|Internet media type||
|Latest release||3.2, 3.1, 3.0|
|Type of format||3D computer graphics|
|Extended from||VRML, XML|
X3D is the ISO standard XML-based file format for representing 3D computer graphics, the successor to the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). X3D features extensions to VRML (e.g. Humanoid animation, NURBS, GeoVRML etc.), the ability to encode the scene using an XML syntax as well as the Open Inventor-like syntax of VRML97, or binary formatting, and enhanced application programming interfaces (APIs).
X3D extension supports multi-stage and multi-texture render, it also supports shader with lightmap and normalmap. In 2010 X3D supports deferred rendering architecture. Now X3D can import SSAO, CSM and Realtime Environment Reflection/Lighting, but doesn’t need care much about polygon counts. The user can also use optimizations like BSP/QuadTree/OctTree or culling in the X3D scene.
X3D also benefits from other open source standards like XML, DOM and XPath. The user can easily develop content tools like an exporter and editor which make content creation and optimization tasks easy.
X3D defines several profiles (sets of components) for various levels of capability including X3D Core, X3D Interchange, X3D Interactive, X3D CADInterchange, X3D Immersive, and X3D Full. Browser makers can define their own component extensions prior to submitting them for standardisation by the Web3D Consortium. Formal review and approval is then performed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Liaison and cooperation agreements are also in place between the Web3D Consortium and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) and the Khronos Group.
The abstract specification for X3D (ISO/IEC 19775) was first approved by the ISO in 2004. The XML and ClassicVRML encodings for X3D (ISO/IEC 19776) were first approved in 2005.
There are several applications, most of them being open source software, which natively parse and interpret X3D files, including the 3D graphics and animation editor Blender and the Sun Microsystems virtual world client Project Wonderland. An X3D applet is a software program that runs within a web browser that displays content in 3D, using OpenGL 3D graphics technology to display X3D content in several different browsers (IE, Safari, Firefox) across several different operating systems(Windows, Mac OS X, Linux). However, X3D has not received a wider ground of acceptance in other, more notable and proprietary software applications.
In 2000s, many companies like Bitmanagement improved the quality level of virtual effects in X3D to quality level of DirectX 9.0c, but at the expense of using proprietary solutions. All main features like game modeling are already complete. They include multi-pass render with low level setting for Z-buffer, BlendOp, AlphaOp, Stencil, Multi-texture, Shader with HLSL and GLSL support, real-time Render To Texture, Multi Render Target (MRT) and post-processing. Many demos shows that X3D already supports lightmap, normalmap, SSAO, CSM and real-time environment reflection along with other virtual effects.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!DOCTYPE X3D PUBLIC "ISO//Web3D//DTD X3D 3.2//EN" "http://www.web3d.org/specifications/x3d-3.2.dtd"> <X3D profile="Interchange" version="3.2" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsd:noNamespaceSchemaLocation=" http://www.web3d.org/specifications/x3d-3.2.xsd "> <Scene> <Shape> <IndexedFaceSet coordIndex="0 1 2"> <Coordinate point="0 0 0 1 0 0 0.5 1 0"/> </IndexedFaceSet> </Shape> </Scene> </X3D>
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