Fascist Partisan deaths.[152] Regarding partisan and civilian casualties the Russian journalist Vadim Erlikman notes "According to the official data of the royal government 2,320 were killed and 199 executed. The communists claim that 20–35,000 persons died. In reality deaths were 10,000, including and unknown number of civilians."[152] 3,000 civilians were killed by Anglo-American air raids.,[153] including 1,374 in Bombing of Sofia in World War II.[154]
  7. ^G Burma
    Military dead of 22,000 were with the pro-Japanese Burma National Army.[155] Civilian deaths during the Japanese occupation of Burma totaled 250,000; 110,000 Burmese, plus 100,000 Indian and 40,000 Chinese civilians in Burma.[156] Werner Gruhl estimates Burma's dead at 170,000 civilians due to the Japanese occupation[63]
  8. ^H Canada
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists 45,383 war dead.[140] including 102 deaths from Newfoundland with the Canadian forces.[157] The Canadian War Museum puts military losses at 42,000 plus 1,600 Merchant Navy deaths[158] The Canadian Virtual War Memorial contains a registry of information about the graves and memorials of Canadians and Newfoundlanders who served valiantly and gave their lives for their country[159]
    The preliminary 1945 data for Canadian losses was killed 37,476, missing 1,843, wounded 53,174 and POW 9,045.[134]
  9. ^I China
    Sources for total Chinese war dead range from 10 to 20 million as detailed below.
    John W. Dower has noted "So great was the devastation and suffering in China that in the end it is necessary to speak of uncertain 'millions' of deaths. Certainly, it is reasonable to think in general terms of approximately 10 million Chinese war dead, a total surpassed only by the Soviet Union."[160]
    The official Chinese government statistics for China's civilian and military casualties in the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937–1945 are 20 million dead and 15 million wounded. The figures for total military casualties, killed and wounded are: Nationalist 3.2 million; Communist 580,000 and collaborator forces 1.18 million; captured: collaborator forces 950,000.[161]
    The official account of the war published in Taiwan reported the Nationalist Chinese Army lost 3,238,000 men (1.797,000 WIA; 1,320,000 KIA and 120,000 MIA.) and 5,787,352 civilians in casualties[162]
    An academic study published in the United States estimates total war deaths of 15–20 million from all causes: military casualties: 1.5 million killed in battle, 750,000 missing in action, 1.5 million deaths due to disease and 3 million wounded; civilian casualties: due to military activity, killed 1,073,496 and 237,319 wounded; 335,934 killed and 426,249 wounded in Japanese air attacks[163]
    R. J. Rummel's estimate of total war dead from 1937–45 is 19,605,000[164] The details are as follows:
    Military dead: 3,400,000 (including 400,000 POW) Nationalist/Communist and 432,000 collaborator forces.
    Civilian war deaths: 3,808,000 killed in fighting and 3,549,000 victims of Japanese war crimes (not including an additional 400,000 POWs);
    Other deaths: Repression by Chinese Nationalist's 5,907,000 (3,081,000 military conscripts who died due mistreatment and 2,826,000 civilian deaths caused by Nationalist government, including the 1938 Yellow River flood; political repression by Chinese Communists 250,000 and by Warlords 110,000. Additional deaths due to famine were 2,250,000.
    Werner Gruhl estimates China's war losses at 12,392,000 civilian dead due to the Japanese occupation and 3,162,00 military dead. He also estimates an additional 1,445,000 deaths due to internal Chinese conflicts[63]
  10. ^J Cuba
    Cuba lost 5 merchant ships and 79 dead merchant mariners.[151]
  11. ^K Czechoslovakia
    Population of the pre-war Czechoslovakia in 1939 was 15.3 million (10.8 million in the Czech lands; 3.8 million in Slovakia and 700,000 in Carpathian Ruthenia ).[165]
    Military war dead of 25,000 included Killed during 1938 occupation(171); Czechoslovak Forces with the western allies (3,220); Czechoslovak military units on Eastern front (4,570); Slovak Republic (WWII) Axis forces (7,000); Partisan (military) losses of (2,170) and killed in 1945 uprising(8,000). Civilian losses in include killed during 1938 occupation(262); non Jewish victims of Nazi reprisals (26,500) and killed in military operations (10,000).,[166][167] Civilian losses include the territories of prewar Czechoslovakia including Carpathian Ruthenia which was ceded to the USSR after the war. The genocide of Roma people was 7,500 persons.[168] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 277,000.[143]
  12. ^L Denmark
    During the Occupation of Denmark military war dead included 1,281Merchant Marine, 797 resistance fighters and 39 Army personnel. Civilian deaths included 628 victims of Nazi reprisals and 427 killed during military operations. Total deaths 3,172. There were an additional 3,900 Danish deaths in German military service that are included with German losses.[169]
    .Deaths of Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 77.[143]
  13. ^M Dutch East Indies
    John W. Dower cites a UN report that estimated 4 million famine and forced labor dead during the Japanese Occupation of Indonesia.[170]
    The United Nations reported in 1947 that "about 30,000 Europeans and 300,000 Indonesian internees and forced laborers died during the occupation." They reported, "The total number who were killed by the Japanese, or who died from, hunger, disease and lack of medical attention is estimated at 3,000,000 for Java alone, 1,000,000 for the Outer Islands. Altogether 35,000 of the 240,000 Europeans died; most of them were men of working age."[171]
    The Dutch Red Cross reported the deaths in Japanese custody of 14,800 European civilians out of 80,000 interned and 12,500 of the 34,000 POW captured.[172]
    Werner Gruhl estimates the civilian death toll due to the war and Japanese occupation at 3,000,000 Indonesians and 30,000 interned Europeans.[63]
  14. ^N Estonia
    Civilian deaths due to the Soviet and German occupation of Estonia from 1940 to 1945 were approximately 51,000 persons based on a study by Estonian State Commission on Examination of Policies of Repression
    A.Civilian deaths due to the Soviet occupation in 1940–1941 were 33,900 including (7,800 deaths)of arrested people, (6,000) deportee deaths, (5,000) evacuee deaths, (1,100) people gone missing and (14,000) conscripted for forced labor.[83]
    B.Losses during the 1941-1944 Occupation of Estonia by Nazi Germany were 12,040, including (7,800) executed by Nazis and (1,040) killed in prison camps. (200) people died in forced labor in Germany. (800) deaths in Soviet bombing raids against Estonian cities, (1,000) killed in Allied air raids on Germany and (1,200) perished at sea while attempting to flee the country in 1944–45.[83]
    Included in the above figures is the genocide of Roma people of (243) persons,[173] Jewish Holocaust victims totaling (1,000).[143]
    C.After the reoccupation by the U.S.S.R 5,000 Estonians died in Soviet prisons during 1944–45.[83]
    D.The figures do not include the military deaths of the illegally drafted conscripts by the Soviet (10,000) and German armed forces (11,000).[83]
    E.Figures do not include the executions, deportee deaths, and insurgent losses in 1944–1989 during the Soviet reoccupation of 11,000 persons.
    Total deaths from 1940–53 due the war and the Soviet occupation was approximately 82,000 persons (8% of the population).[83]
  15. ^O Ethiopia
    Total military and civilian dead in the East African Campaign were 100,000.[174] Military losses were 5,000.[175]
    These totals do not include losses in the Italian Second Italo-Abyssinian War and Italian occupation from 1935–41. The official Ethiopian government report lists 760,000 deaths due to the war and Italian occupation from 1935–41.[176] However, R. J. Rummel estimates 200,000 Ethiopians and Libyans killed by the Italians from the 1920s–41, his estimate is "based on Discovery TV Cable Channel Program 'Timewatch'" 1/17/92.[177]
  16. ^P Finland
    The Finnish National Archives website lists the names of the 95,000 Finnish military war dead.[178] Figures include killed and missing from the Winter War and Continuation War with the Soviet Union as well as action against German forces in 1944–45, Winter War (1939–40) losses were 22,830, military deaths from 1941–44 were 58,715 and 1,036[179] in 1944–45 in the Lapland War Soviet sources list the deaths of 403 of the 2,377 Finnish POW taken in the War.[180] During the Winter war of 1939–40 the Swedish Volunteer Corps served alongside the Finns in combat. 1,407 Finnish volunteers served in the Finnish Volunteer Battalion of the Waffen-SS and 256 were killed in action.[181]
    Civilian war dead were 2,000,[182] due in part to the Bombing of Helsinki in World War II
  17. ^Q France
    Military war dead include 150,000 regular forces (1939–40 Battle of France 92,000; 1940–45 on Western Front (World War II) 58,000; 20,000 French resistance fighters and 40,000 POWs in Germany.[183] There were an additional 5,000 military deaths in French Indochina.[184] The pro-German Vichy France forces lost 2,653 killed.[185] Vadim Erlikman a Russian journalist, estimates losses of Africans in the French Colonial Forces at about 22,000.[186] French deaths in German Army (30–40,000), mostly men conscripted in Alsace-Lorraine, are not included in these totals, they are included with Germany
    Civilian losses include 120,000 killed due to military action and 230,000 victims of the Nazi reprisals and genocide (including 83,000 Jews).[183] 752 civilians were killed during the US air attacks on French Tunisia in 1942–43.[187] R. J. Rummel estimates the deaths of 20,000 anti-Fascist Spanish refugees resident in France who were deported to Nazi camps, these deaths are included with French civilian casualties.[37] The genocide of Roma people was 15,000 persons.[168] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 83,000.[188]
  18. ^R French Indochina
    Sources for total IndoChinese civilian war dead range from 1 to 1.5 million as detailed below.
    John W. Dower estimated 1.0 million deaths due to Vietnamese Famine of 1945 during Japanese occupation[97]
    Werner Gruhl estimates the civilian death toll due to the war and Japanese occupation at 1,500,000.[63]
  19. ^S Germany
    German Population
    The 1939 Population is for Germany within 1937 borders and Danzig & Memel Territory which were annexed in 1939, not included with the German population are Austria and the 6,700,000[189] ethnic Germans of Europe[190] However, the 601,000 military deaths of ethnic Germans from Eastern and Western Europe and 261,000 Austrians are included with total German military losses.[191]
    Total German War Dead
    Sources for total German war deaths, within 1937 borders, range from 5.5 to 6.9 million.[192] In 1956 The German government estimated 5.5 million of deaths directly caused by the war.[193] A German demographic study estimated 6.9 million excess deaths caused by the war, for the population within the 1937 borders.[194] These losses included about 4.4 million military dead and missing; 1.0 million civilian deaths during the war and 1.5 civilians who died as a result of expulsions from Poland and the famine in Germany during 1945-46. There were additional deaths of the ethnic Germans in Eastern Europe. A recent study by Dr. Rüdiger Overmans found 538,000 military deaths of ethnic Germans who were conscripted by Germany in Eastern Europe.[5] The number of war related civilian deaths among the ethnic Germans from Eastern European countries is disputed. An analysis by the West German government in 1958 estimated civilian deaths among the ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe countries at 886,000.[195] However, a more recent study by the German government archives estimated c.200,000 civilian deaths directly caused by the war among the ethnic Germans from Eastern European countries.[196][197]
    German Military Casualties
    Dr. Rüdiger Overmans, an associate of the German Armed Forces Military History Research Office until 2004, has provided an official reassessment of German military war dead based on a statistical survey of German military personnel records. The results of the Overmans research project were published with the endorsement of the German Armed Forces Military History Research Office of the Federal Ministry of Defense (Germany). The study found that the statistics collected by German military during the war were incomplete and did not provide an accurate accounting of casualties. In the mid 1990's when Overmans began the project German military dead in the war were estimated at about 4.3 million men. Since the collapse of communism previously classified documentation regarding German military casualties became available to German researchers. The research by Overmans concluded in 2000 that German military dead and missing were 5,318,000. Included in this total are 344,000 deaths that were previously listed as civilian expulsion losses in eastern Europe; 230,000 deaths of paramilitary, Volkssturm and police forces fighting with the regular forces and the deaths of 266,000 POW after the surrender in May 1945.,[5] The figure of 3.2 million German military dead that still appears in many sources was a preliminary estimate made in November 1949 by the West German government for losses only within the borders of 1937 Germany, not including Austria and Volksdeutsche conscripted by Nazi Germany.[198] Overmans did not include an additional 215,000 deaths of Soviet citizens conscripted by Germany.[93]
    Military Losses by Theatre
    Overmans lists the following losses- Africa 16,066; the Balkans 103,693; Northern Europe 30,165; Western Europe until 12/31/44- 339,957; Italy 150,660; against the U.S.S.R. until 12/31/44- 2,742,909; final battles in Germany during 1945- 1,230,045; other (including air war in Germany & at sea) 245,561; confirmed deaths of POWs in captivity 459,475.[191]
    Military Losses by Country of origin
    Overmans lists deaths of 4,456,000 men from pre-war Germany(1937 borders) and the Free City of Danzig, 261,000 from Austria, 534,000 ethnic Germans conscripted in eastern Europe, 30,000 French (mostly men conscripted in Alsace-Lorraine), and 37,000 volunteers from western Europe.
