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definitions - Yoga

yoga (n.)

1.a system of exercises practiced as part of the Hindu discipline to promote control of the body and mind

2.Hindu discipline aimed at training the consciousness for a state of perfect spiritual insight and tranquility that is achieved through the three paths of actions and knowledge and devotion

Yoga (n.)

1.(MeSH)A major orthodox system of Hindu philosophy based on Sankhya (metaphysical dualism) but differing from it in being theistic and characterized by the teaching of raja-yoga as a practical method of liberating the self. It includes a system of exercises for attaining bodily or mental control and well-being with liberation of the self and union with the universal spirit. (From Webster, 3d ed)

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Merriam Webster

Yoga‖Yo"ga (?), n. [Skr. yōga union.] A species of asceticism among the Hindoos, which consists in a complete abstraction from all worldly objects, by which the votary expects to obtain union with the universal spirit, and to acquire superhuman faculties.

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definition of Wikipedia

see also - Yoga

yoga (n.)

yogic, yogistic

phrases

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analogical dictionary




yoga (n.)


Wikipedia

Yoga

                   

Yoga (Sanskrit, Pāli: योग, yoga) is a generic term for a physical, mental, and spiritual discipline originating in ancient India[1][2] and found in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism.[3][4][5] Specifically, Yoga is also one of the six orthodox schools in Hindu philosophy. It is based on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and aims to use mediation to attain salvation.

Contents

  Terminology

The Sanskrit word yoga has the literal meaning of "yoke", from a root yuj meaning 'to join', 'to unite', or 'to attach'. As a term for a system of abstract meditation or mental abstraction it was introduced by Patañjali in the 2nd century BC. Someone who practices yoga or follows the yoga philosophy with a high level of commitment is called a yogi or yogini.[6]

Within Hindu philosophy, the word yoga is used to refer to one of the six orthodox (āstika) schools of Hindu philosophy.[7][8] Yoga in this sense is based on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, and is also known as Rāja Yoga to distinguish it from later schools.[9] Patanjali's system is discussed and elaborated upon in many classical Hindu texts, and has also been influential in Buddhism and Jainism. The Bhagavad Gita introduces distinctions such as Jnana Yoga ("yoga based on knowledge") vs. Karma Yoga ("yoga based on action").

In Vedic Sanskrit, the term "yoga" besides its literal meaning, the yoking or harnessing of oxen or horses, already has a figurative sense, where it takes the general meaning of "employment, use, application, performance" (compare the figurative uses of "to harness" as in "to put something to some use"). All further developments of the sense of this word are post-Vedic. A sense of "exertion, endeavour, zeal, diligence" is found in Epic Sanskrit. The more technical sense of the term "yoga", describing a system of meditation or contemplation with the aim of the cessation of mental activity and the attaining of a "supreme state" arises with early Buddhism (5th century BC), and is adopted in Vedanta philosophy by the 4th century BC.

There are a great many compounds containing yog in Sanskrit, many of them unrelated to the technical or spiritual sense the word has taken in Vedanta. Yoga in these words takes meanings such as "union, connection, contact", or "method, application, performance", etc. For example, guṇá-yoga means "contact with a cord"; cakrá-yoga has a medical sense of "applying a splint or similar instrument by means of pulleys (in case of dislocation of the thigh)"; candrá-yoga has the astronomical sense of "conjunction of the moon with a constellation"; puṃ-yoga is a grammatical term expressing "connection or relation with a man", etc.

Many such compounds are also found in the wider field of religion. Thus, bhakti-yoga means "devoted attachment" in the monotheistic Bhakti movement. The term kriyā-yoga has a grammatical sense, meaning "connection with a verb". But the same compound is also given a technical meaning in the Yoga Sutras (2.1), designating the "practical" aspects of the philosophy, i.e. the "union with the Supreme" due to performance of duties in everyday life.

  The "Goals" of Yoga

The goals of yoga are varied and range from improving health to achieving moksha.[10] Within the Hindu monist schools of Advaita Vedanta, Shaivism and Jainism, the goal of yoga takes the form of moksha, which is liberation from all worldly suffering and the cycle of birth and death (samsara), at which point there is a realization of identity with the Supreme Brahman. In the Mahabharata, the goal of yoga is variously described as entering the world of Brahma, as Brahman, or as perceiving the Brahman or Ātman that pervades all things.[11] For the bhakti schools of Vaishnavism, bhakti or service to Svayam Bhagavan itself may be the ultimate goal of the yoga process, where the goal is to enjoy an eternal relationship with Vishnu.[12] The goal of yoga, or of the person practicing yoga, is the attainment of a state of perfect spiritual insight and tranquility while meditating on the Hindu concept of divinity or Brahman.[13]

A serious practitioner of Yoga (someone pursuing the higher spiritual and religious goals of Yoga) takes upon themselves a life of austere self-discipline common to nearly all forms of mystical and religious life. The practices that constitute this self-disciplined life are called in yoga yama and niyama. This self-discipline is the 'yoke' that one puts upon oneself for the purpose of attaining moksha. An alternative definition is that Yoga is the method of yoking, or unifying, the "lower" (egoistic) personality (those inclinations that in Hellenistic philosophy and Christianity are called passions) to the "higher" via a process of sublimation.[14]

  History

  Prehistory

Several seals discovered at Indus Valley Civilization sites, dating to the mid 3rd millennium BC, depict figures in positions resembling a common yoga or meditation pose, showing "a form of ritual discipline, suggesting a precursor of yoga," according to archaeologist Gregory Possehl.[15] Ramaprasad Chanda, who supervised Indus Valley Civilization excavations, states that, “Not only the seated deities on some of the Indus seals are in Yoga posture and bear witness to the prevalence of Yoga in the Indus Valley Civilization in that remote age, the standing deities on the seals also show Kayotsarga (a standing posture of meditation) position. It is a posture not of sitting but of standing."[16] Some type of connection between the Indus Valley seals and later yoga and meditation practices is speculated upon by many scholars, though there is no conclusive evidence.[17]

Techniques for experiencing higher states of consciousness in meditation were developed by the shramanic traditions and in the Upanishadic tradition.[18] While there is no clear evidence for meditation in pre-Buddhist early Brahminic texts, there is a view that formless meditation might have originated in the Brahminic tradition. This is based on strong parallels between Upanishadic cosmological statements and the meditative goals of the two teachers of the Buddha as recorded in early Buddhist texts.[19] As well as some less likely possibilities,[20] the view put forward is that cosmological statements in the Upanishads reflect a contemplative tradition, and it is concluded that the Nasadiya Sukta contains evidence for a contemplative tradition, even as early as the late Rg Vedic period.[19]

