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Merriam Webster

ZainZain (?), n. A horse of a dark color, neither gray nor white, and having no spots. Smart.

definition - Zain

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Zain Group
Founded1983 as MTC[1]
Headquarters Bahrain
Area served24 countries in Africa and the Middle East[2]
Key peopleDr.Saad Al Barrak, CEO
Mr.Asaad Al Banwan, Chairman of the Board of Directors
Mr. Barrak Al-Sabeeh, Assistant Group CEO for Business Development & Government Relations
Mr.Sam Deeb, Chief Financial Officer
Mr.Haitham Al Khaled, Chief Strategy Officer
Mr.Khalid Al-Omar, Chief Technical Officer
Mr. Ibrahim Adel, Chief Communications Officer
Mr. Ahmed Abdelgelil, Chief Human Resources Officer
Mr. Tito Alai, Chief Commercial Officer
Mr.Mohammed Rafi, Chief Information Officer
Mr. Mohammad Shabib, Group Chief Officer for International Carriers & Roaming
Mrs. Lynne Dorward, Group Chief Regulatory Officer
Mr. Salah Al Fouzan, Chief Business Development Officer
Mr. Christopher Gabriel, CEO Africa
Mr. Khaled Al Hajeri, CEO of Zain in Kuwait
Mr.Mahmoud Hashish, CEO Middle East [3]
Dr. Abdel Malik Al Jaber CEO of Zain Levant Region [4]
ProductsMobile Telecommunications, Fixed Lines
Broadband and Internet
Revenue 7,441 Billion USD (2008)[5]
Net income 1,196 Billion USD (2008)[5]
Employees15,000+ (2008)[6]

Zain Group, is a mobile telecommunications company founded in 1983 in Kuwait as MTC or Mobile Telecommunications Company, and was later rebranded to Zain in 2007. Zain has commercial presence in 23 countries across Africa and the Middle East, with an estimated work force of 13,000.[7]


Worldwide presence

Zain has commercial presence in 23 countries with over 13,000 employees providing Mobile voice and Data Services to over 71.8 million active customers as at 30 September, 2009.[8]

Its area of operations include 7 countries in the Middle East:
Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon (as mtc touch), and Sudan.

And in 16 countries in Africa:
Burkina Faso, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia.

Additionally, Zain owns 31% of Wana Telecom in Morrocco through a joint venture.

List of Countries

Zain operates in the following countries:

 Bahrainhttp://www.bh.zain.comIn March 2009 Zain announced the opening of its flagship store in Bahrain. Interactive, informative and entertaining, and utilizing the latest in digital technology, the 350 square-meter, state-of-the-art outlet the first of its kind anywhere in the world- will change the way people shop for telecom products and services. The store will be eventually linked to a network of similar outlets across Zain’s Middle East and Africa operations. [9]
 Burkina Fasohttp://www.bf.zain.comAt H109 Zain in Burkina Faso was the dominant player with 1,433,000 customers representing 50% market share.[10]
 Chadhttp://www.td.zain.comA pioneer in the Chadian telecom industry through offering highly competitive services, Zain in Chad is the no. 1 operator with 69% market share. [11]
 Democratic Republic of the Congohttp://www.cd.zain.comZain started operations in DRC in December 2000 and distinguished itself rapidly as the first operator in the country and has beed able to maintain a lead (47%) in this liberalized market due to several adopted initiatives including value based offers, bundle offers and ULCH.[12]
 Gabonhttp://www.ga.zain.comThe rapidly growing mobile sector in Gabon grew by 16.5 percent from 2007 to 2008 according to statistics from the Bank of Central African States. At H109 Zain in Gabon had 829,000 customers and its market share stood at 61%. [13]
 Ghanahttp://www.gh.zain.comZain in Ghana launched its 3.5G network in December 2008 and ended H109 with over 1 million customers. [14]
Website under construction
Zain in Iraq achieved 48% EBIDTA margin through a number of successful Drive11 initiatives to reduce network and commercial costs. [15]
 Jordanhttp://www.jo.zain.comAt H109 Zain was the dominant mobile player in Jordan with over 2.4 million customers and a market share of 44%. Zain in Jordan covered 98% of the population and 67% of the total country through 1,418 sites as of June 2009.[16]
 Kenyahttp://www.ke.zain.comAt H109 Zain Kenya customers stood at 2,418,000 million. [17]
 Kuwaithttp://www.kw.zain.comZain in Kuwait is the Group's flagship operation, which was established in 1983 and made history in 1194 by becoming the first telecom operator to launch commercial GSM services in the region. [18]
 Lebanonhttp://www.mtctouch.com.lbIn January 2009 Zain made a successful tender to continue managing one of Lebanon’s two mobile operations, MIC2 branded as mtc touch, for an additional year commencing February 1, 2009, extendable for one year as per the new management agreement terms set by the Lebanese Ministry of Telecommunications.


