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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
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1.a depository containing historical records and documents
2.collection of records especially about an institution
1.put into an archive
1.collection of records especially about an institution
ArchiveAr"chive (�), n.; pl. Archives (�). [F. archives, pl., L. archivum, archium, fr. Gr. � government house, � � archives, fr. � the first place, government. See Archi-, pref.]
1. pl. The place in which public records or historic documents are kept.
Our words . . . . become records in God's court, and are laid up in his archives as witnesses. Gov. of Tongue.
2. pl. Public records or documents preserved as evidence of facts; as, the archives of a country or family.
[Rarely used in sing.]
Some rotten archive, rummaged out of some seldom explored press. Lamb.
Syn. -- Registers; records; chronicles.
Academy Film Archive • American Radio Archive • Anti-Masonry/archive • Archive (Magnum album) • Archive (The Specials album) • Archive (band) • Archive (disambiguation) • Archive Alive • Archive Cardiacs • Archive Collection Volume I • Archive Collection Volume II • Archive Corp. • Archive Fever • Archive One (album) • Archive Series (The Korgis) • Archive Things 1982-88 • Archive Things 1982–88 • Archive Utility • Archive bit • Archive file • Archive for Christian Democratic Policy • Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis • Archive for Research in Archetypal Symbolism • Archive for rational mechanics and analysis • Archive format • Archive of American Folk Songs • Archive of American Television • Archive of Applied Mechanics • Archive of European Integration • Archive of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith • Archive of the Indigenous Languages of Latin America • Archive of the President of the Russian Federation • Archive site • Archive utility • Archive.org • Asia Art Archive • Asian Film Archive • Automatic Backup, Archive and Recovery Software • BBC Archive Treasure Hunt • BFI National Archive • Bad Arolsen archive • Bauhaus Archive • Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive • Bettmann Archive • Boris Archive • British Cartoon Archive • British Library Sound Archive • Christian Brethren Archive • Comic Book Archive file • Comparison of archive formats • Comprehensive TeX Archive Network • Conflict Archive on the Internet • Conservative Party Archive • Cricket Archive • Croatian Film Archive • Cryptology ePrint Archive • Cumbria Archive Service • Dalkey Archive • Datasheet Archive • Detroit Electronic Music Archive • Digital Archive Project • Direct Access Archive • Distributed Active Archive Center • Drug Industry Document Archive • Dublin City Public Libraries and Archive • ESO/ST-ECF Science Archive Facility • Eddie's Archive • Elliott Avedon Museum and Archive of Games • Film Archive Forum • Free Music Archive • Fritz Reuter Literary Archive • General Archive of the Nation (Argentina) • General National Archive • General National Archive (Colombia) • General National Archive (Nicaragua) • Genesis Archive 1967-75 • Genesis Archive 1967–75 • German Broadcasting Archive • Gulf Coast Archive and Museum • Harvard Film Archive • Historic Films Archive • Historical Archive of the City of Cologne • Historical archive on tourism • Hong Kong Film Archive • Hornet Archive • How to archive a talk page • International Archive of Women in Architecture • Internet Archive • Internet Sacred Text Archive • Internet Underground Music Archive • Iraq National Library and Archive • Irish Architectural Archive • Irish Film Archive • Irish Queer Archive • Irish Traditional Music Archive • Israel State Archive • It Came From Canada Archive • Jerome Robbins Archive • John Murray Archive • Joseph Beuys Media Archive • Kiev Archive Museum of Transitional Period • Kutaisi State Historical Archive • Lacito Archive • Liberal Archive (Belgium) • Lights (Archive album) • List of DC Archive Editions • List of archive formats • List of fictional clergy and religious figures/Archive 1 • Live Archive Series • Live Music Archive • Louisiana State Archive and Research Library • MARC (archive) • MacTutor History of Mathematics archive • Mactutor history of mathematics archive • Media Archive for Central England • Metropolitan Travel Survey Archive • Mikko's Phylogeny Archive • Mills