The Vedic Samhitas contain references to ascetics, while ascetic practices ("tapas") are referenced in the Brāhmaṇas (900 to 500 BCE), early commentaries on the Vedas.[21]

  Upanishadic and early Buddhist era

Though there is consensus that Yoga originated in India and "how and when" remains an issue of debate.[22] Some argue that origins of Yoga lie in Vedic religious worship.[23] While The Columbia Encyclopedia notes that both Vedic and early Buddhist literature contain descriptions of austerities and mediation,[24] indologist Richard Gombrich says that there is nothing said in the Vedic literature about the technique of meditation; the Buddhist texts are probably the earliest on the subject.[25] Alexander Wynne, author of The Origin of Buddhist Meditation, suggests that the Vedic Nasadiya Sukta has allusions to pre-Buddhist mediation techniques.[26]

The term "yoga" first appears in the Hindu scripture Katha Upanishad (a primary Upanishad c. 400 BCE) where it is defined as the steady control of the senses, which along with cessation of mental activity, leads to the supreme state.[27] It is the earliest literary work that highlights the basics of yoga. The later texts like Shvetashvatara Upanishad (400-200 BCE) and Maitrayaniya Upanishad (c. 300 BCE) elaborate the concept of yoga.[28]

  The Buddha depicted in yogic meditation, Kamakura, Japan

While Vedic and Upanishadic have few concepts of yoga, early Buddhist Pali canons are the first to describe a comprehensive Yoga discipline that is the oldest known Yoga system, still existent. Most of the principles of other contemporary Yoga systems alluded in the Upanishads and some Pali canons are lost to time. Another yoga system that pre-dated the Buddhist school is Jain Yoga, however since Jain sources postdate Buddhist ones, it is difficult to distinguish between the true nature of the early Jain school and derived elements from other schools.[29]

The early Buddhist texts describe meditative practices and states, some of which the Buddha borrowed from the ascetic (Shramana) tradition.[30][31][32] One key innovative teaching of the Buddha was that meditative absorption must be combined with liberating cognition.[33] Meditative states alone are not an end, for according to the Buddha, even the highest meditative state is not liberating. Instead of attaining a complete cessation of thought, some sort of mental activity must take place: a liberating cognition, based on the practice of mindful awareness.[34] The Buddha also departed from earlier yogic thought in discarding the early Brahminic notion of liberation at death.[35] Liberation for the Brahmin was thought to be the realization at death of a nondual meditative state anticipated in life. In fact, old Brahminic metaphors for the liberation at death ("becoming cool," "going out") were given a new meaning by the Buddha; their point of reference became the sage who is liberated in life.[36]

The Pali canon (29 BCE) contains three passages in which the Buddha describes pressing the tongue against the palate for the purposes of controlling hunger or the mind, depending on the passage.[37] However there is no mention of the tongue being inserted into the nasopharynx as in true khecarī mudrā. The Mahāsīhanadāsutta (Majjhima Nikaya 1:78) mentions the Buddha using a posture where pressure is put on the perineum with the heel, similar to even modern postures used to stimulate Kundalini.[38]

Many of the Yogic practices that came in later ages synthesized the multiple approaches seen in this era, incorporating elements from Buddhism into the Hindu Samkhya philosophy.

  Indian Antiquity

Classical Yoga as a system of contemplation with the aim of uniting the human spirit with Ishvara, the "Supreme Being" developed in early Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism during Indian Antiquity, between the Mauryan and the Gupta era (roughly the 2nd century BCE to the 5th century CE).

  Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

  Traditional Hindu depiction of Patanjali as an avatar of the divine serpent Shesha.
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali[39]
Pada (Chapter) English meaning Sutras
Samadhi Pada On being absorbed in spirit
51
Sadhana Pada On being immersed in spirit
55
Vibhuti Pada On supernatural abilities and gifts
56
Kaivalya Pada On absolute freedom
34

In Hindu philosophy, Yoga is the name of one of the six orthodox philosophical schools[40][41] founded by Patanjali with heavy Buddhist influence.[42] This school accepts the Samkhya psychology and metaphysics, but is more theistic than the Samkhya, as evidenced by the addition of a divine entity to the Samkhya's twenty-five elements of reality.[43][44] The parallels between Yoga and Samkhya were so close that Max Müller says that "the two philosophies were in popular parlance distinguished from each other as Samkhya with and Samkhya without a Lord...."[45] The intimate relationship between Samkhya and Yoga is explained by Heinrich Zimmer:

These two are regarded in India as twins, the two aspects of a single discipline. Sāṅkhya provides a basic theoretical exposition of human nature, enumerating and defining its elements, analyzing their manner of co-operation in a state of bondage ("bandha"), and describing their state of disentanglement or separation in release ("mokṣa"), while Yoga treats specifically of the dynamics of the process for the disentanglement, and outlines practical techniques for the gaining of release, or "isolation-integration" ("kaivalya").[46]

Patanjali is widely regarded as the compiler of the formal Yoga philosophy.[47] Patanjali's yoga is known as Raja yoga, which is a system for control of the mind.[48] Patanjali defines the word "yoga" in his second sutra, which is the definitional sutra for his entire work:

योग: चित्त-वृत्ति निरोध:
(yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ)

- Yoga Sutras 1.2

This terse definition hinges on the meaning of three Sanskrit terms. I. K. Taimni translates it as "Yoga is the inhibition (nirodhaḥ) of the modifications (vṛtti) of the mind (citta)".[49] The use of the word nirodhaḥ in the opening definition of yoga is an example of the important role that Buddhist technical terminology and concepts play in the Yoga Sutra; this role suggests that Patanjali was aware of Buddhist ideas and wove them into his system.[50] Swami Vivekananda translates the sutra as "Yoga is restraining the mind-stuff (Citta) from taking various forms (Vrittis)."[51]

  A sculpture of a Hindu yogi in the Birla Mandir, Delhi

Patanjali's writing also became the basis for a system referred to as "Ashtanga Yoga" ("Eight-Limbed Yoga"). This eight-limbed concept derived from the 29th Sutra of the 2nd book, and is a core characteristic of practically every Raja yoga variation taught today. The Eight Limbs are:

  1. Yama (The five "abstentions"): Ahimsa (non-violence), Satya (Truth, non-lying), Asteya (non-covetousness), Brahmacharya (non-sensuality, celibacy), and Aparigraha (non-possessiveness).
  2. Niyama (The five "observances"): Shaucha(purity), Santosha(contentment), Tapas (austerity), Svadhyaya (study of the Vedic scriptures to know about God and the soul), and Ishvara-Pranidhana (surrender to God).
  3. Asana: Literally means "seat", and in Patanjali's Sutras refers to the seated position used for meditation.
  4. Pranayama ("Suspending Breath"): Prāna, breath, "āyāma", to restrain or stop. Also interpreted as control of the life force.
  5. Pratyahara ("Abstraction"): Withdrawal of the sense organs from external objects.
  6. Dharana ("Concentration"): Fixing the attention on a single object.
  7. Dhyana ("Meditation"): Intense contemplation of the nature of the object of meditation.
  8. Samadhi ("Liberation"): merging consciousness with the object of meditation.

In the view of this school, the highest attainment does not reveal the experienced diversity of the world to be illusion. The everyday world is real. Furthermore, the highest attainment is the event of one of many individual selves discovering itself; there is no single universal self shared by all persons.[52]

  Yoga Yajnavalkya

संयोगो योग इत्युक्तो जीवात्मपरमात्मनोः॥
saṁyogo yoga ityukto jīvātma-paramātmanoḥ॥
Union of the self (jivātma) with the Divine (paramātma) is said to be yoga.

The Yoga Yajnavalkya is a classical treatise on yoga attributed to Vedic sage Yajnavalkya. It takes the form of a dialogue between Yajnavalkya and his wife Gargi, a renowned female philosopher. The text consists of 12 chapters and its origin has been traced to the period between the second century B.C.E. and fourth century C.E. The Yoga Yajnavalkya predates most other yoga texts, with the exception of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Most later yoga texts like the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the Yoga Kundalini and Yoga Tattva Upanishads have borrowed verses almost verbatim from or make frequent references to the Yoga Yajnavalkya. The Yoga Yajnavalkya is regarded to be the most important and authentic classical text on yoga after the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. In the Yoga Yajnavalkya, yoga is defined as jivatmaparamatmasamyogah, or the union between the individual self (jivatma) and the Divine (paramatma).

  Yoga and Samkhya

Patanjali systematized the conceptions of Yoga and set them forth on the background of the metaphysics of Samkhya, which he assumed with slight variations. In the early works, the Yoga principles appear along with the Samkhya ideas. Vyasa's commentary on the Yoga Sutras, also called the "Samkhyapravacanabhasya," brings out the intimate relation between the two systems.[53]

Yoga agrees with the essential metaphysics of Samkhya, but differs from it in that while Samkhya holds that knowledge is the means of liberation, Yoga is a system of active striving, mental discipline, and dutiful action. Yoga also introduces the conception of God. Sometimes Patanjali's system is referred to as "Seshvara Samkhya" in contradistinction to Kapila's "Nirivara Samkhya."[54]

  Bhagavad Gita

  Krishna narrating the Gita to Arjuna.

The Bhagavad Gita ('Song of the Lord'), uses the term "yoga" extensively in a variety of ways. In addition to an entire chapter (ch. 6) dedicated to traditional yoga practice, including meditation,[10] it introduces three prominent types of yoga:[55]

In Chapter 2 of the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna explains to Arjuna about the essence of Yoga as practiced in daily lives:

योगस्थ: कुरु कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा धनंजय ।
सिद्ध्यसिद्ध्यो: समो भूत्वा समत्वं योग उच्यते ।।
(yoga-sthaḥ kuru karmani sanyugam tyaktvā dhananjay
siddhy-asiddhyoḥ samo bhutvā samatvam yoga ucyate)

- Bhagavad Gita 2.48

A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada translates it as "Be steadfast in yoga (yoga-sthaḥ), O Arjuna. Perform your duty (kuru karmani) and abandon all attachment (sangam) to success or failure (siddhy-asiddhyoḥ). Such evenness of mind (samatvam) is called yoga."[56]

Madhusudana Sarasvati (b. circa 1490) divided the Gita into three sections, with the first six chapters dealing with Karma yoga, the middle six with Bhakti yoga, and the last six with Jnana (knowledge).[57] Other commentators ascribe a different 'yoga' to each chapter, delineating eighteen different yogas.[58]

  Yoga and Jainism

  Tirthankara Parsva in Yogic meditation in the Kayotsarga posture.

According to "Tattvarthasutra," 2nd century CE Jain text, "Yoga," is the sum total of all the activities of mind, speech and body.[5] Umasvati calls yoga the cause of "asrava" or karmic influx[59] as well as one of the essentials—samyak caritra—in the path to liberation.[59] In his "Niyamasara," Acarya Kundakunda, describes yoga bhakti—devotion to the path to liberation—as the highest form of devotion.[60] Acarya Haribhadra and Acarya Hemacandra mention the five major vows of ascetics and 12 minor vows of laity under yoga. This has led certain Indologists like Prof. Robert J. Zydenbos to call Jainism, essentially, a system of yogic thinking that grew into a full-fledged religion.[61]

The five yamas or the constraints of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali bear a resemblance to the five major vows of Jainism, indicating a history of strong cross-fertilization between these traditions.[62][63]

  Yogacara school

In the late phase of Indian antiquity, on the eve of the development of Classical Hinduism, the Yogacara movement arises during the Gupta period (4th to 5th centuries). Yogacara received the name as it provided a "yoga," a framework for engaging in the practices that lead to the path of the bodhisattva.[64] The Yogacara sect teaches "yoga" as a way to reach enlightenment.[65]

  Middle Ages

The practice of Yoga remained in development in Classical Hinduism, and cognate techniques of meditation within Buddhism, throughout the medieval period.