 Madagascarhttp://www.mg.zain.comZain holds second place in the mobile telecom market in Madagascar, has a 39% market share and over 1.4 million customers. [20]
 Malawihttp://www.mw.zain.comZain in Malawi was the second mobile operator to grace the market however, it soon became the market leader, a position it currently holds with a market share of 72%. [21]
 Nigerhttp://www.ne.zain.comZain in Niger is the market leader with a 68% market share. [22]
 Nigeriahttp://www.ng.zain.comIn June 2000, as part of Zain's promise to deliver customers a unique experience on a high- quality network, Zain in Nigeria enters into strategic five-year network outsourcing agreement with Ericsson. [23]
Website under construction
On May 18, 2009 Zain Group signed a mutual share swap agreement with Paltel following the approval of shareholders at Paltel’s Extraordinary General Assembly on June 11, 2009. [24]
 Republic of the Congohttp://www.cg.zain.comZain in Congo Brazaville is the market leader with a 55% market share as at H109.[25]
 Saudi Arabiahttp://www.sa.zain.comZain in the Kingdon of Saudi Arabia launched commercial services in late August 2008 and succeeded in receiving over 3.7 million customers in less than a year. [26]
 Sierra Leonehttp://www.sl.zain.comZain in Sierra Leone launched its services in September 2000 as the first mobile operator in the country. It indirectly played an active part in assisting both the government and the British Military to communicate in a way that had never been possible in a bid to end the war. [27]
 Sudanhttp://www.sd.zain.comZain in Sudan is the leading mobile provider with a commanding 57% market share. [28]
 Tanzaniahttp://www.tz.zain.comZain in Tanzania is the market leader with a 38% market share. [29]
 Ugandahttp://www.ug.zain.comZain in Uganda stands as the no. 2 operator with a market share of 38% as at H109. [30]
 Zambiahttp://www.zm.zain.com2008 was an exciting year for Zain in Zambia with two main highlights: the successful IPO of Zain Zambia Plc. and its subsequent rebranding to Zain. [31]

Financial highlights

Zain is listed on the Kuwait Stock Exchange. There are no restrictions on Zain shares as the company’s capital is 100% free float and publicly traded. The largest shareholder is the Kuwait Investment Authority (24.6%).

On September 20, 2008, Zain Group announced the successful completion of its capital increase raising US$4.49 billion (KWD1.2 billion) with 99% of all shareholders subscribing. The number of subscribed shares exceeded 1.4 billion, bringing the total number of Zain shares to 4.28 billion with total shareholders’ equity reaching US$6.42 billion. The amount raised is unprecedented in Kuwait’s history exceeding all expectations.

As at September 30, 2009, Zain is serving a growing customer base of over 71.8 million active customers reflecting an increase of 28% when compared to the corresponding nine months period in 2008.

Key Performance Indicators as at 30 September, 2009:

  • Total Managed Active Customers: 71.8 million up 28%;
  • Consolidated Revenues: KWD 1.78 billion (US$6.169b) up 24%;
  • EBITDA: KWD 757.3 million (US$2.624b) up 37%;
  • EBITDA Margin: 43% up 5 pp;
  • EBIT KWD 454.9 million (US$1.576b) up 33%;
  • Net Income: KWD 195.7 million (US$677.1m) down 17%;
  • EPS: KWD 0.051 (US$0.18)

One Network

One Network is the the world’s first, borderless mobile service offering over 64 million Zain customers in 21 countries favorable rates, free of high roaming charges for cross-border communications. It has fully changed the way people communicate with their friends, colleagues and family members while away from home.