Archive • Mitrokhin Archive • Mod Archive • Mutaween/Archive 1 • MySQL Archive • National Air and Space Museum Film Archive • National Archive of Computerized Data on Aging • National Audiovisual Archive • National Esperanto Library and Archive • National Film Archive of India • National Film and Sound Archive • National Geospatial Digital Archive • National Photographic Archive • National Security Archive • National video archive of performance • New England Historic Photographs Archive • New Zealand Film Archive • Nietzsche Archive • Nihali language/archive • Noise (Archive album) • North East England Mining Archive and Resource Centre • Northern Ireland Music Archive • Northern Ireland Social and Political Archive • Northern Ireland Virtual Tissue Archive • Northern Region Film and Television Archive • Norwegian Archive, Library and Museum Authority • Open archive • Oxford Text Archive • Pandora Archive • Peoples Archive • Perl Archive Toolkit • Persepolis Fortification Archive • Philatelic Archive in Bonn • Planetary Science Archive • Prelinger Archive • Rabindranath Tagore/Archive 01 • Ruby Application Archive • Rudolf Steiner Archive • Russian State Archive of Contemporary History • Russian State Archive of Literature and Art • Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History • SCH Dirty Lo-Fi Archive 1984–2008 • SONUS Archive • Sarah Shahi/Archive 1 • Self-extracting archive • Smolensk Archive • Sourceware Archive Group • State Archive of the Russian Federation • Sudan Open Archive • Swedish National Archive of Recorded Sound and Moving Images • TalkOrigins Archive • The Dalkey Archive • The Demonstration Archive • The Harold Pinter Archive in the British Library • The Internet Archive • The London Television Archive • The Simpsons Archive • The Walter Gropius Archive • The Zion Archive • Theatre Archive Project • Transformation Stories Archive • Transformation Story Archive • Transgender Archive • Trunk Archive • UCLA Film and Television Archive • UK Data Archive • Ultimate Guitar Archive • Uysal–Walker Archive of Turkish Oral Narrative • Vanderbilt Television News Archive • Vatican Secret Archive • Victorian Jazz Archive • Video Archive • Visualize / Video Archive • WWE Archive • Washington Area Performing Arts Video Archive • Watermelon/Archive 1 • Welsh language/Archive 1 • Werner Icking Music Archive • West Yorkshire Archive Service • X-No-Archive • Yugoslav Film Archive • Zenon Archive
métier de l'histoire (fr)[Classe]
métier : archives et musée (fr)[Classe]
métier du classement (fr)[Classe]
archives (fr)[termes liés]
archive (v. tr.)
Archives (n.) [MeSH]
case file; document; paper; record[ClasseParExt.]
ce qui informe, renseigne (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
ce que l'on compulse, lit pour trouver une information (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
An archive is a collection of historical records, or the physical place they are located. Archives contain primary source documents that have accumulated over the course of an individual or organization's lifetime, and are kept to show the function of an organization.
In general, archives consist of records that have been selected for permanent or long-term preservation on grounds of their enduring cultural, historical, or evidentiary value. Archival records are normally unpublished and almost always unique, unlike books or magazines for which many identical copies exist. This means that archives (the places) are quite distinct from libraries with regard to their functions and organization, although archival collections can often be found within library buildings.
When referring to historical records or the places they are kept, the plural form archives is chiefly used. Archivists tend to prefer the term "archives" (with an S) as the correct terminology to serve as both the singular and plural, since "archive," as a noun or a verb, has acquired meanings related to computer science.
First attested in English in early 17th century, the word archive ( //) is derived from the French archives (plural), in turn from Latin archīum or archīvum, which is the romanized form of the Greek ἀρχεῖον (arkheion), "public records, town-hall, residence or office of chief magistrates", itself from ἀρχή (arkhē), amongst others "magistracy, office, government" (compare an-archy, mon-archy), which comes from the verb ἄρχω (arkhō), "to begin, rule, govern".