  Yoga in later Jain literature

The later texts that further elaborated on the Jain concept of yoga are as follows:

  • Pujyapada (5th century CE)
    • Ishtopadesh
  • Acarya Haribhadra Suri(8th century CE)
    • Yogabindu
    • Yogadristisamuccaya
    • Yogasataka
    • Yogavimisika
  • Acarya Joindu (8th century CE)
    • Yogasara
  • Acarya Hemacandra (11th century CE)
    • Yogasastra
  • Acarya Amitagati (11th century CE)
    • Yogasaraprabhrta

  Bhakti movement

The Bhakti movement was a development in medieval Hinduism advocating the concept of a personal God (or "Supreme Personality of Godhead"), initiated by the Alvars of South India in the 6th to 9th centuries, and gaining influence throughout India by the 12th to 15th centuries, giving rise to sects such as Gaudiya Vaishnavism.[66] The Bhagavata Purana is an important text of the Bhakti movement within Vaishnavism. It focusses on the concept of bhakti (devotion to God) in the theological framework of Krishnaism.

The Bhagavata Purana discusses religious devotion as a kind of yoga, called bhaktiyoga. It also emphasizes kriyāyoga, i.e. the devotion to the deity in everday life (4.13.3).

The Bhagavata Purana is a commentary and elaboration on the Bhagavadgita, an older text of the Mahabharata epic which rose to great importance in Vaishnavism during the Bhakti movement. In the Bhagavadgita (3.3), jñānayoga is the acquisition of true knowledge, as opposed to karmayoga, the performance of the proper religious rites.

This terminology involving various yogas has given rise to the concept of the Four Yogas in modern Hinduism from the 1890s. These are

  1. Karma Yoga
  2. Bhakti Yoga
  3. Raja Yoga
  4. Jnana Yoga

In this usage, the term "Yoga" ceases to translate to "a system of meditation" and takes on the much more general sense of "religious path". Thus, Karma Yoga is "the Path of Action", Bhakti Yoga "the Path of Devotion" and Jnana Yoga "the Path of Knowledge", all standing alongside Raja Yoga, "the Path of Meditation" as alternative possibilities towards religious fulfillment.

  Vajrayana

While breath channels (nāḍis) of yogic practices had already been discussed in the classical Upanishads, it was not until Tantric works, such as the eighth-century Buddhist Hevajra Tantra and Caryāgiti, that hierarchies of chakras were introduced.[67]

  Hatha Yoga

The earliest definition of hatha yoga is found in the 11th century Buddhist text Vimalaprabha, which defines it in relation to the center channel, bindu etc.[68] Hatha Yoga, sometimes referred to as the "psychophysical yoga",[69] was further described by Yogi Swatmarama, compiler of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika in 15th century India. Hatha Yoga differs substantially from the Raja Yoga of Patanjali in that it focuses on "shatkarma," the purification of the physical body as leading to the purification of the mind ("ha"), and "prana," or vital energy (tha).[70][71] Compared to the seated asana, or sitting meditation posture, of Patanjali's Raja yoga,[72] it marks the development of asanas (plural) into the full body 'postures' now in popular usage[73] and, along with its many modern variations, is the style that many people associate with the word "Yoga" today.[74]

Hatha Yoga exercises have resulted in severe bodily dysfunction or injury. Practitioners suggest that this is primarily the case when individuals push themselves or are pushed beyond what their physical condition will support.[75]

  Yoga in Sikhism

Sikhism is another major genre of yoga that spans many centuries.[76]

“Raamakalee Mahalaa 1. Says Nanak, O Machhindra (Machhindra Yogi)! Listen. (The real hermit) subdues his five passions (lust, anger, greed etc.), and does not waver (under their pull). He practices Yoga in such a way, saves himself, and saves all his generations”

  Modern history

  Hindu revivalism

New schools of Yoga were introduced in the context of Hindu revivalism towards the end of the 19th century.

The physical poses of Hatha Yoga have a tradition that goes back to the 15th century, but they were not widely practiced in India prior to the early 20th century. Hatha Yoga was advocated by a number of late 19th to early 20th century gurus in India, including Tirumalai Krishnamacharya in south India, Swami Sivananda in the north, Yogendra in Bombay, and Swami Kuvalyananda in Lonavla, Maharashtra.

In 1946, Paramahansa Yogananda in his Autobiography of a Yogi introduced the term Kriya Yoga for the tradition of Yoga transmitted by his lineage of gurus, deriving it via Swāmī Śrīyukteśwara Giri and Syāmacaran Lahiri "Mahasaya" from Mahāvatār Bābājī. Also influential in the development of modern Yoga were Tirumalai Krishnamacharya, and his disciple K. Pattabhi Jois, who introduced his style of Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga in 1948. Most systems of Hatha Yoga which developed from the 1960s in the "yoga boom" in the West are derived from B.K.S. Iyengar.

  Reception in the West

  A western style Hatha Yoga class.

Yoga came to the attention of an educated western public in the mid 19th century along with other topics of Hindu philosophy. The first Hindu teacher to actively advocate and disseminate aspects of Yoga to a western audience was Swami Vivekananda, who toured Europe and the United States in the 1890s.[77]

In the West, the term "yoga" is today typically associated with Hatha Yoga and its asanas (postures) or as a form of exercise.[78] In the 1960s, western interest in Hindu spirituality reached its peak, giving rise to a great number of Neo-Hindu schools specifically advocated to a western public. Among the teachers of Hatha yoga who were active in the west in this period were B.K.S. Iyengar, K. Pattabhi Jois, and Swami Vishnu-devananda, and Swami Satchidananda. [79] [80][81] A second "yoga boom" followed in the 1980s, as Dean Ornish, a follower of Swami Satchidananda, connected yoga to heart health, legitimizing yoga as a purely physical system of health exercises outside of counter culture or esotericism circles, and unconnected to a religious denomination.[77]

Kundalini Yoga, considered an advanced form of yoga and meditation, was on the whole a secretive and misunderstood technology – it was not widely taught by any master teachers outside of India until Yogi Bhajan(Siri Singh Sahib) brought his understanding of the teachings to the United States in 1969.[82]

There has been an emergence of studies investigating yoga as a complementary intervention for cancer patients. Yoga is used for treatment of cancer patients to decrease depression, insomnia, pain, and fatigue and increase anxiety control.[83] Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) programs include yoga as a mind-body technique to reduce stress. A study found that after seven weeks the group treated with yoga reported significantly less mood disturbance and reduced stress compared to the control group. Another study found that MBSR had showed positive effects on sleep anxiety, quality of life, and spiritual growth.[84]