    Military Losses by branch of service
    Overmans lists losses by branch as: Army-4,202,030; Air Force-432,706; Navy-138,429; Waffen SS – 313,749; Volkssturm – 77,726;Other Paramilitary and support forces- 153,891-.[191]
    Military Prisoners of War and Missing
    Overmans Includes in the total of 5,318,000 war dead 2,008,000 men that are listed as missing in action or unaccounted for after the war and 459,000 prisoners of war who died in captivity.[191] The details of these POW deaths by country that held them in custody are as follows: USSR 363,000; France 34,000; USA 22,000; UK 21,000; Yugoslavia 11,000; other nations 8,000.[199] Dr. Rüdiger Overmans believes that "It seems entirely plausible, while not provable, that one half of the 1.5 million missing on the eastern front were killed in action, the other half (700,000) however in fact died in Soviet custody".[120] A 1995 study by the Russian Academy of Science lists the deaths of 474,967 of the 2,652,672 German Armed Forces POW taken in the War.[121]
    Military Casualties In Other Sources
    The casualty figures compiled by the German High Command (OKW) as of December 31, 1944 put total military losses at 1,965,000 dead, 1,858,000 missing and POW held by Allies and 5,240,000 wounded. The casualty figures compiled by the German High Command (OKW) are often cited by military historians [200]
    The West German government in November 1949 estimated military losses for Germany in 1937 borders at 3,250,000, (1,650,000 killied and 1,600,000 missing). Figures do not include Austria and conscripted ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe[201]
    Based on a demographic estimate the West German government in 1960 put the total military losses of the Wehrmacht at 4,440,000; 3,760,000 for Germany in 1937 borders; 430,000 conscripted ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe and 250,000 from Austria.[202]
    The German Red Cross Reported that their records list 3.1 million dead and 1.2 million missing German military personnel from World War Two. Their figures include Austria and conscripted ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe.[203]
    German Civilian casualties during the war
    The West German government estimated 655,000 civilian deaths during war in Germany and Austria: 500,000 killed by strategic bombing, 135,000 in the 1945 flight and evacuations from East Europe and 20,000 civilians killed during the land campaign in Germany. For Germany within the 1937 borders 465,000 killed by strategic bombing, 127,000 in the 1945 flight and evacuations from East Europe and 20,000 civilians were killed during the land campaign in Germany [204][205] A 1990 study by the German historian de:Olaf Groehler estimated 360,000–370,000 civilians were killed by Allied strategic bombing within the 1937 German boundaries, for the German Reich including Austria, forced laborers, POW and military the total is estimated at 406,000. This revised estimate was published in the authoritative series The German Reich and the Second World War[206]
    The West German government put the number of Germans killed by the Nazi political, racial and religious persecution at 300,000 (Including 160,000 German Jews)[207] A 2003 report by the German Federal Archive put the total murdered during the Action T4 Euthanasia program at 200,000 [208]
    Civilian deaths due to the Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950) and the Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union
    These losses are sometimes included with World War II Casualties. The figures for these losses are currently disputed, estimates of the total deaths range from 500,000 to 2,000,000. The following is a summary of the various estimates for German civilian deaths in Eastern Europe.
    A. In 1950 the West German government made a preliminary estimate of 3.0 million civilian deaths in the expulsions. At the same time German Red Cross began to investigate the cases of persons reported missing in the area of the expulsions.[197] The first attempt to compute the losses was made in 1953 by the German scholar Gotthold Rhode who estimated German military and civilian deaths in the East Europe at 3,140,000.[209] The Schieder commission estimated a civilian death toll in the expulsions of about 2.3 million persons, broken out as follows: Poland 2,000,000; Czechoslovakia 225,600; Yugoslavia 69,000; Rumania 20,000; Hungary 6,000.[210] These early estimates are no longer considered valid because subsequent investigations provided a revised accounting of the losses
    B. A 1958 West German government demographic study estimated 2,225,000 civilians died during the flight during the war, post war expulsions and the forced labor in the Soviet Union, broken out as follows: Poland 1,607,000; Czechoslovakia 273,000; Yugoslavia 136,000; Rumania 101,000; Hungary 57,000; Baltic States 51,000.[195] A figure of about 2 million civilian deaths is often cited in English language sources dealing with the expulsions based on the 1958 German government statistical analysis as well as the report of the Schieder commission.[211] In 1967 the West German government issued a revised figure of 2,111,000 total dead.[212][213] In 2006 The German government reaffirmed its belief that 2 million civilians perished in the flight and expulsion from Eastern Europe.[214] However, the German historian Ingo Harr believes that civilian losses in the expulsions have been overstated in Germany for decades for political reasons. Harr argues that Cold War political pressure influenced the findings of the Schieder commission and the 1958 West German government demographic study of Expulsion deaths.[215][216] The German scholar Dr. Rüdiger Overmans believes that the statistical foundations of the 1958 West German government demographic report to be questionable and cannot be regarded as definitive.[197] A recent analysis by a Polish scholar found that; Generally speaking, the German estimates...are not only highly arbitrary, but also clearly tendentious in presentation of the German losses[217] He maintains that the German government figures from 1958 overstated the total number of the ethnic Germans living in Poland prior to war as well as the total civilian deaths due to the expulsions.[217][218]
    C. By 1965, the Suchdienst (search service) of the German churches was able to confirm 473,013 civilian deaths in eastern Europe due to the war and expulsions, broken out as follows: Poland 367,392; Sudetenland 18,889; Slovakia,Hungary, Romania and Yugoslavia 64,779; Baltic States 9,064; and Germans resettled in Poland 12,889. There were an additional 1,905,991 unsolved cases of persons reported missing and presumed dead. Dr.Rüdiger Overmans gave a summary of this data at a 1994 historical symposium in Poland. Overmans pointed out that the figures are incomplete and only a partial not an exact accounting of total deaths. Overmans believes that since there are only about 500,000 confirmed deaths of German civilians in eastern Europe, the balance being a demographic estimate, that new research on the number of expulsion deaths is needed.[197] However, the German historian Ingo Harr believes that the Church Service figure of 473,000 confirmed deaths is a realistic view of the total deaths due to the flight during the war and expulsions[215][216]
    D. A 1974 study by the German government archives estimated a death toll of about 600,000 of civilians who died as a result of what they call "crimes against international law". Their definition of crimes includes deaths caused by military activity in the 1944-45 campaign as well as deliberate killings. The total of 600,000 is broken out as follows: Poland: c. 400,000(-120,000 Killed by Soviet forces and their Allies; 200,000 dead during the Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union; 60,000 dead in labor camps in Communist Poland and 40,000 in Soviet camps in Poland.) Czechoslovakia 30,000 killed by Soviet forces and their Allies and an estimated 100,000 in internment camps. Yugoslavia- c. 80,000(-Killed by Soviet forces and their Allies 15-20,000; dead during the Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union 4,500; dead in internment camps c.60,000). This report did not provide an estimate for ethnic German deaths in Rumania and Hungary.[196] Dr. Rüdiger Overmans believes that the 1974 report is only a partial not a definitive accounting of total deaths in the expulsions.[219] However, the German historian Ingo Harr believes the Archives study has provided a more realistic view of the total deaths due to the expulsions.[215][216]
    E. A revised demographic analysis published in 1995, which has the support of the German government, estimated 2,020,000 civilians died during the post war expulsions and the Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union broken out as follows: Poland 1,192,000; Czechoslovakia 220,000; Yugoslavia 106,000; Rumania 75,000; Hungary 84,000; Baltic States 33,000; USSR 310,000.[189] The German government maintains that the figure of about 2 million deaths is correct because it includes additional post war deaths from hunger and disease of those civilians subject to the expulsions.[214]
    F. In 1996 a joint Czech-German Historical Commission determined that between 15,000 and 30,000 Germans perished in the expulsions. The commission found that the demographic estimates by the German government of 220,000 to 270,000 civilian deaths due to expulsions from Czechoslovakia were based on faulty data. The Commission determined that the demographic estimates by the German government counted as missing 90,000 ethnic Germans assimilated into the Czech population; military deaths were understated and that the 1950 census data used to compute the demographic losses was unreliable.[220][221]
    G. Research by former ethnic Germans from Yugoslavia determined that 58,730 civilians perished after the war. Broken out as follows:-Killed by partisans 8,049; dead during the Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union 1,994; dead in internment camps 48,687.[222]
    H. In his 2000 study of German military casualties Dr. Rüdiger Overmans found 344,000 additional military deaths of Germans from the Former eastern territories of Germany and conscripted ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe. Overmans believes this will reduce the number of civilians previously listed as missing in the expulsions.[223]
    H. The Polish historian Bernadetta Nitschke has provided a summary of the research in Poland on the calculation of German losses due to the flight and resettlement of the Germans from Poland only, not including other eastern European countries. Nitschke contrasted the estimate of 1.6 million deaths in Poland reported in 1958 by the West German government with the more recent figure of 400,000 that was detailed by Rudiger Overmans in 1994. She noted that the Polish researcher Stefan Banasiak estimated in 1963 that the death toll in the post deportations was 1,136 persons, a figure accepted by other Polish historians who maintain that that most of the deaths occurred during the flight and evacuation during the war, the deportation to the U.S.S.R. for forced labor and after the resettlement due to the harsh conditions in the Soviet occupation zone in post war Germany.[224] This is in sharp contrast to the West German Schieder commission report which maintained that 1.7 million civilian deaths occurred after the war on Polish territory.
    I. In 2006 The German government reaffirmed its belief that 2 million civilians perished in the flight and expulsion from Eastern Europe. They maintain that the figure is correct because it includes additional post war deaths from malnutrition and disease of those civilians subject to the expulsions State Secretary in the German Federal Ministry of the Interior, Christoph Bergner, outlined the stance of the respective governmental institutions in Deutschlandfunk saying that the numbers presented by the German government and others are not contradictory to the numbers cited by Haar, and that the below 600,000 estimate comprises the deaths directly caused by atrocities during the expulsion measures and thus only includes people who on the spot were raped, beaten, or else brought to death, while the above two millions estimate also includes people who on their way to post-war Germany have died of epidemics, hunger, cold, air raids and the like.[225]
    J.In 2005 the German Red Cross Search Service still maintained that their research put losses at 2,252,500 persons in the expulsions and deportations. They did not provide details of the figure [226]
    Famine Deaths 1945-1946 The German economist Bruno Gleitze from the German Institute for Economic Research estimated that there were 1,200,000 deaths caused by an increase in mortality due to harsh conditions in Germany during and after the war[227] In Allied occupied Germany the shortage of food was an acute problem in 1946–47 the average kilocalorie intake per day was only 1,600 to 1,800, an amount insufficient for long-term health.,[228]
  20. ^T Greece
    The Greek National Council for Reparations from Germany reports the following casualties during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II. Military dead: 35,077 including, 13,327 killed in the Greco-Italian War of 1940–41; 1,100 with the Greek Forces in the Mid East and 20,650 partisan deaths. Civilian Deaths: 771,845 including: 56,225 executed by Axis forces; 105,000 dead in German concentration camps (including Jews); 7,120 deaths due to bombing, 3,500 merchant marine dead, and 600,000 war related famine deaths[229] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 69,500.[143]
    Gregory Frumkin, who was throughout its existence editor of the Statistical Year-Book of the. League of Nations gave the following assessment of Greek losses in the war. He points out that that, "the data on Greek war losses are frequently divergent and even inconsistent". His estimates for Greek losses are as follows: The war dead included 20,000 military deaths in the Greco-Italian War of 1940–41, 60,000 non-Jewish civilians, 20,000 non Jewish deportees, 60,000 Jews and 140,000 famine deaths during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II[230]
  21. ^U Hungary
    Tamás Stark of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences has provided the following assessment of losses from 1941–45 in Hungary. Military losses were 300,000–310,000 including 110,000–120,000 killed in battle and 200,000 missing in action and POW in the Soviet Union. Hungarian military losses include 110,000 men who were conscripted from the annexed territories of Greater Hungary in Slovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia and the deaths of 20,000–25,000 Jews conscripted for Army labor units. Civilian losses were 44,500 killed in the 1944–45 military campaign and in air attacks,[231] Russian sources give the deaths of 54,700 of the 513,700 Hungarian POW taken in the War.[93] The genocide of Roma people of 28,000 persons.[232] Jewish Holocaust victims within the 1939 borders were 200,000.[143]
  22. ^V Iceland
    Confirmed losses of civilian sailors due to German attacks and mines.[233]
  23. ^W India
    1939 Population of India included the present day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The war dead listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, total deaths were 87,032.[6] The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars.[234] Gurkhas recruited from Nepal fought with the British Indian Army during the Second World War. Gurkha casualties with the British Indian Army can be broken down as: 8,985 killed or missing and 23,655 wounded[235] The preliminary 1945 data for Indian losses was, killed 24,338, missing 11,754, wounded 64,354 and POW 79,489.[134] Out of “60,000" Indian Army POWs taken at the Fall of Singapore, 11,000 died in captivity[65] The pro-Japanese Indian National Army lost 2,615 dead and missing.[156]
    Sources for total Indian civilian war dead range from 1.5 to 2.5 million as detailed below.