‘One Network’ is a cost-effective and convenient solution designed to fit customers’ regional and continent-wide communications needs by taking advantage of Zain Group’s unique pan-Middle East and pan-African presence.

‘One Network’ service revolutionized and replaced the concept of roaming in the following countries: Bahrain, Burkina Faso, Chad, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait (data roaming only), Madagascar, Malawi, Niger, Nigeria, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda.

All Zain customers (pre-paid and post-paid) in any of the above mentioned African and Middle Eastern countries that are part of and using ‘One Network’ will enjoy the benefits of being treated as a ‘local’ customer of the visited country in terms of pricing, while retaining their home network service functionalities. Travelling Zain customers can make calls ad send messages at local rates and receive incoming calls free of charge. Pre-paid customers can also top up their phones with recharge cards bought from either their home country or more than two million outlets available in one of the 21 ‘One Network’ countries. The ‘One Network’ service is automatically activated upon crossing the geographic border into one of the countries, with no prior registration required or sign-up fee.

Additionally, in the continuous efforts to grow and develop ‘One Network’, Zain announced in May 2009, the launch of cross-border data services across the Middle East and Africa on the award winning ‘One Network’ platform. The data service is yet another demonstration of Zain’s commitment to expand ‘One Network’s’ revolutionary service in terms of geographical coverage and product offerings, this time by being the first mobile operator in the world to successfully introduce cross-border local GRX-based data access, an innovative technical solution which ensures faster access speeds at cost effective local rates than traditional internet roaming.

Zain operating countries currently not in the ‘One Network’: Lebanon and Zambia.Zain’s operations in the Middle East and Africa will join One Network, subject to governmental and regulatory approvals.

One Network Highlighted Features:

  • The service revolutionized and replaced the concept of roaming in and fully changed the way how people are communicated with friends, colleagues and family members while away from home.
  • Mix of innovative technical solutions, business processes and consistency of Brand attributes delivers relevant ground breaking service through user friendly, easy to understand and seamless customer experience...it is a non-burdening experience and is automatically activated when Zain customers cross borders.
  • It provides very affordable and effective cross-border communications keeping friends and families connected.
  • Is a key enabler to economic growth - encouraging SME’s and individuals to more easily expand into new markets.
  • Is a demonstration of how Telco’s and regulators/governments can work together for the benefit of societies and economies.
  • Tangible evidence of how complex technological solutions and processes can make life simpler through delivering very user-friendly and cost-efficient mobile communications.
  • In the independent market research conducted by Research International, One Network was found to be second most important attribute to customers’ preference decision towards the Mobile Operator, ahead of Price and Network quality. Not surprisingly more than 5 million customers used the service at least once since service introduction.
  • Reporting on the launch of One Network, The Economist declared that the: “Zain Group (Celtel) has in effect created a unified market of the kind that regulators can only dream about in Europe.”
  • Zain Group aims to expand One Network to all its operations in Africa and the Middle East, linking them all.


Money has changed forms many times throughout history. From bartering chickens, to using seashells, up until credit cards, the history of money has been colorful, to say the least.

Today, money has taken another new form: Zap is the innovative service from Zain that allows you to send or receive airtime, make purchases, carry bank transactions and so much more without the need to carry cash or wads of paper money. This service is brought to you by Zain in partnership with CitiBank , Standard Chartered Bank and Western Union.

Easy, fast and secure, Zap is accessible 24/7 from your phone menu in Kenya, Tanziania, Uganda and soon in Niger and Nigeria and all of the Zain operating countries. There’s no need to carry cash on you anymore because your phone is now your wallet with Zap. All is needed is a password every time a transaction is carried out.