Yoga has also been studied as a treatment for schizophrenia. Yoga is found to improve cognitive functions and reduce stress in schizophrenia, a condition associated with cognitive deficits and stress-related relapse. In one study, at the end of four months those patients treated with yoga were better in their social and occupational functions and quality of life.[85]

The three main focuses of Hatha yoga (exercise, breathing, and meditation) make it beneficial to those suffering from heart disease. Overall, studies of the effects of yoga on heart disease suggest that yoga may reduce high blood pressure, improve symptoms of heart failure, enhance cardiac rehabilitation, and lower cardiovascular risk factors.[86]

Long-term yoga practitioners in the United States have reported musculoskeletal and mental health improvements, as well as reduced symptoms of asthma in asthmatics.[87] Regular yoga practice increases brain GABA levels and has been shown to improve mood and anxiety more than some other metabolically matched exercises, such as walking.[88] Implementation of the Kundalini Yoga Lifestyle has shown to help substance abuse addicts increase their quality of life according to psychological questionnaires like the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale and the Quality of Recovery Index.[89]

  Yoga compared with other systems of meditation

  Tantra

Tantrism is a practice that is supposed to alter the relation of its practitioners to the ordinary social, religious, and logical reality in which they live. Through Tantric practice, an individual perceives reality as maya, illusion, and the individual achieves liberation from it.[90] Both Tantra & Yoga offer paths that relieve a person from depending on the world. Where Yoga relies on progressive restriction of inputs from outside; Tantra relies on transmutation of all external inputs so that one is no longer dependent on them, but can take them or leave them at will. They both make a person independent.[91] This particular path to salvation among the several offered by Hinduism, links Tantrism to those practices of Indian religions, such as yoga, meditation, and social renunciation, which are based on temporary or permanent withdrawal from social relationships and modes.[90]

As Robert Svoboda attempts to summarize the three major paths of the Vedic knowledge, he exclaims:

Because every embodied individual is composed of a body, a mind and a spirit, the ancient Rishis of India who developed the Science of Life organized their wisdom into three bodies of knowledge: Ayurveda, which deals mainly with the physical body; Yoga, which deals mainly with spirit; and Tantra, which is mainly concerned with the mind. The philosophy of all three is identical; their manifestations differ because of their differing emphases. Ayurveda is most concerned with the physical basis of life, concentrating on its harmony of mind and spirit. Yoga controls body and mind to enable them to harmonize with spirit, and Tantra seeks to use the mind to balance the demands of body and spirit.[91]

During tantric practices and studies, the student is instructed further in meditation technique, particularly chakra meditation. This is often in a limited form in comparison with the way this kind of meditation is known and used by Tantric practitioners and yogis elsewhere, but is more elaborate than the initiate's previous meditation. It is considered to be a kind of Kundalini Yoga for the purpose of moving the Goddess into the chakra located in the "heart", for meditation and worship.[92]

  Buddhism

  Zen Buddhism

  A Falun Gong practitioner depicted in yogic meditation in the Lotus position

Zen (the name of which derives from the Sanskrit "dhyaana" via the Chinese "ch'an"[93]) is a form of Mahayana Buddhism. The Mahayana school of Buddhism is noted for its proximity with Yoga.[94] In the west, Zen is often set alongside Yoga; the two schools of meditation display obvious family resemblances.[95] This phenomenon merits special attention since yogic practices have some of their roots in the Zen Buddhist school.[96] Certain essential elements of Yoga are important both for Buddhism in general and for Zen in particular.[97]

  Tibetan Buddhism

Yoga is central to Tibetan Buddhism. In the Nyingma tradition, the path of meditation practice is divided into nine yanas, or vehicles, which are said to be increasingly profound.[98] The last six are described as "yoga yanas": "Kriya yoga," "Upa yoga," "Yoga yana," "Mahā yoga," "Anu yoga" and the ultimate practice, "Ati yoga."[99] The Sarma traditions also include Kriya, Upa (called "Charya"), and Yoga, with the Anuttara yoga class substituting for Mahayoga and Atiyoga.[100]

Other tantra yoga practices include a system of 108 bodily postures practiced with breath and heart rhythm. The Nyingma tradition also practices Yantra yoga (Tib. "Trul khor"), a discipline that includes breath work (or pranayama), meditative contemplation and precise dynamic movements to centre the practitioner.[101] The body postures of Tibetan ancient yogis are depicted on the walls of the Dalai Lama's summer temple of Lukhang. A semi-popular account of Tibetan Yoga by Chang (1993) refers to caṇḍalī (Tib. "tummo"), the generation of heat in one's own body, as being "the very foundation of the whole of Tibetan Yoga."[102] Chang also claims that Tibetan Yoga involves reconciliation of apparent polarities, such as prana and mind, relating this to theoretical implications of tantrism.

  Christian meditation

Some Christians integrate yoga and other aspects of Eastern spirituality with prayer and meditation. This has been attributed to a desire to experience God in a more complete way.[103] The Roman Catholic Church, and some other Christian organizations have expressed concerns and disapproval with respect to some eastern and New Age practices that include yoga and meditation.[104][105][106]

In 1989 and 2003, the Vatican issued two documents: Aspects of Christian meditation and "A Christian reflection on the New Age," that were mostly critical of eastern and New Age practices. The 2003 document was published as a 90 page handbook detailing the Vatican's position.[107] The Vatican warned that concentration on the physical aspects of meditation "can degenerate into a cult of the body" and that equating bodily states with mysticism "could also lead to psychic disturbance and, at times, to moral deviations." Such has been compared to the early days of Christianity, when the church opposed the gnostics' belief that salvation came not through faith but through a mystical inner knowledge.[103]

The letter also says, "one can see if and how [prayer] might be enriched by meditation methods developed in other religions and cultures"[108] but maintains the idea that "there must be some fit between the nature of [other approaches to] prayer and Christian beliefs about ultimate reality."[103]

Some fundamentalist Christian organizations consider yoga to be incompatible with their religious background, considering it a part of the New Age movement inconsistent with Christianity.[109]

  Sufism

The development of Sufism was considerably influenced by Indian yogic practises, where they adapted both physical postures (asanas) and breath control (pranayama).[110] The ancient Indian yogic text Amritakunda ("Pool of Nectar)" was translated into Arabic and Persian as early as the 11th century. Several other yogic texts were appropriated by Sufi tradition, but typically the texts juxtapose yoga materials alongside Sufi practices without any real attempt at integration or synthesis. Yoga became known to Indian Sufis gradually over time, but engagement with yoga is not found at the historical beginnings of the tradition.[111]

The only sect of the Islam community that has successfully incorporated yoga into its practice is the Jogi Faqir, whose followers are Muslim converts from the Hindu Jogicaste.