    John W. Dower estimated 1.5 million civilian deaths in the Bengal famine of 1943.[236] Amartya Sen currently the Lamont University Professor at Harvard University has recently estimated that a figure of 2.0 to 2.5 million fatalities may be more accurate.[237]
    Werner Gruhl estimates the civilian death toll due to the Bengal famine of 1943 at 2,000,000.[63]
  24. ^X Iran
    Losses during allied occupation in 1941.[238]
  25. ^Y Iraq
    Losses during Anglo-Iraqi War and UK occupation in 1941.[238]
  26. ^Z Ireland
    Despite being neutral, Ireland suffered casualties. In 1995 Irish Taoiseach(Prime Minister)John Bruton claimed at least 10,000 Irish were killed serving in the British or Commonwealth armed forces.[239] The civilian death figure includes 33 Irish merchantmen were killed when a U-Boat torpedoed the SS Irish Pine (1919) and deaths caused by the presumably accidental bombing of Ireland in three instances.[240]
  27. ^AA Italy
    The official Italian government accounting of World War II 1940–45 losses listed the following data. Total military dead and missing from 1940–45 were 291,376, losses prior to the September 8, 1943 Armistice with Italy totaled 204,346 (66,686 killed, 111,579 missing, 26,081 died of disease), after the September 8, 1943 Armistice with Italy, 87,030 (42,916 killed, 19,840 missing, 24,274 died of disease). Losses by branch of service: Army 201,405; Navy 22,034; Air Force 9,096; Colonial Forces 354; Chaplains 91; Fascist militia 10,066; Paramilitary 3,252; not indicated 45,078. Military Losses by theatre of war: Italy 74,725 (37,573 post armistice); France 2,060 (1,039 post armistice); Germany 25,430 (24,020 post armistice); Greece, Albania & Yugoslavia 49,459 (10,090 post armistice); USSR 82,079 (3,522 post armistice); Africa 22,341 (1,565 post armistice), at sea 28,438 (5,526 post armistice); other & unknown 6,844 (3,695 post armistice). POW losses are included with military losses mentioned above. Civilian losses were 153,147 (123,119 post armistice) including 61,432 (42,613 post armistice) in air attacks.[241] A brief summary of data from this report can be found online[242]
    There were in addition to these losses the deaths of African soldiers conscripted by Italy which were estimated by the Italian military at 10,000 in East African Campaign of 1940–41.[243] Civilian losses as a result of the fighting in Italian Libya were estimated by an independent Russian journalist to be 10,000.[244]
    Included in the losses are 64,000 victims of Nazi reprisals and genocide including 30,000 POWs and 8,500 Jews[37] Russian sources list the deaths of 28,000 of the 49,000 Italian war prisoners in Soviet Union 1942-1954.[245] Military losses in Italy after the September 1943 Armistice with Italy, included 5,927 with the Allies, 17,488 Italian resistance movement fighters and 13,000 RSI Italian Social Republic Fascist forces.[246] The genocide of Roma people was 1,000 persons.[168] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 8,562 (including Libya)[188]
  28. ^AB Japan
    1939 Japanese population includes 1.7 million Japanese in China and Korea.[247]
    Japanese military losses were 2,120,000 including 1,740,000 in the war from 1937 to 1945 and 380,000 POW deaths after the surrender. John W. Dower reported that Japanese government figures list the military deaths of 1,740,955 during 1937–45. The details are as follows: 185,647 in China from 1937 to 1941 and 1,555,308 from 1941 to 45 in the Pacific War. Army - Against US- 485,717; Against UK/Netherlands-208,026; In China-202,958; Against Australia -199,511; French Indochina -2,803; Against USSR -7,483; Other overseas -23,388; Japan proper -10,543. Navy 1941/45 -414,879."only one third of the military deaths occurred in actual combat, the majority being caused by illness and starvation"[248] In addition there were the deaths of prisoners after the surrender. According to John W. Dower; the "Known deaths of Japanese troops awaiting repatriation in Allied (non-Soviet) hands were listed as 81,090 by U.S. authorities[249] An additional 300,000 Japanese prisoners died in Soviet hands after the surrender in Manchuria, Korea and the U.S.S.R."[248] The Japanese Ministry of Welfare and Foreign Office reported that 347,000 military personnel and civilians were dead or missing in Soviet hands after the war. The Japanese list the losses of 199,000 in Manchurian transit camps, 36,000 in North Korea, 9,000 from Sakhalin and 103,000 in the U.S.S.R..[250] These figures were disputed by the Soviet Union, Russian sources report the POW deaths of 62,105(61,855 Japanese and 214 collaborator forces) out of the 640,105 captured(609,448 Japanese and 30,657 collaborator forces).[251]
    Military deaths include Koreans and Chinese from Taiwan conscripted by Japan. Not included in Japanese war dead are 432,000 Chinese military forces collaborating with Japan.[8]
    Estimates for Japanese civilian losses range from 500,000,[252] to 1,000,000 dead.[253] The lower figure of 500,000 includes those deaths during the war caused by allied bombing and the fighting on Okinawa. The higher estimate of 1,000,000 includes additional post war deaths of persons injured in the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and excess deaths due to adverse post war conditions. In Allied occupied Japan the shortage of food was an acute problem, in 1946 the average kilocalorie intake per day was only 1,530 compared to the average of 1,950 during the war years, this was an amount insufficient for long-term health.[254] The General Headquarters for the Allied Powers in Tokyo reported the civilian death rate in Japan in the first year after the war to be 2.1% compared to the pre-war level of 1.6%.[247]
    John W. Dower reports civilian losses due to U.S. Strategic bombing according to official Japanese figures were 393,367 dead, including 210,000 killed in the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and 97,031 in the Bombing of Tokyo in World War II. In addition to these deaths 150,000 civilians were killed on Okinawa and 10,000 on Saipan during the fighting. The Japanese government reported that 60,000 civilians dead or missing in Soviet hands after the war.[248] War related deaths of Japanese merchant marine personnel were 27,000.[255] The US Strategic bombing survey estimated 252,769 killed Japanese in the air war[256] They also estimated the death toll in Hiroshima and Nagasaki at 105,000 to 115,000.[257]
    The Yasukuni Shrine in Japan lists a total of 2,325,128 military deaths from 1937 to 1945 including civilians who participated in combat, Chinese(Taiwan) and Koreans in the Japanese Armed Forces.
  29. ^AC Korea
    Sources for total Korean civilian war dead range from 378,000 to 483,000 as detailed below.
    The American researcher R. J. Rummel's estimates 378,000 Korean dead due to forced labor in Japan and Manchuria. According to Rummel "Information on Korean deaths under Japanese occupation is difficult to uncover. We do know that 5,400,000 Koreans were conscripted for labor beginning in 1939, but how many died can only be roughly estimated.".[258]
    John W. Dower has noted "Between 1939 and 1945, close to 670,000 Koreans were brought to Japan for fixed terms of work, mostly in mines and heavy industry, and it has been estimated that 60,000 or more of them died under harsh conditions of their work places. Over 10,000 others were probably killed in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki".[259]
    Werner Gruhl estimates the civilian death toll due to the war and Japanese occupation at 483,000 and an additional 50,000 deaths of Koreans conscripted in the Japanese military service[63]
    A Korean demographic study reports "the mortality level and the course of mortality changes among Koreans in Korea during the war, appear not to have been much affected. Even for all Koreans living in Korea, Japan and Manchuria, the impact of World War II on the trend and level of mortality is not likely to have been significant. The same source reports '6,369 Koreans to have died in the Japanese military forces, and the number rises to 14,527 when civilians attached to the military forces is added[260]
    Korean military forces fighting against Japan were the Korean Liberation Army under Chinese Nationalist command and the Korean Volunteer Army which fought with the Chinese Communist guerrillas.
  30. ^AD Latvia
    Includes civilian losses due to war (220,000) and Soviet occupation in 1940–41(7,000). Does not include military dead with Soviet(13,000) and German Armed Forces (24,000).Total deaths from 1940 to 1953 due the war and the Soviet occupation were 287,000(14% of the population)[261] The genocide of Roma people was 2,500 persons.[232] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 80,000[143]
  31. ^AE Lithuania
    Includes civilian losses due to war (345,000) and Soviet occupation in 1940–41(8,000). Does not include military dead with Soviet (27,000) and German Armed Forces (8,000).Total deaths from 1940 to 1953 due the war and the Soviet occupation were 448,000(15% of the population)[262] The genocide of Roma people was 1,000 persons.[232] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 141,000[143]
  32. ^AF Luxembourg
    Total war dead were 5,000[263] which included military losses of about 3,000 with the German Armed Forces and 200 in Belgian Army. The genocide of Roma people was 200 persons.[232] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 700[143]
  33. ^AG Malaysia
    Victims of forced labor and reprisals during the Japanese occupation.".[236]
  34. ^AH Malta
    Air attack victims.[264] The BBC has an online report on the siege of Malta[265]
  35. ^AI Mexico
    Mexico lost 7 merchant ships and 63 dead merchant mariners.[264] A Mexican Air Force unit Escuadrón 201 served in the Pacific and suffered 5 combat deaths.
  36. ^AJ Mongolia
    Military losses with USSR against Japan in the 1939 Battle of Khalkhin Gol (200) and the 1945 Soviet invasion of Manchuria (72) campaigns.)[266]
  37. ^AK Nauru
    Deaths are 463 Nauruan labourers deported by Japanese authorities to the Caroline Islands[267]
  38. ^BG Nepal
    Gurkhas recruited from Nepal fought with the British Indian Army and Nepalese Army during the Second World War. The war dead reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission for India include Nepalese in the British Indian Army and Nepalese Army. Gurkha casualties can be broken down as: 8,985 killed or missing and 23,655 wounded[235] In addition to the Nepalese serving in the British Indian Army Nepal sent 16 battilialions to fight in the Burma campaign[268] There was a bilateral treaty between Nepal and Britain about the mobilization of Nepalese soldiers. The units which took part were Sri Nath, Kalibox, Surya Dal, Naya Gorakh, Barda Bahadur, Kali Bahadur, Mahindra Dal, Second Rifle, Bhairung, Jabbar Jung, Shumsher Dal, Sher, Devi Dutta, Bhairab Nath, Jagannath and Purano Gorakh Battalions. Besides, there were many high ranking Nepalese in the Joint Army HQ. Late Commander-in-Chief Kiran Shumsher Rana and ex-Commander-in-Chief and Field Marshal Nir Shumsher Rana were amongst the officers deployed by the Nepalese Army. Nepalese battalions – Mahindra Dal, Sher, Kali Bahadur and Jagannath- were also deployed. These Nepalese battalions fought under Allied Command. The Jagannath Battalion took part as engineers to construct tracks, bridges, water points etc. Nepalese troops fought with distinction in the 14th Army under Slim and helped force the eventual Japanese retreat.[269]
  39. ^AL Netherlands
    Dutch government figures for losses in Europe released in 1948[270] listed 210,000 direct war casualties plus an additional 70,000 post war disease deaths caused by the war. The details are as follows: Military deaths of 8,100; which included 2,200 regular Army, 1,700 Dutch Resistance forces, 2,600 Navy forces, 250 POW in Germany and 1,350 Merchant seaman. Civilian deaths of 271,900; which included 27,000 forced workers in Germany, 7,500 missing and presumed dead in Germany, 2,800 victims of executions, 2,500 deaths in Dutch concentration camps, 18,000 political prisoners in Germany, 20,400 deaths due to military activities, 3,700 Dutch serving in the German military, 104,000 deported Jews and 16,000 deaths in the Dutch famine of 1944. The official statistics also reported an additional 70,000 "indirect war casualties", which are attributed to various diseases caused by wartime conditions. Not included in these figures are an additional 1,650 foreign nationals killed while serving in the Dutch Merchant Marine[271] The losses of the 3,700 Dutch in the German Armed Forces are not in Dutch war casualties in this article, they are included with the military of Germany.
    The Dutch suffered additional losses in the Far East which were not included in the above figures except for the Navy. Military losses in Asia were 900 in the 1942 Dutch East Indies campaign and 8,500 military POW deaths in Japanese captivity.[272] The Australian War Memorial reports 8,000 of the 37,000 Dutch POW died in Japanese captivity.[273] Civilian losses in Asia reported by the Dutch Red Cross included the deaths in Japanese custody of 14,800 Europeans out of 80,000 interned in the Dutch East Indies.[172]
    The Netherlands War Graves Foundation maintains a registry of the names of Dutch war dead.[274] The genocide of Roma people was 500 persons.[232]
  40. ^AM Newfoundland
    Newfoundland's losses are not listed separately by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission since they served with U.K. and Canadian Forces during the war. Military losses were 1,058: with 956 with the UK: Navy(351),Army (115),Air Force (134) and Merchant Navy (356) and 102 with Canada: Navy (21), Army(41) and Air Force (40).[275] The losses of the Newfoundland Merchant Navy are commemorated at the Allied Merchant Navy Memorial in Newfoundland,[276] Civilian losses were due to the sinking of the SS Caribou in October 1942[277]
  41. ^AN New Zealand
    The military deaths listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission Total deaths were 11,929.[6] The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars.[278] Details can be found online at the New Zealand Armed Forces Memorial Project[279] The preliminary 1945 data for New Zealand losses was, killed 10,033, missing 2,129, wounded 19,314 and POW 8,453.[134]
  42. ^AO Norway
    Military deaths were 2,000 regular forces; 1,500 resistance fighters and political prisoners. Civilian dead include 3,600 merchant marine, 1,800 war related civilian deaths and 700 Jews. The 700 deaths with German Armed Forces are included with Germany on this schedule.[280] The Norwegian Foreign Ministry reported that "10,262 Norwegians had been killed, including 3,670 seamen. The Germans had executed 366 and tortured 39 to death. Among political prisoners and members of the underground, 658 died at home and 1,433 abroad. About 6,000 Norwegians had served the German war cause, and 709 of them had fallen in battle.[281] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 728.[143]
  43. ^AP Papua New Guinea
    Civilian deaths were caused by Allied bombing and shellfire and Japanese atrocities. Both the Allies and Japanese also conscripted civilians to work as laborers and porters.[282]
  44. ^AQ Philippines
    Sources for total Filipino civilian war dead range from 500,000 to 1,000,000 as detailed below.