Zap Features:

  • Send airtime to friends and family
  • Send virtual money from my Zap account
  • Receive virtual money to my Zap account
  • Perform Cash in/Cash out activities
  • Pay for the goods and services with Zap money
  • Pay bills with Zap money
  • Send money from Zap account to bank account and vice-versa
  • Be in control of my transactions with reports, account balance and change password features

Zain customers can sign-up for free for the new Zap banking and payment services by completing an application form and handing it over to registered Zain agents in tens of thousands of villages, towns and cities across East Africa. Zain will then provide the customer with a mobile wallet, which will allow them to use their mobile phone in much the same way as a bank account debit card and manage their money through their handset. The service is supported on all handsets including ultra low cost handsets (ULCH) which Zain is successfully rolling out across the continent.

The Zap service is also included as part of Zain’s pioneering One Network service, meaning that customers will be able to send airtime to other Zain customers across Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.

Additionally, in June 2009, Zain and Western Union, a global leader in money transfer announced a new collaboration whereby through the new cross border Zap money transfer service Western Union customers from around the world will be able to send remittances to millions of Zain customers in five countries (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Niger and Nigeria) with a combined population of over 280 million people. These funds will arrive in minutes and can be cashed in from thousands of Zap or Western Union agents in these countries.


1983MTC established as the first mobile telecom company in the region.
1994Introduced GSM in Kuwait. One of the 1st to do so in the region.
2001Government of Kuwait reduces stake from 49% to 25%.
September 2002Branding agreement with Vodafone in Kuwait- operation branded as MTC Vodafone.
January 2003Acquired 91.5% of Fastlink- Jordan’s leading mobile operator for US$424 million taking total holding to 96.5%.
April 2003Awarded 2nd GSM license in Bahrain- operation branded as MTC Vodafone.
December 2003Awarded one of three GSM licenses in Iraq –operation branded as mtc Atheer.
December 2003Bahrain operation 1st to launch 3G nationwide in the region.
April 2004Awarded management agreement for one of Lebanon’s mobile operations - operation branded as mtc touch.
May 2005Acquisition of 85% of Celtel shares for US$2.84 billion completed.
November 16, 2005MTC completes 100% capital increase through rights issue raising $2.3 billion to fund future expansion.
December 13, 2005MTC subsidiary Celtel acquires Madacom, an operator based in Madagascar with over 200,000 customers.
February 6, 2006MTC subsidiary Celtel acquires the remaining 61% of Mobitel in Sudan from Sudatel in deal valued $1.332 billion, thus taking ownership to 100%.
February 15, 2006MTC launches a first of its kind research report “Socio-Economic Impact of Mobile Phones in the Arab World”.
May 21, 2006MTC first in the region to launch 3.5G (HSDPA) commercially in Bahrain.
May 31, 2006MTC subsidiary Celtel acquires a controlling stake of 65% in Vmobile, one of Nigeria’s leading mobile telecom operators with over 5 million customers for US$1.005 billion.
Sept 27, 2006MTC subsidiary Celtel International, the leading pan-African mobile telecommunications operator launched One Network, the first ever borderless mobile network in the world allowing customers to move freely across geographic borders without roaming call surcharges and without having to pay to receive incoming calls.
December 31, 2006MTC Group of companies full-year consolidated revenues reach KD 1.21 billion (USD 4.167 billion) for the 12 months ended December 31, 2006, an increase of 109% over the same period in 2005 and consolidated net income of KD 305.3.06 million (USD 1.051 Billion), an increase of 65% compared to the same period last year.
January 30, 2007MTC launches ACE -an implementation strategy to realize the target of the 3x3x3 vision. ACE seeks to extract superior value from existing assets through three main thrusts: Accelerating the growth in Africa; Consolidating the existing assets; and Expanding into adjacent markets. Through implementation of the ACE strategy, MTC’s new goals by the year 2011 are to attain a US$ 6 Billion EBITDA exceeding 70 million customers and to become one of the top ten leading telecom companies in the world by market capitalization.
March 24, 2007The MTC-led consortium announces that it has been successful in making the highest bid for the third mobile telecommunications licence in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (“KSA”) having bid SAR·22.91 billion (US$6.109 billion). The award of the licence is subject to approval from the KSA’s Council of Ministers. This licence will give MTC a presence in the largest market in the Gulf Cooperation Council (“GCC”) in terms of population and the largest economy in the Middle East and Africa, reinforcing MTC’s position as a leading emerging markets operator.
August 17, 2007MTC Atheer secures 15-year nationwide Iraq mobile licence for US$1.25 billion.
September 8, 2007MTC Group's master-brand and four operations in Kuwait, Jordan, Bahrain and Sudan rebrand to Zain.
October 22, 2007Celtel International, a subsidiary of Zain announced it has signed an agreement to acquire 75% of Western Telesystems Ltd (Westel) from the Government of Ghana for USD 120 million. The Government of Ghana remains a shareholder in Westel with a 25% holding through the Ghana National Petroleum Corporation.