  Sunni Islam

Malaysia's top Islamic body in 2008 passed a fatwa, which is legally non-binding, against Muslims practicing yoga, saying it had elements of "Hindu spiritual teachings" and that its practice was blasphemy and is therefore haraam. Muslim yoga teachers in Malaysia criticized the decision as "insulting."[112] Sisters in Islam, a women's rights group in Malaysia, also expressed disappointment and said that its members would continue with their yoga classes.[113]

The fatwa states that yoga practiced only as physical exercise is permissible, but prohibits the chanting of religious mantras,[114] and states that teachings such as the uniting of a human with God is not consistent with Islamic philosophy.[115] In a similar vein, the Council of Ulemas, an Islamic body in Indonesia, passed a fatwa banning yoga on the grounds that it contains "Hindu elements"[116] These fatwas have, in turn, been criticized by Darul Uloom Deoband, a Deobandi Islamic seminary in India.[117]

In May 2009, Turkey's head of the Directorate of Religious Affairs, Ali Bardakoğlu, discounted personal development techniques such as yoga as commercial ventures that could lead to extremism. His comments were made in the context of yoga possibly competing with and eroding participation in Islamic practice.[118]

  References

  Notes

  1. ^ Baptiste, Sherri; Scott, Megan (2005-12-16). Yoga with Weights for Dummies. ISBN 978-0-471-74937-0. http://books.google.com/?id=J6tEKjkY6WYC&pg=PA325. 
  2. ^ Yogani (2010-12-01). Advanced Yoga Practices – Easy Lessons for Ecstatic Living. ISBN 978-0-9819255-2-3. http://books.google.com/?id=pWDZorvxl1sC&pg=PA50. 
  3. ^ Denise Lardner Carmody, John Carmody, Serene Compassion. Oxford University Press US, 1996, page 68.
  4. ^ Stuart Ray Sarbacker, Samādhi: The Numinous and Cessative in Indo-Tibetan Yoga. SUNY Press, 2005, pp. 1–2.
  5. ^ a b Tattvarthasutra [6.1], see Manu Doshi (2007) Translation of Tattvarthasutra, Ahmedabad: Shrut Ratnakar p. 102
  6. ^ American Heritage Dictionary: "Yogi, One who practices yoga." Websters: "Yogi, A follower of the yoga philosophy; an ascetic."
  7. ^ "Yoga has five principal meanings: 1) yoga as a disciplined method for attaining a goal; 2) yoga as techniques of controlling the body and the mind; 3) yoga as a name of one of the schools or systems of philosophy (darśana); 4) yoga in connection with other words, such as "hatha-, mantra-, and laya-," referring to traditions specialising in particular techniques of yoga; 5) yoga as the goal of yoga practice." Jacobsen, p. 4.
  8. ^ Monier-Williams includes "it is the second of the two Sāṃkhya systems," and "abstraction practised as a system (as taught by Patañjali and called the Yoga philosophy)" in his definitions of "yoga."
  9. ^ Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Indian Philosophy, London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1971 edition, Volume II, pp. 19–20.
  10. ^ a b Jacobsen, p. 10.
  11. ^ Jacobsen, p. 9.
  12. ^ "Vaishnavism" Britannica Concise "Characterized by an emphasis on bhakti, its goal is to escape the cycle of birth and death in order to enjoy the presence of Vishnu."
  13. ^ For the uses of the word in Pāli literature, see Thomas William Rhys Davids, William Stede, Pali-English dictionary. Reprint by Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1993, p. 558
  14. ^ Feuerstein, Georg. Encyclopedic Dictionary of Yoga. New York: Paragon House, 1990. Print.
  15. ^ Possehl (2003), pp. 144–145
  16. ^ In his article "Mohen-jo-Daro: Sindh 5000 Years Ago" in Modern Review (August, 1932)
  17. ^ See:
  18. ^ Flood, pp. 94–95.
  19. ^ a b Wynne, p. 51.
  20. ^ Wynne, p. 56.
  21. ^ Flood, p. 94.
  22. ^ Werner p. 99
  23. ^ Werner p. 100
  24. ^ "Yoga". The Columbia Encyclopedia. Columbia University Press. http://www.credoreference.com/entry/columency/yoga. Retrieved June 15, 2012. 
  25. ^ Richard Gombrich, "Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo." Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988, p. 44.
  26. ^ Wynne, pp. 50-6.
  27. ^ Flood, p. 95. For the date of this Upanishad see also e.g. Helmuth von Glasenapp, from the 1950 Proceedings of the "Akademie der Wissenschaften und Literatur", [1]
  28. ^ Feuerstein, Georg (January-February 1988). "Introducing Yoga's Great Literary Heritage". Yoga Journal (78): 70-5. 
  29. ^ Werner p. 119-20
  30. ^ Wynne, p. 50.
  31. ^ Richard Gombrich, "Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo." Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988, p. 44.
  32. ^ Barbara Stoler Miller, "Yoga: Discipline of Freedom: the Yoga Sutra Attributed to Patanjali; a Translation of the Text, with Commentary, Introduction, and Glossary of Keywords." University of California Press, 1996, p. 8.
  33. ^ Wynne, p. 73.
  34. ^ Wynne, p. 105.
  35. ^ Wynne, p. 96.
  36. ^ Wynne, p. 109.
  37. ^ Mallinson, James. 2007. The Khecarīvidyā of Adinathā. London: Routledge. pg.17-19.
  38. ^ James Mallinson, "Sāktism and Hathayoga," 6 March 2012. <URL> [accessed 10 June 2012] pgs. 20-21
  39. ^ Stiles 2001, p. x.
  40. ^ For an overview of the six orthodox schools, with detail on the grouping of schools, see: Radhakrishnan and Moore, "Contents," and pp. 453–487.
  41. ^ For a brief overview of the Yoga school of philosophy see: Chatterjee and Datta, p. 43.
  42. ^ Karel Werner, The Yogi and the Mystic. Routledge 1994, page 27. "Patanjali's system is unthinkable without Buddhism. As far as its terminology goes there is much in the Yoga Sutras that reminds us of Buddhist formulations from the Pāli Canon and even more so from the Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma and from Sautrāntika."
  43. ^ For Yoga acceptance of Samkhya concepts, but with addition of a category for God, see: Radhakrishnan and Moore, p. 453.