    The United States State Dept. has reported that, In total, an estimated one million Filipinos lost their lives in the war[283] The primary reason for this high death toll was war related famine and disease. Civilian losses included victims of Japanese war crimes, such as the Bataan Death March and the Manila massacre which claimed the lives of 90,000 Filipinos.[7]
    Werner Gruhl estimates the civilian death toll due to the war and Japanese occupation at 500,000 (141,000 massacred, 22,500 forced labor deaths and 336,500 deaths due war related famine).[63]
    The estimate in 1946 by the U.S. War Dept. for Filipino military war dead was 27,260.[258] More recent figures for military war dead, include 7,000 in the Battle of the Philippines (1941-42), 8,000 anti-Japanese guerrillas and 42,000 (out of 98,000) POWs in Japanese captivity[284] Werner Gruhl estimates an 27,000 Filipinos died serving in the military(including 20,000 POW).[63]
  45. ^AR Poland
    Total Polish War Dead.
    In August 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) put the figure of Poland's dead at between 5,620,000 and 5,820,000; including an estimated 150,000 Polish citizens who died due to Soviet repression. The IPN's figures include 3 million Polish Jews who died in the Holocaust, as well as ethnic Poles and other ethnic groups (Ukrainians and Belarussians). The Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) classifies the various ethnic groups by language spoken. Jews, Ukrainians and Belarussians who spoke Polish were considered Poles.
    The Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) figure for deaths of Poles due the German occupation is 2,770,000. This figure includes "Direct War Losses" -543,000; "Murdered in Camps and in Pacification" -506,000; "Deaths in prisons and Camps" 1,146,000; "Deaths outside of prisons and Camps" 473,000; "Murdered in Eastern Regions" 100,000; "Deaths in other countries" 2,000. These figures include about 200,000 Polish speaking Jews who are considered Poles in Polish sources.[285]
    Polish resarchers have determined that the Nazis murdered 1,860,000 Polish Jews in the extermination camps in Poland, in addition over 1.0 million Polish Jews were murdered by the Einsatzgruppen in the eastern regions or died of starvation and disease while in ghettos.[286]
    The classification of ethnic groups in pre-war Poland by language spoken is disputed. The Polish demographer Piotr Eberhardt maintains that it is commonly agreed that the criterion of declared language led to an overestimation of the number of Poles in pre-war Poland. He notes that in general, the numbers declaring a particular language do not mesh with the numbers declaring the corresponding nationality. Members of ethnic minority groups believe that the language criterion led to an overestimation of Poles.[287]
    Czesław Łuczak estimated in 1994 the actual total of war dead to be 5.9 to 6.0 million, including 2.9 to 3.0 million Jews. He estimated the number of ethnic Poles who died at 2.0 million, including 1.5 million, due to the German occupation of the territory of modern day Poland and the balance of 500,000 in the former eastern Polish regions under both Soviet and German occupation. Łuczak also included in his figures an estimated 1,000,000 war dead of Polish citizens from the ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian ethnic groups who comprised 20% of Poland's pre-war population. The Polish government estimate made in 1947 of 6.0 million war dead excluded ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian losses.[288][289]
    Dr. Tadeusz Piotrowski estimated in 2005 Poland's losses in World War II to be 5.6 million; including 5,150,000 victims of Nazi crimes against ethnic Poles and The Holocaust, 350,000deaths during the Soviet occupation in 1940–41 and about 100,000 Poles killed in 1943–44 during the massacres of Poles in Volhynia. Losses by ethnic group were 3,100,000 Jews; 2,000,000 ethnic Poles; 500,000 Ukrainians and Belarusians[290]
    Civilian losses by geographic area were about 3.5 million in present day Poland[291] and about 2.0 million in the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union[80][288] Contemporary Russian sources also include Poland's losses in the annexed territories with Soviet war deaths.[292]
    The official Polish government report on war damages prepared in 1947 listed 6,028,000 war victims during the German occupation (including 123,178 military deaths, 2.8 million Poles and 3.2 million Jews), out of a population of 27,007,000 ethnic Poles and Jews; this report excluded ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian losses. Losses were calculated for the territory of Poland in 1939, including the territories annexed by the U.S.S.R.[293] The figure of 6.0 million war dead has been disputed by Polish scholars since the fall of communism who now put the total actual losses at about 3.0 million Jews and 2.0 million ethnic Poles, not including other ethnic groups (Ukrainians and Belarussians). They maintain that the official statistics include those persons who were missing and presumed dead, but actually remained abroad in the west and the USSR after the war.[288][289] The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum maintains that in addition to 3 million Polish Jews killed in the Holocaust. "Documentation remains fragmentary, but today scholars of independent Poland believe that 1.8 to 1.9 million Polish civilians (non-Jews) were victims of German Occupation policies and the war",[294]
    The genocide of Roma people was 35,000 persons[295] Jewish Holocaust victims, in 1939 borders, totaled 3,000,000,[143] including 2 million within the borders of contemporary Poland and 1 million in the territories annexed by the U.S.S.R.[296]
    Polish Losses during the Soviet Occupation (1939–1941)
    In August 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) researchers estimated 150,000 Polish citizens were killed due to Soviet repression. Since the collapse of the USSR, Polish scholars have been able to do research in the Soviet archives on Polish losses during the Soviet occupation.[80] Andrzej Paczkowski puts the number of Polish deaths at 90,000–100,000 of the 1.0 million persons deported and 30,000 executed by the Soviets.[81] In 2005 Tadeusz Piotrowski estimated the death toll in Soviet hands at 350,000[297] An earlier estimate made in 1987 by Franciszek Proch of the Polish Association of Former Political Prisoners of Nazi and Soviet Concentration Camps estimated the total dead due to the Soviet occupation at 1,050,000.[298]
    Polish military casualties.
    Poland lost a total of 139,800 regular soldiers and 100,000 Polish resistance movement fighters during the war.[289] Polish military casualties. Military dead and missing were 66,000 and 130,000 wounded in the 1939 Invasion of Poland, in addition 17,000–19,000 were killed by the Soviets in the Katyn massacre and 12,000 died in German POW camps.[299] The Polish contribution to World War II included the Polish Armed Forces in the West, and the 1st Polish Army fighting under Soviet command. Total casualties of these forces in exile were 33,256 killed in action, 8,548 missing in action, 42,666 wounded and 29,385 interned.[300] The Polish Red Cross reported that the 1944 Warsaw Uprising cost the lives of 120,000 -130,000 Polish civilians and 16,000–17,000 Polish resistance movement fighters[289][301] The names of Polish war dead are presented at a database online[302]
    During the war 2,762,000[303] Polish citizens of German descent declared their loyalty to Germany by signing the Deutsche Volksliste. A West German government report estimated the deaths of 108,000 Polish citizens serving in the German armed forces,[195] these men were conscripted in violation of international law[304] The Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) estimates 200-210,000 Polish citizens, including 76,000 ethnic Poles were conscripted into the Soviet armed forces in 1940-1941 during the occupation of the eastern regions. The (IPN) also reported that the Germans conscripted 250,000 Polish nationals into the Wehrmacht, 89,300 later deserted and joined the Polish Armed Forces in the West.[285]
  46. ^AS Timor
    Officially neutral, East Timor was occupied by Japan during 1942–45. Allied commandos initiated a guerilla resistance campaign and most deaths were caused by Japanese reprisals against the civilian population. The civilian death toll is estimated at 40,000 to 70,000[305]
  47. ^AT Romania
    Total Romanian military war dead were approximately 300,000[185] Total Killed were 93,326 (72,291 with Axis and 21,035 with allies): Total missing and POW were 341,765 (283,322 with Axis and 58,443 with allies) only about 80,000 survived Soviet captivity)[306] Russian sources list the deaths of 54,600 of the 201,800 Romanian POW taken in the War.[307] Figures do not include an additional estimated 40,000 to 50,000 dead included with the Hungarian Army.[231] Civilian losses of 64,000 included 20,000 during Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Bukovina in 1940–41;[307] the genocide of Roma people 36,000 deaths;[168] Allied air raids on Romania caused the deaths of 7,693 civilians.[308]
    Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 469,000 in 1939 borders which includes 300,000 in Bessarabia and Bukovina occupied by the U.S.S.R. in 1940.[15][143]
  48. ^AU Ruanda Urundi
    The 1943 famine in Ruanda which took 300,000 lives was due to a local drought and the harsh wartime policies of the Belgian colonial administration to increase food production for the war effort in the Congo.[309][310] Since Rwanda was not occupied nor the supply of food cut off, these deaths are not usually included with World War II casualties. However, at least one historian has compared the 1943 famine in Ruanda to the Bengal famine of 1943 which is attributed to the war.[311]
  49. ^AV Singapore
    Victims of Japanese war crimes including the Japanese Occupation of Singapore and the Sook Ching massacre.[258]
  50. ^AW South Africa
    The military deaths listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission Total deaths were 11,903.[6] The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars.[278] The preliminary 1945 data for South African losses was killed 6,840, missing 1,841 wounded 14,363 and POW 14,589.[134]
  51. ^AX South Pacific Mandate
    - This territory includes areas now known as the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, and the Northern Mariana Islands.
    The estimate by R. J. Rummel of the number of victims due to Japanese war crimes on the various Pacific Islands is 57,000.[258]
    Micronesian war related civilian deaths were caused by American bombing and shellfire; and malnutrition caused by the U.S. blockade of the islands. In addition the civilian population was conscripted by the Japanese as forced laborers and were subjected to numerous mindless atrocities.[312]
    During the Battle of Guam (1944) the number of Chamorro people killed or wounded is not accurately known but it was well over six hundred.,[312] During the Battle of Saipan 10,000 persons in a mass suicide of the Japanese civilian population.[7]
  52. ^AY Soviet Union
    Military Losses
    Military deaths from 1939 to 1945, totaling 10.7 million, include 7.7 million killed or missing in action; 2.6 million POW dead, and 400,000 paramilitary and Soviet partisan losses.[313]
    The official Russian Ministry of Defense figure for military total dead and missing from 1941 to 1945 is 8,668,400; including 6,330,000 killed in action or died of wounds and 556,000 dead from non-combat causes; 500,000 MIA and 1,283,000 dead and missing POW. Official Russian figures indicate 4,559,000 POWs and missing, out of which about 500,000 missing were killed in battle, 939,700 were conscripted back into the Soviet army during the war as territories were being liberated,2,016,000 POW survived the war, 1,836,000 POWs are known to have returned to the U.S.S. R. after the war, this leaves 1,103,300 POW dead and another 180,000 missing POWs who most likely emigrated to other countries.[124][125] Richard Overy has noted that "The official figures themselves must be viewed critically, given the difficulty of knowing in the chaos of 1941 and 1942 exactly who had been killed, wounded or even conscripted".[314] The official Russian statistics for military dead do not include an additional estimated 500,000 conscripted reservists missing or killed before being listed on active strength, 1,000,000 civilians treated as POW by Germany; and an estimated 150,000 militia and 250,000 Soviet partisan dead, which are considered civilian war losses in the official figures.[313] The estimate by most western historians of Soviet military POW deaths is about 3 million out of 5.7 million total POWs in German hands[37]
    There were additional casualties in 1939–40, which totaled 136,945: Battle of Khalkhin Gol in 1939 (8,931); Invasion of Poland of 1939 (1,139); and the Winter War with Finland (1939–40) (126,875).[105]
    The names of many Soviet war dead are presented in the OBD Memorial database online[315]
    Total Population Losses of the Soviet Union 1941–1945
    A report published by the Russian Academy of Science in 1993 estimated that the total Soviet population losses from 1941 to 1945, within Soviet borders of 1946–1991, were 26.6 million out of a total population of 196.7 million, which included the annexed territories.[12][316]
    In 2000 the late Dr. S. N. Mikhalev of the History department of Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University[317] published a critical analysis of the official Russian wartime casualty statistics, he estimated actual Soviet military war dead at more than 10.9 million persons. He maintained that the official figures cannot be reconciled to the total men drafted and that POW deaths were understated. Mikhalev believed that the official figure of 26.6 million war dead should not be regarded as definitive. His analysis of the demographic balance of the USSR in the war indicated total losses ranging from 21.240 million to 25.854 million, with the mid range being 23.568 million total war dead. Mikhalev pointed out that the estimate of total war deaths are based on a range of estimates for the population in 1939 and the population of the annexed territories that are by no means certain.[318]
    Michael Haynes has noted that "We do not know the total number of deaths as a result of the war and related policies" We do know that the demographic estimate of excess deaths was 26.6 million plus an additional 16.1 million natural deaths that would have occurred in peacetime, bringing the total dead to 42.7 million. At this time the actual total number of deaths caused by the war is unknown since among the 16.1 million "natural deaths" some would have died peacefully and others as a result of the war.[319]
    Civilian War Dead
    Civilian deaths listed on the table above of 12.7 million are for the USSR within 1939 borders and does not include an estimated 3.0 million civilian dead in the territories annexed by the USSR in 1939-1945 and the 215,000 Soviet war dead in the German armed forces. Civilian losses in territories annexed by USSR are included in totals of the Baltic states(650,000).,[320] Poland(2,000,000)[288]-[80] Romania(300,000) and Czechoslovikia(50,000)[143]
    The deaths of Soviet civilians, including Jews, were documented from 1942 to 1946 by the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission[321][322][323] In 1995 the Russian Academy of Science published a report that summarized Soviet losses in the war. They reported civilian deaths in the German occupied USSR(including annexed territories) totaling 13.7 million, which includes 7.4 million victims of Nazi genocide and reprisals; 2.2 million deaths of persons deported to Germany for forced labor; and 4.1 million famine and disease deaths in occupied territory.[51][324] Total Soviet war dead include losses include an estimated 2.5 to 3.2 million civilian dead due to famine in Soviet territory not occupied by the Germans[325] Additional famine deaths which totaled 1 million during 1946–47 are not included with World War II casualties.[313] Documents from the Soviet archives list the total deaths of prisoners in the Gulag from 1941 to 1945 at 621,637.[326] An independent Russian journalist believes the actual death toll may be as high as 1.7 million, when one takes into account summary executions and deaths of those forcibly deported during the war..,[327]
    The genocide of Roma people was 30,000 persons.[168] Jewish Holocaust victims, within 1939 borders, totaled 1,000,000.[143]
  53. ^AZ Spain
    There were 4,500 military deaths with the all Spanish Blue Division serving with the German Army in the U.S.S.R. The unit was withdrawn by Spain in 1943.[328] R. J. Rummel estimates the deaths of 20,000 anti-Fascist Spanish refugees resident in France who were deported to Nazi camps, these deaths are included with French civilian casualties.[37]
  54. ^BA Sweden
    During the Winter war of 1939–40 the Swedish Volunteer Corps served with the Finnish Armed Forces and lost 117 men in combat.[329] About 300 Swedish volunteers served in the German Wehrmacht and 30–45 were killed in action.[330]