November 22, 2007Zain subsidiary Celtel International announces the extension of ‘One Network’, the world’s first borderless mobile network in Africa to an additional six countries to include Burkina Faso, Chad, Malawi, Niger, Nigeria and Sudan. These countries now join the Republic of Congo, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda in the network which was initially launched in September 2006 and has been expanded due to increased demand. The extension of this technological break-through now offers the possibility for nearly half of Africa’s population to make calls at local rates across 12 countries throughout the continent.
December 1, 2007MTC-Atheer in Iraq Acquired Iraqna (leading mobile operator in Iraq) for US$1.2 billion from Orascom telecoms holding. Zain's market share in Iraq is figured up to 72% (7 million subscribers). The new combined mobile network is renamed Zain Iraq (zain IQ on mobiles), and the two older networks (Iraqna and Atheer) disappear.
January 5, 2008Beginning today, two Iraqi mobile telecommunications networks - MTC Atheer and Iraqna - change their names to Zain (www.iq.zain.com) as both operators adopt the new corporate master brand of the Zain Group.
January 30, 2008Zain announces that in the fiscal year 2007 it recorded the highest ever net profits in the history of Kuwait's private sector history. Zain recorded consolidated revenues of USD 5.91 billion (KD1.677 billion) for 2007, an increase of 32% compared to 2006. The consolidated EBITDA increased by 25% compared to last year and reached USD 2.56 billion (KD 725.34 million). Zain also announced a milestone consolidated net income of US$1.130 billion (KD320.45 million) an increase of 11% on 2006. Active Customers grew impressively and reached 42.4 million (inclusive of 3 million Iraqna customers, acquired on December 31, 2007), an increase of 57% on 2006.
April 14, 2008Zain has achieved another first by bringing its groundbreaking borderless “One Network” mobile service to four countries in the Middle East. This service, which made telecom history when it was launched in Africa, today allows Zain’s 14 million customers in Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan and Sudan to be part of a pan Middle East mobile community, providing travelling Zain customers the opportunity to communicate between these countries and be treated as local customers in terms of pricing, while using their home network service.
August 1, 2008Zain group rebrands its Africa operations from "Celtel" to "Zain" in line with its objectives of operating under one brand in all the 22 countries.[32]
September 20, 2008Zain announces the successful completion of its capital increase raising US$4.49 billion (KWD1.2 billion) with 99% of all shareholders subscribing. This was the largest ever capital raising in Kuwait’s history. The proceeds of this capital increase will be used to finance future strategic expansion plans and meet financial commitments.
December 15, 2008Zain announces the commencement of commercial services in Ghana with the launch of the first 3.5G network on the continent outside South Africa with US$ 420 million invested in network infrastructure.
March 1, 2009Zain announces its consolidated financial results for the year ending December 31,2008 with consolidated revenues of US$ 7.44 billion, an increase of 26% compared to 2007. The company’s consolidated EBITDA increased by 15% for the same period to reach US$ 2.78 billion. Consolidated net profits reached US$ 1.2 billion, an increase of 6% on 2007. The earnings per share was US$0.33 and the shareholders equity was up 36% to US $8.69 billion. Year on year customer growth across the two continents in which Zain operates was 50% with the Zain Group serving 63.54 million managed active customers at 31 December, 2008.
March 14, 2009Zain in a 50/50 partnership with Al Ajial Investment Fund Holding (“Al Ajial”) has agreed to invest through a newly established joint venture “Zain Al Ajial” an amount of MAD 2.850 billion (USD 324 million) in return for 31% of Wana Corporate SA (“Wana”), the third mobile telecom operator in Morocco.
May 18, 2009Jordan, Mobile Telecommunications Company KSC (“Zain”) and Palestinian Telecommunications Company Plc (“Paltel”) have entered into an agreement for a share-for-share exchange, which will see Zain take a majority interest in Paltel with an equity shareholding of 56.53% in exchange for Paltel owning 100% of Zain Jordan. Paltel is a publicly-listed entity on the Palestinian Stock Exchange and Abu Dhabi Securities Exchange. The merger will set the current Paltel shareholders equity position in both Paltel and its newly acquired subsidiary, Zain Jordan at 41.43%.
July 21, 2009Zain announces its consolidated financial results for the half-year ending 30 June 2009. The results showed significant growth in many key indicators recording impressive consolidated revenues of KWD 1.16 billion (US$4.014 billion), an increase of 24.1% compared to H1-2008. The company’s consolidated EBITDA increased by 46.3% for the same period to reach KWD 512.2 million (US$1.77 billion). Consolidated net income reached KWD 154.5 million (US$533.5 million), an increase of 4.4% on H1-2008. The earnings per share for the six month period were US$0.14. Year-on-year customer growth on the two continents across which Zain operates was 37%, while serving 69.5 million active customers.