  44. ^ For Yoga as accepting the 25 principles of Samkhya with the addition of God, see: Chatterjee and Datta, p. 43.
  45. ^ Müller (1899), Chapter 7, "Yoga Philosophy," p. 104.
  46. ^ Zimmer (1951), p. 280.
  47. ^ For Patanjali as the founder of the philosophical system called Yoga see: Chatterjee and Datta, p. 42.
  48. ^ For "raja yoga" as a system for control of the mind and connection to Patanjali's Yoga Sutras as a key work, see: Flood (1996), pp. 96–98.
  49. ^ For text and word-by-word translation as "Yoga is the inhibition of the modifications of the mind." See: Taimni, p. 6.
  50. ^ Barbara Stoler Miller, "Yoga: Discipline of Freedom: the Yoga Sutra Attributed to Patanjali; a Translation of the Text, with Commentary, Introduction, and Glossary of Keywords." University of California Press, 1996, page 9.
  51. ^ Vivekanada, p. 115.
  52. ^ Stephen H. Phillips, "Classical Indian Metaphysics: Refutations of Realism and the Emergence of "New Logic." Open Court Publishing, 1995., pages 12–13.
  53. ^ Radhankrishnan, Indian Philosophy, London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1971 edition, Volume II, p. 342.
  54. ^ Radhankrishnan, Indian Philosophy, London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1971 edition, Volume II, p. 344.
  55. ^ "...Bhagavad Gita, including a complete chapter (ch. 6) devoted to traditional yoga practice. The Gita also introduces the famous three kinds of yoga, 'knowledge' (jnana), 'action' (karma), and 'love' (bhakti)." Flood, p. 96.
  56. ^ "Ch. 2.48" "Bhagavad-Gita As It Is" by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, courtesy of the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, www.Krishna.com.
  57. ^ Gambhirananda, p. 16.
  58. ^ Jacobsen, p. 46.
  59. ^ a b Tattvarthasutra [6.2]
  60. ^ Niyamasara [134-40]
  61. ^ Zydenbos, Robert. "Jainism Today and Its Future." München: Manya Verlag, 2006. p.66
  62. ^ Zydenbos (2006) p.66
  63. ^ "A History of Yoga" by Vivian Worthington (1982) Routledge ISBN 0-7100-9258-X p. 29. "Yoga fully acknowledges its debt to Jainism, and Jainism reciprocates by making the practice of yoga part and parcel of life." Vivian Worthington (1982) p. 35
  64. ^ Dan Lusthaus. Buddhist Phenomenology: A Philosophical Investigation of Yogacara Buddhism and the Ch'eng Wei-shih Lun. Published 2002 (Routledge). ISBN 0-7007-1186-4. pg 533
  65. ^ Simple Tibetan Buddhism: A Guide to Tantric Living By C. Alexander Simpkins, Annellen M. Simpkins. Published 2001. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3199-8
  66. ^ Cutler, Norman (1987). Songs of Experience. Indiana University Press. pp. 1. ISBN 978-0-253-35334-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=veSItWingx8C&pg=PA1. 
  67. ^ White, David Gordon. Yoga in Practice. Princeton University Press 2012, page 14.
  68. ^ James Mallinson, "Sāktism and Hathayoga," 6 March 2012. <URL> [accessed 10 June 2012] pgs. 2
  69. ^ Raub, James A.. Psychophysiologic Effects of Hatha Yoga on Musculoskeletal and Cardiopulmonary Function: A Literature Review.
  70. ^ Living Yoga: Creating a Life Practice – Page 42 by Christy Turlington (page 42)
  71. ^ "Guiding Yoga's Light: Yoga Lessons for Yoga Teachers" – Page 10 by Nancy Gerstein
  72. ^ "Mindfulness Yoga: The Awakened Union of Breath Body & Mind" – Page 6 by Frank Jude Boccio
  73. ^ "Hatha Yoga: Its Context, Theory and Practice" by Mikel Burley (page 16)
  74. ^ Feuerstein, Georg. (1996). "The Shambhala Guide to Yoga." Boston & London: Shambhala Publications, Inc.
  75. ^ William J. Broad, "How Yoga can wreck your body", New York Times, January 5, 2012
  76. ^ Guru Granth Sahib
  77. ^ a b Shaw, Eric. 35 mOMents, Yoga Journal, 2010-09.
  78. ^ Title: A History of Modern Yoga. Author: Elizabeth De Michelis. Published: Continuum, 2005
  79. ^ Cushman, Cushman (Jan/Feb 2000). "The New Yoga". Yoga Journal.com. pp. 68. http://www.yogajournal.com/lifestyle/281. Retrieved 05-02-2011. 
  80. ^ Silva, Mira, and Mehta, Shyam. (1995). Yoga the Iyengar Way, p. 9. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. ISBN 0-89381-731-7
  81. ^ Desikachar, T. K. V. (2005). Health, healing and beyond: Yoga and the living tradition of Krishnamacharya, (cover jacket text). Aperture, USA. ISBN 978-0-89381-731-2
  82. ^ Congressional Honorary Resolution 521 US Library of Congress
  83. ^ DeStasio, Susan A. Integrating Yoga Into Cancer Care. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing. Feb 2008, Volume 12 Issue 1. p125-130
  84. ^ Smith K, Pukall C. An evidence-based review of yoga as a complementary intervention for patients with cancer. Psycho-Oncology [serial online]. May 2009;18(5):465–475.
  85. ^ Duraiswamy, G. G., Thirthalli, J. J., Nagendra, H. R., & Gangadhar, B. N. (2007). Yoga therapy as an add-on treatment in the management of patients with schizophrenia – a randomized controlled trial. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 116(3), 226–232. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2007.01032.x
  86. ^ Yoga could be good for heart disease. Simultaneous focus on body, breathing, and mind may be just what the doctor ordered. (2010). Harvard Heart Letter: From Harvard Medical School, 21(3), 5. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
  87. ^ Birdee, Gurjeet S. et al. "Characteristics of Yoga Users: Results of a National Survey." Journal of General Internal Medicine. Oct 2008, Volume 23 Issue 10. p1653-1658
  88. ^ Streeter, Chris C. et al. "Effects of Yoga Versus Walking on Mood, Anxiety, and Brain GABA Levels: A Randomized Controlled MRS Study." Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine. Nov 2010, Volume 16 Issue 11, p1145-115
  89. ^ Khalsa, Sat Bir S. et al. Evaluation of a Residential Kundalini Yoga Lifestyle Pilot Program for Addiction in India. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse. 2008, Volume 7 Issue 1. p67-79