    33 Swedish sailors were killed when submarine HMS Ulven was sunk by a German mine on April 16, 1943.
    During 1939-1941 Swedish merchant shipping was attacked by German submarines and 391 merchant seamen were killed. Soviet attacks on Swedish merchant shipping from 1941-1944 cost the lives of 187 merchant seamen. The Red Cross Ship Stureborg was attacked by Italian aircraft in July 1942 resulting in the deaths of 19 of the crew and a Red Cross Official.[331]
  55. ^BB Switzerland
    The Americans accidentally bombed Switzerland during the war causing civilian casualties.[332][333] Losses of about 300 Swiss in the German Armed Forces are included with German casualties.[149]
  56. ^BC Thailand
    Military deaths included: 108 dead in the French-Thai War (1940–41)[334] and 5,559 who died either resisting the Japanese invasion (1941), or fighting alongside Japanese forces in the Burma Campaign of 1942–45.[335] Allied bombing in 1944–45 caused 2,000 civilian deaths.[336] Unlike other parts of South East Asia, Thailand did not suffer from famine during the war.[337]
  57. ^BD Turkey
    The Refah tragedy (Turkish: Refah faciası) refers to a maritime disaster during World War II, when the cargo steamer Refah of neutral Turkey, carrying Turkish military personnel from Mersin in Turkey to Port Said, Egypt was sunk in eastern Mediterranean waters by a torpedo fired from an unidentified submarine. Of the 200 passengers and crew aboard, only 32 survived.
  58. ^BE United Kingdom and Colonies
    The losses listed here are those reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Total military deaths were 383,786.[6] The losses of Newfoundland (956 military) are included in these figures.[275] The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars.[234]
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission maintains a Roll of Honour of those civilians under Crown Protection who died as a result of enemy actions in the Second World War. The names of 67.080 are commemorated in the Civilian War Dead Roll of Honour.[6]
    UK casualties include losses of the colonial forces[338] UK colonial forces included units from East Africa, West Africa, Ghana, the Caribbean, Malaya, Burma, Hong Kong, Jordan, Sudan, Malta and the Jewish Brigade.The Cyprus Regiment made up of volunteers that fought with the UK Army, and suffered about 358 killed and 250 missing[339] Gurkhas recruited from Nepal fought with the British Army during the Second World War.
    The preliminary 1945 data for colonial forces was killed 6,877, missing 14,208, wounded 6,972 and POW 8,115.[134]
    The official UK report on war casualties of June 1946 provided a preliminary tally of war losses. This report listed the war deaths of 357,116; Navy (50,758); Army (144,079); Air Force (69,606); Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service (624); Merchant Navy (30,248); British Home Guard (1,206) and Civilians (60,595). The total still missing on 2/28/1946 was 6,244; Navy (340); Army (2,267); Air Force (3,089); Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service (18); Merchant Navy (530); British Home Guard (0) and Civilians (0). These figures included the losses of Newfoundland and Southern Rhodesia. There were an additional 31,271 military deaths due to "natural causes" which are not included in these figures. Deaths due to air and rocket attacks were 60,595 civilians and 1,206 British Home Guard. The deaths of civilians interned was not given in the report.[110][340]
  59. ^BF United States
    Total U. S. military deaths in battle and from other causes were 416,837 The breakout by service is as follows, Army 318,274[112] Navy 62,614,[112] Marine Corps 24,511[112] United States Coast Guard 1,917.[341][342] and United States Merchant Marine 9,521.[138][343]
    Deaths in battle were 292,131. The breakout by service is as follows: Army 234,874[112] Navy 36,950,[112] Marine Corps 19,733[112] United States Coast Guard 574.[264][341] These losses were incurred during the period 12/1/41 until 12/31/46 including an additional 126 men in October 1941 when the USS Kearny and the USS Reuben James were attacked by U-Boats. The United States Army Air Forces losses, which are included in the Army total, were 52,173 deaths due to combat and 35,946 from non combat causes[114] U.S. Combat Dead by Theater of war - Europe-Atlantic 183,588; Army ground forces 141,088; United States Army Air Forces 36,461 and Navy/Coast Guard 6,039; Asia-Pacific 108,504; Army ground forces 41,592; United States Army Air Forces 15,694; Navy/Coast Guard 31,485; Marine Corps 19,733. Unidentified Theatres- Army 39[114][137] Included with combat deaths are 14,059 POWs, in Europe (1,124) and (12,935) in Asia[137] The details of U.S. casualties are listed online: The US Army[114] The U.S. Army Air Force[344] The U.S. Navy and Marine Corps.[345] The U.S. Merchant Marine[138]
    Civilian dead were 1,704 American civilians interned, by the Japanese(1,536) and by Germany(168),.[346][347][348] During the Attack on Pearl Harbor 68 U.S. civilians were killed by friendly fire,[349] and 6 U.S. civilians were killed in Oregon in 1945 by Japanese balloon bombs.[350]
    The names of individual U.S. military personnel killed in World War II can be found at the U.S. National Archives[351]
    The names of U.S. Merchant Mariners killed in World War II are listed by USMM.org[352]
    American Battle Monuments Commission website lists the names of military and civilian war dead from World War II buried in ABMC cemeteries or listed on Walls of the Missing[353]
  60. ^BG Yugoslavia
    The official Yugoslav government figure for war dead made in 1945 was 1.7 million persons(1.4 million civilians and 300,000 military). This figure has been disputed by historians since the breakup of the Yugoslav state of the in 1991. Based on recent research actual losses are now put at about 1.0 million persons."[354]
    The U.S. Bureau of the Census published a report in 1954 that concluded that Yugoslav war related deaths were 1,067,000. The U.S. Bureau of the Census noted that the official Yugoslav government figure of 1.7 million war dead was overstated because it "was released soon after the war and was estimated without the benefit of a postwar census"[355] A recent study by Vladimir Žerjavić estimates total war related deaths at 1,027,000 which included military losses of 237,000 resistance fighters Yugoslav partisans;Chetniks and 209,000 Ustaše. Civilian dead of 581,000, including 57,000 Jews. Losses of the Yugoslav Republics were Bosnia 316,000; Serbia 273,000; Croatia 271,000; Slovenia 33,000; Montenegro 27,000; Macedonia 17,000; and killed abroad 80,000.[356] Bogoljub Kočović a Yugoslav statistician,calculated that the actual war losses were 1,014,000[357] The late Jozo Tomasevich, Professor Emeritus of Economics at San Francisco State University, believes that the calculations of Kočović and Žerjavić "seem to be free of bias, we can accept them as reliable"[358]
    The reasons for the high human toll in Yugoslavia were as follows:
    A.Military operations between the Germans, Italians and their Ustaše collaborators on one hand against the Yugoslav partisans and Chetniks[359]
    B.German forces, under express orders from Hitler, fought with a special vengeance against the Serbs, who were considered Untermensch[359] One of the worst massacres during the German military occupation of Serbia was the Kragujevac massacre.
    C. Deliberate acts of reprisal against target populations were perpetrated by all combatants. All sides practiced the shooting of hostages on a large scale. At the end of the war many Ustaše collaborators were killed during the Bleiburg tragedy[359]
    D.The systematic extermination of large numbers of people for political, religious or racial reasons. The most numerous victims were Serbs[359] The USHMM reports between 77,000 and 99,000 persons were killed at the Jasenovac concentration camp.[360] The genocide of Roma was 40,000 persons.[168] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 67,122.<[361]
    E.The reduced food supply caused famine and disease.[359]
    F.Allied bombing of German supply lines caused civilian casualties. The hardest hit localities were Podgorica, Leskovac, Zadar and Belgrade.[359]:
    G. The demographic losses due to a 335,000 reduction in the number of births and emigration of about 660,000 are not included with war casualties.[359]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Second''Second Source List and Detailed Death Tolls for the Twentieth Century Hemoclysm''". Users.erols.com. http://necrometrics.com/20c5m.htm. Retrieved 2012-05-02. 
  2. ^ Geoffrey A. Hosking (2006). "Rulers and victims: the Russians in the Soviet Union". Harvard University Press. p. 242. ISBN 0-674-02178-9
  3. ^ Michael Ellman and S. Maksudov, Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War:a note-World War II- Europe Asia Studies, July 1994.
  4. ^ a b Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami.Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6
  5. ^ a b c Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1
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  7. ^ a b c John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8
  8. ^ a b c R. J. Rummel. China's Bloody Century . Transaction 1991 ISBN 0-88738-417-X
  9. ^ "''Source List and Detailed Death Tolls for the Twentieth Century Hemoclysm''". Users.erols.com. http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat1.htm#Second. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  10. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. http://www.library.uu.nl/wesp/populstat/populhome.html. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  11. ^ Map Territories Annexed by USSR 1939-40
  12. ^ a b Michael Ellman and S. Maksudov, Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War:a note-World War II- Europe Asia Studies, July 1994
  13. ^ Map Territories Annexed by USSR 1939-40Image:Map of Poland (1945).png
  14. ^ U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Poland Ed. W. Parker Mauldin, Washington- 1954 p. 183
  15. ^ a b Image:Romania WWII.png
  16. ^ Gregory, Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. p. 133
  17. ^ Waller Wynne, The population of Czechoslovakia. United States.; Bureau of the Census.; International population statistics reports. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1953. Page 8
  18. ^ Lithuanian Population does not include a portion of the Vilnius Region which was turned over to Lithuania by the USSR in 1939. The population of this region was 483,000, which increased the Lithuanian population to 2,925,000
  19. ^ Lithuanian Population does not include 140,000 from the Klaipėda Region which was annexed by Germany in March 1939.
  20. ^ Polish population transfers (1944–1946) including (1,526,000) Poles transferred to Poland and 518,000 ethnic Ukrainians and Belarusians transferred to USSR
  21. ^ Nazi–Soviet population transfers (329,000) ethnic Germans transferred to Germany 1939-1941
  22. ^ Tuvan People's Republic annexed by USSR 1944 100,000
  23. ^ "League of Nations Yearbook 1942-1944". Digital.library.northwestern.edu. http://digital.library.northwestern.edu/league/stat.html#1942. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  24. ^ http://ria.ru/politics/20100419/224129198.html
  25. ^ Martin Gilbert. Atlas of the Holocaust 1988 ISBN 0-688-12364-3 pp. 242-244
  26. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia. How many Jews were killed during the Holocaust?". Ushmm.org. http://www.ushmm.org/research/library/faq/details.php?lang=en&topic=03#02. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  27. ^ Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews New Viewpoints 1973 Page 767
  28. ^ Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews New Viewpoints 1973 Page 767
  29. ^ Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews New Viewpoints 1973 Page 767
  30. ^ Yad Vashem Four Million Victims’ Names
  31. ^ Niewyk, Donald L. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-231-11200-9 Page 421
  32. ^ "File:Hungary 1938-1947.png - Wikimedia Commons". Commons.wikimedia.org. 2010-12-04. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hungary_1938-1947.png. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  33. ^ "Florida Center for Instructional Technology, College of Education, University of South Florida, A Teachers Guide to the Holocaust". Fcit.usf.edu. http://fcit.usf.edu/Holocaust/people/victims.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  34. ^ A Mosaic of Victims- Non Jews Persecuted and Murdered by the Nazis. Ed. by Michael Berenbaum New York University Press 1990 ISBN 1-85043-251-1
  35. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia MOSAIC OF VICTIMS: OVERVIEW". Ushmm.org. 2011-01-06. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005149. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  36. ^ a b Niewyk, Donald L. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-231-11200-9
  37. ^ a b c d e R. J. Rummel. Democide Nazi Genocide and Mass Murder. Transaction 1992 ISBN 1-56000-004-X
  38. ^ Donald Niewyk suggests that the broadest definition, including Soviet civilian deaths, would produce a death toll of 17 million. Google Books Estimates of the death toll of non-Jewish victims vary by millions, partly because the boundary between death by persecution and death by starvation and other means in a context of total war is unclear. Overall, about 5.7 million (78 percent) of the 7.3 million Jews in occupied Europe perished (Gilbert, Martin. Atlas of the Holocaust 1988, pp. 242–244). This was in contrast to the five to 11 million (1.4 percent to 3.0 percent) of the 360 million non-Jews in German-dominated Europe. Small, Melvin and J. David Singer. Resort to Arms: International and civil Wars 1816–1980 and Berenbaum, Michael. A Mosaic of Victims: Non-Jews Persecuted and Murdered by the Nazis, New York: New York University Press, 1990
  39. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia. GENOCIDE OF EUROPEAN ROMA, 1939–1945". Ushmm.org. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005219. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  40. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia. GENOCIDE OF EUROPEAN ROMA (GYPSIES), 1939–1945". Ushmm.org. http://www.ushmm.org/education/resource/roma/roma.php?menu=/export/home/www/doc_root/education/foreducators/include/menu.txt&bgcolor=CD9544. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  41. ^ Hanock, Ian. [http://www.radoc.net:8088/RADOC-3-PORR.htm "Romanies and the Holocaust: A Reevaluation and an Overview" Stone, D. (ed.) (2004) The Historiography of the Holocaust. Palgrave, Basingstoke and New York.