  1. ^ a b Milestones Zain.com
  2. ^ Worldwide Presence Zain.com
  3. ^ Zain Management Zain.com
  4. ^ [1] Zain.com
  5. ^ a b Financial Highlights For December 31, 2008 Zain.com
  6. ^ Overview Zain.com
  7. ^ http://www.ametw.com/free_news_AfricanOperators.html#Zain0
  8. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Investor%20relations/Press%20releases/Zain2009Q3Results
  9. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Media%20centre/Press%20releases/BahrainFlagshipStore
  10. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Investor%20relations/Financial%20Reports/Earning%20Releases
  11. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Investor%20relations/Financial%20Reports/Earning%20Releases
  12. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Investor%20relations/Financial%20Reports/Earning%20Releases
  13. ^ http://www.ametw.com/free_news_AfricanOperators.html#Zain5
  14. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Media%20centre/Press%20releases/GhanaLaunch
  15. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Investor%20relations/Financial%20Reports/Earning%20Releases
  16. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Investor%20relations/Financial%20Reports/Earning%20Releases
  17. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Investor%20relations/Financial%20Reports/Earning%20Releases
  18. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/About%20us/Worldwide%20Presence/Kuwait
  19. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Media%20centre/Press%20releases/ZainLebanonContract
  20. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Investor%20relations/Financial%20Reports/Earning%20Releases
  21. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Investor%20relations/Financial%20Reports/Earning%20Releases
  22. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Investor%20relations/Financial%20Reports/Earning%20Releases
  23. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Media%20centre/Press%20releases/ZainNigeriaEricssonDeal
  24. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Media%20centre/Press%20releases/ZainLevantCEO
  25. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Investor%20relations/Financial%20Reports/Earning%20Releases
  26. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Investor%20relations/Financial%20Reports/Earning%20Releases
  27. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Investor%20relations/Financial%20Reports/Earning%20Releases
  28. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Investor%20relations/Financial%20Reports/Earning%20Releases
  29. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Investor%20relations/Financial%20Reports/Earning%20Releases
  30. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Investor%20relations/Financial%20Reports/Earning%20Releases
  31. ^ http://www.zain.com/muse/obj/lang.default/portal.view/content/Investor%20relations/Financial%20Reports/Earning%20Releases
  32. ^ http://www.ametw.com/free_news_AfricanOperators.html#Zain1

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