  90. ^ a b Title: Mesocosm: Hinduism and the Organization of a Traditional Newar City in Nepal. Author: Robert I. Levy. Published: University of California Press, 1991. pp 313
  91. ^ a b Your ayurvedic constitution: Prakruti by Robert Svoboda Motilal Banarsidass Publication,2005; ISBN 978-81-208-1840-8 Google Books
  92. ^ Title: Mesocosm: Hinduism and the Organization of a Traditional Newar City in Nepal. Author: Robert I. Levy. Published: University of California Press, 1991. pp 317
  93. ^ The Buddhist Tradition in India, China, and Japan. Edited by William Theodore de Bary. Pgs. 207–208. ISBN 0-394-71696-5 – "The Meditation school, called 'Ch'an' in Chinese from the Sanskrit 'dhyāna,' is best known in the West by the Japanese pronunciation 'Zen' "
  94. ^ Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China) by Heinrich Dumoulin, James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter (page 22)
  95. ^ Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China) by Heinrich Dumoulin, James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter (Page xviii)
  96. ^ "Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China)" by Heinrich Dumoulin, James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter (page 13). Translated by James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter. Contributor John McRae. Published 2005 World Wisdom. 387 pages. ISBN 0-941532-89-5 [Exact quote: "This phenomenon merits special attention since yogic roots are to be found in the Zen Buddhist school of meditation."]
  97. ^ Zen Buddhism: A History (India and China) by Heinrich Dumoulin, James W. Heisig, Paul F. Knitter (page 13)
  98. ^ The Lion's Roar: An Introduction to Tantra by Chogyam Trungpa. Shambhala, 2001 ISBN 1-57062-895-5
  99. ^ "Secret of the Vajra World: The Tantric Buddhism of Tibet" by Ray, Reginald A. Shambhala: 2002. pp. 37–38 ISBN 1-57062-917-X
  100. ^ "Secret of the Vajra World: The Tantric Buddhism of Tibet" by Ray, Reginald A. Shambhala: 2002. p. 57 ISBN 1-57062-917-X
  101. ^ "Yantra Yoga: The Tibetan Yoga of Movement" by Chogyal Namkhai Norbu. Snow Lion, 2008. ISBN 1-55939-308-4
  102. ^ Chang, G.C.C. (1993). "Tibetan Yoga." New Jersey: Carol Publishing Group. p. 7 ISBN 0-8065-1453-1
  103. ^ a b c Steinfels, Peter (1990-01-07). "Trying to Reconcile the Ways of the Vatican and the East". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE1D61531F934A35752C0A966958260&sec=&spon=. Retrieved 2008-12-05. 
  104. ^ "Vatican sounds New Age alert". BBC. February 4, 2003
  105. ^ Wayne Teasdale "Catholicism in dialogue: conversations across traditions‎" Rowman & Littlefield, 2004, p. 74 ISBN 0-7425-3178-3
  106. ^ Dr. R. Albert Mohler, Jr. "The Subtle Body – Should Christians Practice Yoga?" Accessed Jan 14 2011
  107. ^ Handbook of vocational psychology by W. Bruce Walsh, Mark Savickas 2005 ISBN 0-8058-4517-8 page 358
  108. ^ 1989 Letter from Vatican to Bishops on Some Aspects of Christian Meditation
  109. ^ Dr Ankerberg, John & Dr Weldon, John, Encyclopedia of New Age Beliefs, Harvest House Publishers, 1996
  110. ^ Ernst, C. W. (2005). "Situating Sufism and Yoga". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 15: 15. DOI:10.1017/S1356186304004675.  edit
  111. ^ "Situating Sufism and Yoga" (PDF). http://www.unc.edu/~cernst/pdf/jras2.pdf. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  112. ^ Top Islamic body: Yoga is not for MuslimsCNN
  113. ^ "Mixed reactions to yoga ban". Thestar.com.my. 2008-11-23. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2008/11/23/nation/2625368&sec=nation. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  114. ^ "Malaysia leader: Yoga for Muslims OK without chant," Associated Press
  115. ^ "Sidang Media – Fatwa Yoga". Islam.gov.my. http://web.archive.org/web/20090106003351/http://www.islam.gov.my/portal/lihat.php?jakim=3600. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  116. ^ "Indonesian clerics issue yoga ban". BBC News. 2009-01-25. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7850079.stm. Retrieved 2010-04-06. 
  117. ^ "rediff.com: Why give yoga religious connotation: Deoband". Specials.rediff.com. 2009-01-29. http://specials.rediff.com/news/2009/jan/29video-islam-allows-yoga-deoband.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  118. ^ "It’s OK to stretch, just don’t believe". Hurriyet.com.tr. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/english/domestic/11692086.asp?gid=244. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 

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Commercial use of this term

Women Seamless Racerback Sports Bra Yoga Fitness Padded Stretch Workout Top Tank (1.9 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Women's Padded Bra Racerback Top Athletic Vest Gym Fitness Sports Yoga Stretch! (4.46 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Women Padded Bra Racerback Top Athletic Vest Gym Fitness Sports Yoga Stretch,New (4.69 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Womens Stretch Casual Shorts Biker Exercise Yoga Workout Size XS,S,M,L Seamless (3.49 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Bella Women Yoga Pants S L XL 2XL Cotton Spandex Yoga Pilates Workout Pants 810 (16.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

90 Degrees Reflex Womens 22" Flex Performance Capri Yoga Gym Sweat Running Pants (7.49 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Women Capri YOGA Running sport Pants High Waist Cropped Leggings Fitness (9.75 USD)

Commercial use of this term

NEW Women's Yoga / YogaFit Green Tank Top - Size M - 1 of 2 (7.5 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Patagonia Sports Bra/ Sport Top Medium (AB) New/Tags Tan Yoga/Running/Casual (0.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term