  42. ^ Hancock, Ian. Jewish Responses to the Porajmos (The Romani Holocaust), Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, University of Minnesota.
  43. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia EUTHANASIA PROGRAM". Ushmm.org. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005200. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  44. ^ R. J. Rummel. Democide Nazi Genocide and Mass Murder. Transaction 1992 ISBN 1-56000-004-X. Table A
  45. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia NAZI PERSECUTION OF SOVIET PRISONERS OF WAR". Ushmm.org. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10007178. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  46. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. ''Poles as Victims of the Nazi Era ''". Ushmm.org. http://www.ushmm.org/education/resource/poles/poles.php. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  47. ^ Niewyk, Donald L 2000 The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-231-11200-9 Page 49 cites Bohdan Wytwycky who maintained that 4.5 million deaths of Ukrainians and Belarusians “were reacially motivated”
  48. ^ A Mosaic of Victims- Non Jews Persecuted and Murdered by the Nazis. Ed. by Michael Berenbaum New York University Press 1990 Page ISBN 1-85043-251-1 Soviet author Georgily A. Kumanev put the death toll in the Nazi occupied USSR at 8.2 million
  49. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia THE GERMAN ARMY AND THE RACIAL NATURE OF THE WAR AGAINST THE SOVIET UNION". Ushmm.org. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10007182. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
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  51. ^ a b Perrie, Maureen (2006), The Cambridge History of Russia: The twentieth century, Cambridge University Press, p. 226, ISBN 0-521-81144-9 Total civilian deaths under the German occupation were 13.7 million including 2 million Jews
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  78. ^ Steven Rosefielde Red Holocaust Routledge, 2009 ISBN 0-415-77757-7 Pages 179 (Rosefielde's figures were derived by estimating the population from 1939-1945 using hypothetical birth and death rates; he then compares this 1945 estimated population to the actual ending population in 1945. The difference is 31.0 million excess deaths of which 23.4 million are attributed to the war and 7.6 million to Soviet repression)
  79. ^ Michael Haynes A Century Of State Murder? : Death and Policy in Twentieth Century Russia, Pluto Press, 2003ISBN 0745319300 Pages62-89
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  81. ^ a b Stephane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard Univ Pr, 1999 ISBN 0-674-07608-7 p. 372
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  84. ^ Michael Haynes A Century Of State Murder? : Death and Policy in Twentieth Century Russia Pluto Press, 2003ISBN 0745319300 Pages 214-215
  85. ^ Pavel Polian, Against Their Will, Page 123
  86. ^ Pavel Polian- Against Their WillPage 119
  87. ^ Pavel Polian- Against Their Will Pages 123-157
  88. ^ J. Otto Pohl, The Stalinist Penal System: A History of Soviet Repression and Terror, 1930-1953 McFarland & Company, 1997 ISBN 0-7864-0336-5 Page 133
  89. ^ J. Otto Pohl, The Stalinist Penal System: A History of Soviet Repression and Terror, 1930-1953 McFarland & Company, 1997 ISBN 0-7864-0336-5 Page 148The Soviet Arcives did not provide the details by year of the figure of 309,100 deaths in the settlements.
  90. ^ "G. I. Krivosheev Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil; statisticheskoe issledovanie OLMA-Press, 2001 ISBN 5-224-01515-4 Tables 200-203". Lib.ru. http://lib.ru/MEMUARY/1939-1945/KRIWOSHEEW/poteri.txt#w02.htm-186. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  91. ^ Elliott, Mark, Pawns of Yalta: Soviet Refugees and America's Role in Their Repatriation, University of Illinois Press, 1982 ISBN 0-252-00897-9
  92. ^ a b c d e Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1 pp. 333-335
  93. ^ a b c G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 p. 278
  94. ^ "Russian Volunteers in the German Wehrmacht in WWII-by Lt. Gen Wladyslaw Anders and Antonio Munoz". Feldgrau.com. http://www.feldgrau.com/rvol.html. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  95. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 p. 276
  96. ^ Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1 p. 286
  97. ^ a b John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 p. 297
  98. ^ Ellis, John. World War II - A statistical survey Facts on File 1993. ISBN 0-8160-2971-7. p. 254
  99. ^ John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 p. 363 According to John W. Dower; the "Known deaths of Japanese troops awaiting repatriation in Allied (non-Soviet) hands were listed as 81,090 by U.S. authorities; An additional 300,000 Japanese prisoners died in Soviet hands after the surrender
  100. ^ "''Reports of General MacArthurMACARTHUR IN JAPAN:THE OCCUPATION: MILITARY PHASE VOLUME I SUPPLEMENT'' U.S. Government printing Office 1966 p. 130 Endnote 36". History.army.mil. http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/MacArthur%20Reports/MacArthur%20V1%20Sup/ch5.htm#b6. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  101. ^ Nimmo, William. Behind a curtain of silence : Japanese in Soviet custody, 1945–1956, Greenwood 1989 ISBN 978-0-313-25762-9 pp. 116-118 The Japanese Ministry of Welfare and Foreign Office reported that 347,000 military personnel and civilians were dead or missing in Soviet hands after the war. The Japanese list the losses of 199,000 in Manchurian transit camps, 36,000 in North Korea, 9,000 from Sakhalin and 103,000 in the U.S.S.R.
  102. ^ "Italians in WWII". Storiaxxisecolo.it. http://www.storiaxxisecolo.it/secondaguerra/sgm7a.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  103. ^ Istituto Centrale Statistica (Roma, 1957) "Rapporto Morti e dispersi per cause belliche negli anni 1940-45"
  104. ^ 600.000 POWs of Allies; 50,000 POWs of Russians; 650,000 POWs of Germans [3]
  105. ^ a b c G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 pp. 51-80
  106. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 pp. 85-87
  107. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 pp. 230-238
  108. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 pp. 13-14
  109. ^ a b Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 pp. 20-21
  110. ^ a b c d Strength and Casualties of the Armed Forces and Auxiliary Services of the United Kingdom 1939–1945 HMSO 1946 Cmd.6832
  111. ^ The UK Central Statistical Office Statistical Digest of the War HMSO 1951
  112. ^ a b c d e f g "Congressional Research Report – American War and Military Operations Casualties. Updated February 26, 2010" (PDF). http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL32492.pdf. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  113. ^ "Office of the Adjutant General, ''U.S. Army Battle Casualties and Non-battle Deaths in World War II: ort'', Table, p. 8:"Battle casualties by type of casualty and disposition, and duty branch: 7 December 1941 -31 December 1946". Command and General Staff College (1953)". Cgsc.cdmhost.com. http://cgsc.cdmhost.com/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/p4013coll8&CISOPTR=130&REC=1. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  114. ^ a b c d "of the Adjutant General, ''U.S. Army Battle Casualties and Non-battle Deaths in World War II: ort'', Table, p. 8:"Battle casualties by type of casualty and disposition, and duty branch: 7 December 1941 -31 December 1946". Command and General Staff College (1953)". Cgsc.cdmhost.com. http://cgsc.cdmhost.com/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/p4013coll8&CISOPTR=130&REC=1Office. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  115. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 584
  116. ^ "American Merchant Marine at War, www.usmm.org". Usmm.org. http://www.usmm.org/ww2.html. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  117. ^ "CRS Report for Congress U.S. Prisoners of War and Civilian American Citizens Captured and Interned by Japan in World War II: The Issue of Compensation by Japan Updated December 17, 2002". http://www.house.gov/bordallo/gwcrc/RL30606.pdf#search='civilians%20interned%20by%20japan. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  118. ^ a b Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1 p. 335
  119. ^ Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1 p. 239 and p. 236
  120. ^ a b Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1 p. 289
  121. ^ a b Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny:sbornik statei. Sankt-Peterburg 1995 ISBN 5-86789-023-6 p. 109
  122. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 20
  123. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 p. 85
  124. ^ a b c "G. I. Krivosheev Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil; statisticheskoe issledovanie OLMA-Press, 2001 ISBN 5-224-01515-4 Table 176". Lib.ru. http://lib.ru/MEMUARY/1939-1945/KRIWOSHEEW/poteri.txt#w02.htm-186. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  125. ^ a b G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 pp. 85-86
  126. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7. p. 236
  127. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 p. 86
  128. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 21
  129. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 p. 91
  130. ^ G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 p. 236
  131. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 13-14
  132. ^ Ellis, John. World War II - A statistical survey Facts on File 1993. ISBN 0-8160-2971-7. pp. 253-254
  133. ^ a b UK Central Statistical Office Statistical Digest of the War HMSO 1951.
  134. ^ a b c d e f g h The Times on November 30, 1945. The official losses of the Commonwealth and the Colonies were published here
  135. ^ "The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission". Direct.gov.uk. http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Diol1/DoItOnline/DG_4017507. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  136. ^ "United States Dept. of the Army, Army Battle Casualties and Non Battle Deaths in World War II". Cgsc.cdmhost.com. http://cgsc.cdmhost.com/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/p4013coll8&CISOPTR=130&REC=2. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  137. ^ a b c Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. pp. 584-591
  138. ^ a b c "American Merchant Marine at War, www.usmm.org". Usmm.org. http://www.usmm.org/ww2.html. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  139. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. pp. 584-585
  140. ^ a b [4] Commonwealth War Graves Commission-Annual Report 2009-2010. Finances, Statistics and Service, p. 19
  141. ^ [5]
  142. ^ Albania : a country study Federal Research Division, Library of Congress; edited by Raymond E. Zickel and Walter R. Iwaskiw. 2nd ed. 1994 ISBN 0-8444-0792-5. Available online at Federal Research Division of the U.S. Library of Congress See section On The Communist Takeover. Library of Congress Country Study
  143. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Martin Gilbert. Atlas of the Holocaust 1988 ISBN 0-688-12364-3 p. 244
  144. ^ "''Deaths as a result of service with Australian units''(AWM) web page". AWM. http://www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/war_casualties.asp. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  145. ^ McKernan, Michael. Strength of a Nation: Six years of Australians fighting for the nation and defending the homefront in World War II, Crows Nest NSW, Allen & Unwin, ISBN 1-74114-714-X. p. 393.
  146. ^ Austria facts and Figures Page 44
  147. ^ a b Donald Kendrick, The Destiny of Europe's Gypsies. Basic Books 1972 ISBN 0-465-01611-1
  148. ^ Gregory, Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951.
  149. ^ a b Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1 p. 230
  150. ^ Ellis, John. World War II - A statistical survey Facts on File 1993. ISBN 0-8160-2971-7.
  151. ^ a b Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 540
  152. ^ a b Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 pp. 38-39
  153. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 512
  154. ^ Kiradzhiev, Svetlin. Sofia 125 Years Capital 1879–2004 Chronicle. Sofia 2006 (In Bulgarian) ISBN 954-617-011-9
  155. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 pp. 74-75
  156. ^ a b Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 556
  157. ^ "Listing of Newfoundland's War Dead". Ngb.chebucto.org. http://ngb.chebucto.org/NFREG/index_wwii.shtml. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  158. ^ "Canadian War Museum" (in (French)). Warmuseum.ca. http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/exhibitions/chrono/1931cost_e.shtml. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  159. ^ "The Canadian Virtual War Memorial". Vac-acc.gc.ca. http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm?source=collections/virtualmem. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  160. ^ John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 pp. 295296
  161. ^ China's Anti-Japanese War Combat Operations.(In Chinese) Guo Rugui, editor-in-chief Huang Yuzhang Jiangsu People's Publishing House, 2005 ISBN 7-214-03034-9 pp. 4-9
  162. ^ Hsu Long-hsuen "History of the Sino-Japanese war (1937–1945)" Taipei 1972
  163. ^ Ho Ping-ti. Studies on the Population of China, 1368–1953. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959.
  164. ^ R. J. Rummel. China's Bloody Century . Transaction 1991 ISBN 0-88738-417-X. Table 5A
  165. ^ Gregory, Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. Pages 48-49
  166. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1
  167. ^ Pacner, K. Osudove okamziky Ceskoslovenska- Praha 1997 ISBN 80-85821-46-X p. 270
  168. ^ a b c d e f Donald Kendrick, The Destiny of Europe's Gypsies. Basic Books 1972 ISBN 0-465-01611-1 p. 184
  169. ^ "Danish Military Historie website". Milhist.dk. http://www.milhist.dk/besattelsen/ww2stat/ww2stat.html. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  170. ^ John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 pp. 295-296
  171. ^ United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Report of the Working Group for Asia and the Far East, Supp. 10. 1947 pp. 13-14>
  172. ^ a b M. Z. Aziz. Japan's Colonialism and Indonesia. The Hague 1955. p. 170
  173. ^ "Estonian State Commission on Examination of Policies of Repression. ''The White Book: Losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes. 1940–1991''. Tallinn 2005. ISBN 9985-70-195-X p. 16" (PDF). http://www.just.ee/orb.aw/class=file/action=preview/id=12709/TheWhiteBook.pdf. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  174. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 491
  175. ^ Small, Melvin & Singer, Joel David, Resort to Arms : International and Civil Wars 1816–1965. 1982
  176. ^ Italy's War Crimes in Ethiopia- 1946 (reprinted 2000), ISBN 0-9679479-0-1.
  177. ^ R. J. Rummel. Statistics of democide : Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900 Transaction 1998 ISBN 3-8258-4010-7 Chapter 14
  178. ^ "Finnish National Archives". Kronos.narc.fi. http://kronos.narc.fi/menehtyneet/. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  179. ^ National Defence College (1994), Jatkosodan historia 6, Porvoo. ISBN 951-0-15332-X
  180. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 52
  181. ^ "Finnish Volunteers in the German Wehrmacht in WWII by Jarto Nieme, Russ Folsom and Jason Pipes". Feldgrau.com. http://www.feldgrau.com/finland.html. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  182. ^ Gregory, Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. pp. 58-59
  183. ^ a b Gregory, Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. pp. 60-65
  184. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. pp. 415-416
  185. ^ a b Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 582
  186. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 pp. 83-89
  187. ^ Rick Atkinson, An Army at Dawn: The War in North Africa, 1942–1943, Simon and Schuster, 2007-ISBN 0-7435-7099-5 p. 478
  188. ^ a b Martin Gilbert Atlas of the Holocaust 1988 ISBN 0-688-12364-3 p. 244
  189. ^ a b Gerhard Reichling. Die deutschen Vertriebenen in Zahlen, Bonn 1995, ISBN 3-88557-046-7
  190. ^ Wiki media Map:German speaking regions of Europe prior to 1939.
  191. ^ a b c d Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1 pp. 335-336
  192. ^ Hubert, Michael, Deutschland im Wandel. Geschichte der deutschen Bevolkerung seit 1815 Steiner, Franz Verlag 1998 ISBN 3-515-07392-2 p. 272
  193. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956,
  194. ^ Marschalck, Peter. Bevölkerungsgeschichte Deutschlands im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert- Suhrkamp 1984
  195. ^ a b c Die deutschen Vertreibungsverluste. Bevölkerungsbilanzen für die deutschen Vertreibungsgebiete 1939/50. Herausgeber: Statistisches Bundesamt - Wiesbaden. - Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1958
  196. ^ a b German Federal Archive, Spiegel, Silke Vertreibung und Vertreibungsverbrechen 1945-1948. Bericht des Bundesarchivs vom 28. Mai 1974. Archivalien und ausgewählte Erlebnisberichte. Bonn 1989
  197. ^ a b c d Dr. Rűdiger Overmans- Personelle Verluste der deutschen Bevölkerung durch Flucht und Vertreibung. (A parallel summary in Polish was also included, this paper was a presentation at an academic conference in Warsaw Poland in 1994), Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI-1994
  198. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik November 1949, journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland.(German government Statistical Office)
  199. ^ Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1 pp. 286
  200. ^ Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, Page 78
  201. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik November 1949, journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland.(German government Statistical Office)
  202. ^ The Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, Page 78
  203. ^ Willi Kammerer; Anja Kammerer- Narben bleiben die Arbeit der Suchdienste - 60 Jahre nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg Berlin Dienststelle 2005 ( Published by the Search Service of the German Red Cross. The forward to the book was written by German President Horst Köhler and the German interior minister Otto Schily)
  204. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland.(German government Statistical Office)
  205. ^ Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, Page 78
  206. ^ Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg, Bd. 9/1, ISBN 3-421-06236-6. p. 460
  207. ^ Germany reports. With an introd. by Konrad Adenauer. Germany (West). Presse- und Informationsamt. Wiesbaden, Distribution: F. Steiner, 1961] Page 32
  208. ^ Das Bundesarchiv Das Inventar der Quellen zur Geschichte der 'Euthanasie'-Verbrechen 1939-1945 (report available online at Bundesarchiv website
  209. ^ Rhode,Gotthold, Die Deutschen im Osten nach 1945. Zeitschrift Für Ostforschung, Heft 3, 1953
  210. ^ Bundesministerium für Vertriebene, Dokumentation der Vertreibung der Deutschen aus Ost-Mitteleuropa Vol. 1-5, Bonn, 1954–1961
  211. ^ "R. J. Rummel''Statistics of democide : Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900'' Transaction 1998 ISBN 3-8258-4010-7 Chapter 7". Hawaii.edu. http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/SOD.CHAP3.HTM. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  212. ^ Federal Ministry for Expellees, Refugees and War Victims Facts concerning the problem of the German expellees and refugees Bonn 1967
  213. ^ Alfred de Zayas A terrible Revenge. Palgrave/Macmillan, New York, 1994-Page 152.
  214. ^ a b Rede von Bundespräsident Horst Köhler beim Tag der Heimat des Bundes der Vertriebenen am 2. Sept 2006 in Berlin [6]
  215. ^ a b c Herausforderung Bevölkerung : zu Entwicklungen des modernen Denkens über die Bevölkerung vor, im und nach dem "Dritten Reich" pp. 267-281 Ingo Haar,Bevölkerungsbilanzen“ und „Vertreibungsverluste“. Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte der deutschen Opferangaben aus Flucht und Vertreibung Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften 2007 ISBN 978-3-531-15556-2
  216. ^ a b c "PPD 39 Haar" (PDF). http://www.pism.pl/zalaczniki/PPD_39_Haar.pdf. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  217. ^ a b pl:Piotr Eberhardt, 'Political Migrations In Poland 1939-1948 Warsaw2006
  218. ^ pl:Piotr Eberhardt, Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-Century Central-Eastern Europe: History, Data, Analysis Armonk, N.Y. : M.E. Sharpe, 2003. ISBN 0-7656-0665-8
  219. ^ Dr. Rűdiger Overmans-Personelle Verluste der deutschen Bevölkerung durch Flucht und Vertreibung. (A parallel summary in Polish was also included, this paper was a presentation at an academic conference in Warsaw Poland in 1994), Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI-1994
  220. ^ "Final Statement and Conclusions of the Czech-German Historical Commission". Tschechien-portal.info. 1996-12-17. http://www.tschechien-portal.info/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=134. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  221. ^ Hoensch, Jörg K. und Hans Lemberg, Begegnung und Konflikt. Schlaglichter auf das Verhältnis von Tschechen, Slowaken und Deutschen 1815 - 1989 Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung 2001 ISBN 3-89861-002-0
  222. ^ Leidensweg der Deutschen im kommunistischen Jugoslawien -Arbeitskreis Dokumentation im Bundesverband der Landsmannschaft der Donauschwaben aus Jugoslawien, Sindelfingen, und in der Donauschwäbischen Kulturstiftung, München. Imprint München : Die Stiftung, 1991-1995. Vol 4 pp. 1018-1019
  223. ^ Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1 pp. 298-299
  224. ^ Bernadetta Nitschke. Vertreibung und Aussiedlung der deutschen Bevölkerung aus Polen 1945 bis 1949. München, Oldenbourg Verlag, 2003. ISBN 3-486-56832-9. S. 269-282.
  225. ^ Christoph Bergner, Secretary of State in Germany's Bureau for Inner Affairs, outlines the stance of the respective governmental institutions in Deutschlandfunk on 29 November 2006, [7]
  226. ^ Willi Kammerer; Anja Kammerer- Narben bleiben die Arbeit der Suchdienste - 60 Jahre nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg Berlin Dienststelle 2005 ( Published by the Search Service of the German Red Cross. The forward to the book was written by German President Horst Köhler and the German interior minister Otto Schily)
  227. ^ B. Gleitze, Deutschlands Bevölkerungsverluste durch den Zweiten Weltkrieg, „Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung” 1953, s. 375-384 Gleitze estimated 400,000 excess deaths during the war and 800,000 in post war Germany
  228. ^ Alan S. Milward, The Reconstruction of Western Europe
  229. ^ "Council for Reparations from Germany, ''Black Book of the Occupation''(In Greek and German) Athens 2006 p. 1018-1019" (PDF). http://library.antibaro.gr/text/History/1940/Mavri_Vivlos_Katochis.pdf. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  230. ^ Gregory, Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. pp. 89-91
  231. ^ a b Támas Stark. Hungary's Human Losses in World War II. Uppsala Univ. 1995 ISBN 91-86624-21-0
  232. ^ a b c d e Donald Kendrick, The Destiny of Europe's Gypsies. Basic Books 1972 ISBN 0-465-01611-1 p. 183
  233. ^ "Hve margir Íslendingar dóu í seinni heimsstyrjöldinni?". Visindavefur.hi.is. 2005-06-14. http://visindavefur.hi.is/svar.asp?id=5057. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  234. ^ a b "'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission". Direct.gov.uk. http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Diol1/DoItOnline/DG_4017507. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  235. ^ a b Parker, John. (2005). The Gurkhas: The Inside Story of the World's Most Feared Soldiers. Headline Book Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7553-1415-7 P.250
  236. ^ a b John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 p. 296
  237. ^ Amartya Sen interviewed by David Barsamian of Alternative Radio
  238. ^ a b Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 498
  239. ^ The Challenge Of The Irish Volunteers of World War The Challenge Of The Irish Volunteers of World War
  240. ^ "Bombing Incidents in Ireland during the Emergency 1939 - 1945". Csn.ul.ie. http://www.csn.ul.ie/~dan/war/bombings.html. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  241. ^ Roma:Instituto Centrale Statistica' Morti E Dispersi Per Cause Belliche Negli Anni 1940–45 Rome 1957
  242. ^ "The effects of war losses on mortality estimates for Italy A first attempt Demographic Research Vol 13, No. 15". Demographic-research.org. http://www.demographic-research.org/. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  243. ^ Del Boca, Angelo, The Ethiopian war. Univ. of Chicago Press. 1969 ISBN 0-226-14217-5
  244. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 90
  245. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 47
  246. ^ Ufficio Storico dello Stato Maggiore dell'Esercito. Commissariato generale C.G.V. Ministero della Difesa - Edizioni 1986
  247. ^ a b Annual Changes in Population of Japan Proper 1 October 1920–1 October 1947, General Headquarters for the Allied Powers Economic and Scientific Section Research and Programs Division. Tokyo, July 1948.
  248. ^ a b c John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 pp. 297-299
  249. ^ John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 pp. 363
  250. ^ Nimmo, William. Behind a curtain of silence : Japanese in Soviet custody, 1945–1956, Greenwood 1989 ISBN 978-0-313-25762-9 pp. 116-118
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  252. ^ Gil Elliot, Twentieth Century Book of the Dead C. Scribner, 1972 ISBN 0-684-13115-3
  253. ^ Sivard, Ruth Leger World Military and Social Expenditures 1985
  254. ^ Borton, Hugh. Japans Modern Century New York 1955 pp. 497,
  255. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 578
  256. ^ The US Strategic bombing survey Report # 55 p. 7
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  258. ^ a b c d "R. J. Rummel''Statistics of democide : Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900'' Transaction 1998 ISBN 3-8258-4010-7 Chapter 3". Hawaii.edu. http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/SOD.CHAP3.HTM. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  259. ^ John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 p. 47
  260. ^ Tai Hawn Kwon. Demography of Korea. Seoul National University Press. 1977
  261. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 28
  262. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 29
  263. ^ Gregory, Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. p. 107
  264. ^ a b c Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6.
  265. ^ "The Siege of Malta in World War Two". Bbc.co.uk. 2011-02-17. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/siege_malta_01.shtml. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  266. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 74
  267. ^ "United States State Department Background notes Nauru". State.gov. 2011-01-26. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/16447.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  268. ^ "Impact of World War II in Nepal". Premsinghbasnyat.com.np. http://www.premsinghbasnyat.com.np/topics-details.php?articleid=17&type=2. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  269. ^ "History Of The Nepalese Army". Nepalarmy.mil.np. http://www.nepalarmy.mil.np/history.php. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  270. ^ "Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) Netherlands" (PDF). http://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyres/1FA7DF00-F612-4F46-8539-E04DCFECD7BA/0/2007k4b15p53art.pdf. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
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  272. ^ Fremy, M.,Quid 1996, p. 1275
  273. ^ "Dutch and Australian servicemen in captivity". Awm.gov.au. 1944-08-31. http://www.awm.gov.au/alliesinadversity/prisoners/captivity.asp. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  274. ^ "The Netherlands War Graves Foundation". Ogs.nl. http://www.ogs.nl. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  275. ^ a b "Military Records of Newfoundlanders Who Served in Various Units During World War II". Ngb.chebucto.org. http://ngb.chebucto.org/NFREG/index_wwii.shtml. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  276. ^ "Allied Merchant Navy Memorial in Newfoundland". Cdli.ca. http://www.cdli.ca/monuments/nf/merchant.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  277. ^ sinking of the SS Caribou.
  278. ^ a b "'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission". Direct.gov.uk. http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Diol1/DoItOnline/DG_4017507. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  279. ^ "New Zealand Armed Forces Memorial Project". Nzhistory.net.nz. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/links-military. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  280. ^ Gregory, Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. pp. 112-113
  281. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs Norway and World War II". B24.no. http://www.b24.no/background.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  282. ^ Bjij, V. Lal and Kate Fortune. The Pacific Islands- An Encyclopedia p. 244
  283. ^ "United States State Dept. ''Background Note: Philippines''". State.gov. 2011-06-03. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2794.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  284. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 566
  285. ^ a b Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6, pp. 29-30
  286. ^ Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6, p. 32
  287. ^ Piotr Eberhardt, Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-Century Central-Eastern Europe: History, Data, Analysis M.E. Sharpe, 2002 ISBN 0-7656-0665-8 p. 112
  288. ^ a b c d Czesław Łuczak, Szanse i trudnosci bilansu demograficznego Polski w latach 1939–1945. Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI- 1994
  289. ^ a b c d Gniazdowski, Mateusz. Losses Inflicted on Poland by Germany during World War II. Assessments and Estimates—an Outline The Polish Quarterly of International Affairs, 2007, no. 1.This article is available from the Central and Eastern European Online Library at http://www.ceeol.com
  290. ^ [Poland World War II casualties (in thousands)http://projectinposterum.org/docs/poland_WWII_casualties.htm]
  291. ^ U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Poland Ed. W. Parker Mauldin, Washington- 1954
  292. ^ Andreev, EM, et al., Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922–1991. Moscow, Nauka, 1993. ISBN 5-02-013479-1 p. 78. Total Soviet losses of 26.6 million are computed for the population in mid 1941 in the territory of the Soviet Union of 1946-1991
  293. ^ Poland. Bureau odszkodowan wojennych, Statement on war losses and damages of Poland in 1939–1945. Warsaw 1947.(the figures of 2.8 miilion Jews and 3.2 miilion Poles are based on language spoken, not religion)
  294. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.''Poles Victims of the Nazi Era''". Ushmm.org. http://www.ushmm.org/education/resource/poles/poles.php. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  295. ^ Donald Kendrick, The Destiny of Europe's Gypsies. Basic Books 1972 ISBN 0-465-01611-1 p. 18
  296. ^ Gregory, Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. pp. 115-126
  297. ^ "go to note on Polish Casualties by Tadeusz Piotrowski at the bottom of the page". Project In Posterum. http://www.projectinposterum.org/docs/poland_WWII_casualties.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  298. ^ Franciszek Proch, Poland's Way of the Cross, New York 1987
  299. ^ T. Panecki, Wsiłek zbrojny Polski w II wojnie światowej pl:Wojskowy Przegląd Historyczny,1995, no. 1–2, pp. 13–18
  300. ^ T. Panecki, Wsiłek zbrojny Polski w II wojnie światowej pl:Wojskowy Przegląd Historyczny, 1995, no. 1–2, pp. 13–18
  301. ^ Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6, p. 20
  302. ^ "Victims of the Nazi Regime-Database of Polish citizens repressed under the German Occupation". Straty.pl. http://www.straty.pl/index.php. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  303. ^ Nürnberg Document No. 3568. Data from this document is listed in Martin Brozat, Nationalsozialistische Polenpolitik Fischer Bücheri 1961. p. 125
  304. ^ Schimitzek, Stanislaw, Truth or Conjecture? Warsaw 1966
  305. ^ Department of Defence (Australia), 2002, "A Short History of East Timor" (Access date: October 13, 2010.)
  306. ^ Mark Axworthy. Third Axis Fourth Ally. Arms and Armour 1995 ISBN 1-85409-267-7 pp. 216-217
  307. ^ a b Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 51
  308. ^ Mark Axworthy. Third Axis Fourth Ally. Arms and Armour 1995 ISBN 1-85409-267-7 p. 314
  309. ^ Catharine NewburyThe Cohesion of Oppression: Clientship and Ethnicity in Rwanda: 1860-1960 Columbia University Press, 1993 ISBN 0-231-06257-5 pp. 157-158
  310. ^ Linden, Jan Church and revolution in Rwanda, Manchester University Press 1977 ISBN 0-8419-0305-0 p. 207
  311. ^ Alexander De Waal, Famine crimes: politics & the disaster relief industry in Africa Indiana Univ Pr, 1999 ISBN 0-253-21158-1 p. 30
  312. ^ a b Poyer, Lin; Falgout, Suzanne; Carucci, Laurence Marshall. The Typhoon of War: Micronesian Experiences of the Pacific War Univ of Hawaii Pr, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 2001 ISBN 0-8248-2168-8
  313. ^ a b c Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 20-21
  314. ^ Richard Overy, Russia's War: A History of the Soviet Effort: 1941–1945, Penguin Books, 1998, ISBN 0-14-027169-4 p. XV
  315. ^ "OBD Memorial". Obd-memorial.ru. http://www.obd-memorial.ru/. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  316. ^ Andreev, EM, et al., Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922–1991. Moscow, Nauka, 1993. ISBN 5-02-013479-1
  317. ^ "Obituary of S N Mkhalev who passed away in 2005". Andjusev.narod.ru. http://www.andjusev.narod.ru/a/Michalev.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  318. ^ S. N Mikhalev Liudskie poteri v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine 1941- 1945 gg: Statisticheskoe issledovanie Krasnoiarskii gos. pedagog. universitet • 2000 ISBN 5-85981-082-2. p. 28
  319. ^ Michael Haynes, Counting Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War: a Note Europe Asia Studies Vol.55, No. 2, 2003, 300–309
  320. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 pp. 23-34
  321. ^ A Mosaic of Victims- Non Jews Persecuted and Murdered by the Nazis. Ed. by Michael Berenbaum New York University Press 1990 ISBN 1-85043-251-1 p. 140
  322. ^ "A. A. Shevyakov ''"Gitlerovski genotsid na territoriyakh SSR."'' Sotsiologicheskie issiedovaniya, 12, 1991" (PDF). http://www.ecsocman.edu.ru/data/719/825/1219/01Shevyakov.pdf. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  323. ^ "A. A. Shevyakov ''"Zherty sredi mirnogo nasseleniya v gody otechestvennoi voiny"'' Sotsiologicheskie issiedovaniya, 11, 1992" (PDF). http://www.ecsocman.edu.ru/data/068/084/1217/001.SHEVIAKOV.pdf. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  324. ^ Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny:sbornik statei. Sankt-Peterburg 1995 ISBN 5-86789-023-6 pp. 124-131(These losses are for the entire territory of the USSR in 1941, including territories annexed in 1939–40).
  325. ^ Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny:sbornik statei. Sankt-Peterburg 1995 ISBN 5-86789-023-6 p. 158
  326. ^ Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny:sbornik statei. Sankt-Peterburg 1995 ISBN 5-86789-023-6 p. 175
  327. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 22
  328. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 515
  329. ^ "Swedish Volunteer Corps". Svenskafrivilliga.com. http://www.svenskafrivilliga.com/. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  330. ^ "Swedish Volunteers in the German Wehrmacht". Feldgrau.com. 1945-05-02. http://www.feldgrau.com/articles.php?ID=58. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  331. ^ The article in Swedish Wikipedia Lista över krigshandlingar mot Sverige under andra världskriget The List of Acts of War Against Sweden In World War Two has details with sources on Sweden's Merchant Marine Losses in the war
  332. ^ "Aerospace Power Journal. Summer 2000. The Diplomacy of Apology: U.S. Bombings of Switzerland during World War II by Dr. Jonathan E. Helmreich". Airpower.maxwell.af.mil. http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/apj00/sum00/helmreich.html. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  333. ^ "Aerospace Power Journal. Summer 2000. The Bombing of Zurich by Dr. Jonathan E. Helmreich". Airpower.maxwell.af.mil. http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/apj00/sum00/helmreich1.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  334. ^ Sorasanya Phaengspha (2002) The Indochina War: Thailand Fights France. Sarakadee Press.
  335. ^ Eiji Murashima, “The Commemorative Character of Thai Historiography: The 1942–43 Thai Military Campaign in the Shan States Depicted as a Story of National Salvation and the Restoration of Thai Independence” Modern Asian Studies, v40, n4 (2006) pp. 1053–1096, p1057n: "Deaths in the Thai military forces from 8 December 1941 through the end of the war included 143 officers, 474 non-commissioned officers, and 4,942 soldiers. (Defense Ministry of Thailand, In Memory of Victims who Fell in Battle [in Thai], Bangkok: Krom phaenthi Thahanbok, 1947). With the exception of about 180 who died in the 8 December [1941] battles and another 150 who died in battles in the Shan states [Burma], almost all of the war dead died of malaria and other diseases."
  336. ^ E. Bruce Reynolds, "Aftermath of Alliance: The Wartime Legacy in Thai-Japanese Relations", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, v21, n1, March 1990, pp. 66-87. "An OSS document (XL 30948, RG 226, USNA) quotes Thai Ministry of Interior figures of 8,711 air raids deaths in 1944–45 and damage to more than 10,000 buildings, most of them totally destroyed. However, an account by M. R. Seni Pramoj (a typescript entitled 'The Negotiations Leading to the Cessation of a State of War with Great Britain' and filed under Papers on World War II, at the Thailand Information Center, Chulalongkorn University, p. 12) indicates that only about 2,000 Thai died in air raids."
  337. ^ E. Bruce Reynolds, "Aftermath of Alliance: The Wartime Legacy in Thai-Japanese Relations", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, v21, n1, March 1990, pp66-87. Thailand exported rice to neighboring Japanese-occupied countries during 1942–45 (p72n) and did not experience the notorious famines that occurred in India and French Indochina (see above), during 1943-1944.
  338. ^ Marika Sherwood (2011-03-30). "Colonies, Colonials and World War Two". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/colonies_colonials_01.shtml. Retrieved 18 April 2011. 
  339. ^ "Cyprus Veterans Association World War II". Cyprusveterans.com.cy. http://www.cyprusveterans.com.cy/contributionww2.php. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  340. ^ UK Central Statistical Office Statistical Digest of the War HMSO 1951
  341. ^ a b "U.S. Coast Guard History". Uscg.mil. http://www.uscg.mil/history/faqs/wars.asp. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  342. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6 pp. 584-591
  343. ^ "Mariners in "ocean-going service" during World War II have Veteran Status. They may be entitled to a gravestone, flag for their coffin, and burial in a National Cemetery". Usmm.org. http://www.usmm.org/contact.html#contact2. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  344. ^ U.S. Army Air Force in World War Two.
  345. ^ "US Navy and Marine Corps Personnel Casualties in World WarII". History.navy.mil. http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq11-1.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  346. ^ CRS Report for Congress U.S. Prisoners of War and Civilian American Citizens Captured and Interned by Japan in World War II: The Issue of Compensation by Japan Updated December 17, 2002, p. CRS-11
  347. ^ Center for Internee Rights- Civilian prisoners of the Japanese in the Philippine Islands Turner Press 2002, ISBN 1-56311-838-6] (The total of 1,536 is broken out-992 "died" and 544 "unknown" out of 13,996 total detained by Japan) (Those detained by Germany-168 "died" and 715 "unknown" out of 4,749 total detained)]
  348. ^ The annual death rate from 1942-1945 of Americans interned by Japan was about 3.5% There were 1,536 deaths among the 13,996 interned civilians from 1942-1945.
    The United States interned about 100,000 Japanese Americans from 1942-1945. The 1946 report by the U.S. Dept. of The Interior “The Evacuated People a Quantitative Description” gave the annual death rate from 1942-1945 of Japanese detained in the U.S. at about 0.7% There were 1,862 deaths of among the 100,000 to 110,00 Japanese civilians interned in the U.S. from 1942-1945. The annual death rate among the U.S. population as a whole from 1942-1945 was about 1.1% per annum.
  349. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 552
  350. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 550
  351. ^ U.S. National Archives Casualties from World War II
  352. ^ "U.S. Merchant Marine Casualties during World War II". Usmm.org. http://www.usmm.org/casualty.html. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  353. ^ "American Battle Monuments Commission". Abmc.gov. http://www.abmc.gov/search/wwii.php. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  354. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3615-4 Cap.17 Alleged and True Population Losses
  355. ^ U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Yugoslavia Ed. Paul F. Meyers and Arthur A. Campbell, Washington p. 23
  356. ^ Danijela Nadj, dnadj@hic.hr. "'Yugoslavia manipulations with the number Second World War victims'', - Zagreb: Croatian Information center,1993 ISBN 0-919817-32-7". Hic.hr. http://www.hic.hr/books/manipulations/. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  357. ^ Kočović, Bogoljub-Žrtve Drugog svetskog rata u Jugoslaviji 1990 ISBN 86-01-01928-5 pp. 172-189
  358. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3615-4 In Cap.17 Alleged and True Population Losses there is a detailed account of the controversies related to Yugoslav war losses. p. 737
  359. ^ a b c d e f g Tomasevich, Jozo. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3615-4 In Cap.17 Alleged and True Population Losses there is a detailed account of the controversies related to Yugoslav war losses. p. 744-750
  360. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia. Jasenovac". Ushmm.org. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005449. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  361. ^ Martin Gilbert Atlas of the Holocaust 1988 ISBN 0-688-12364-3 p. 244:
   
               

 

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