The word originally developed from the Greek ἀρχεῖον (arkheion) which refers to the home or dwelling of the Archon, in which important official state documents were filed and interpreted under the authority of the Archon. The adjective formed from archive is archival.
The use of keeping official documents is very old. Archeologists have discovered archives of hundreds (and sometime thousands) of clay tablets going back to the third and second millennia BC in sites like Ebla, Mari, Amarna, Hattusas, Ugarit, Pylos. And these discoveries have been fundamental to know ancient alphabets, languages, literatures and politics.
Archives were well developed by the ancient Chinese, the ancient Greeks, and ancient Romans (who called them Tabularia). However, they have been lost, since documents were written on organic materials like papyrus and paper.
On the contrary, many archives founded since Middle Age by churches, kingdoms and cities survive and often have kept their official status uninterruptedly till now. They are the basic tool for historical research on these ages.
Modern archival thinking has many roots in the French Revolution. The French National Archives, who possess perhaps the largest archival collection in the world, with records going as far back as A.D. 625, were created in 1790 during the French Revolution from various government, religious, and private archives seized by the revolutionaries.
Historians, genealogists, lawyers, demographers, filmmakers, and others conduct research at archives. The research process at each archive is unique, and depends upon the institution in which the archive is housed. While there are many different kinds of archives, the most recent census of archivists in the United States identified five major types: academic, business (for profit), government, non-profit, and other. There are also four main areas of inquiry involved with archives: material technologies, organizing principles, geographic locations, and tangled embodiments of humans and non-humans. These areas help to further categorize what kind of archive is being created.
Archives in colleges, universities, and other educational facilities are typically housed within a library, and duties may be carried out by an archivist. professors may also run a smaller archive. Academic archives exist to preserve and celebrate the history of their school and academic community. An academic archive may contain items such as the administrative records of the institution, papers of former professors and presidents, memorabilia related to school organizations and activities, and items the academic library wishes to remain in a closed-stack setting, such as rare books or thesis copies. Access to the collections in these archives is usually by prior appointment only; some have posted hours for making enquiries. Users of academic archives can be undergraduates, graduate students, faculty and staff, scholarly researchers, and the general public. Many academic archives work closely with alumni relations departments or other campus institutions to help raise funds for their library or school. Because of their library setting, a degree certified by the American Library Association is preferred for employment in an academic archive in the United States.[verification needed]
Archives located in for-profit institutions are usually those owned by a private business. Examples of prominent business archives in the United States include Coca-Cola (which also owns the separate museum World of Coca-Cola), Procter and Gamble, Motorola Heritage Services and Archives, and Levi Strauss & Co. These corporate archives maintain historic documents and items related to the history and administration of their companies. Business archives serve the purpose of helping their corporations maintain control over their brand by retaining memories of the company's past. Especially in business archives, records management is separate from the historic aspect of archives. Workers in these types of archives may have any combination of training and degrees, from either a history or library background. These archives are typically not open to the public and only used by workers of the owner company, although some will allow approved visitors by appointment. Business archives are concerned with maintaining the integrity of their company, and are therefore selective of how their materials may be used.
Government archives include those maintained by local and state government as well as those maintained by the national (or federal) government. Anyone may use a government archive, and frequent users include reporters, genealogists, writers, historians, students, and people seeking information on the history of their home or region. Many government archives are open to the public and no appointment is required to visit.
In the United States, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) maintains central archival facilities in the District of Columbia and College Park, Maryland, with regional facilities distributed throughout the United States. Some city or local governments may have repositories, but their organization and accessibility varies widely. State or province archives typically require at least a bachelor's degree in history for employment, although some ask for certification by test (government or association) as well.
In the UK the National Archives , formerly known as the Public Record Office, is the government archive for England and Wales. The National Monuments Record is the public archive of English Heritage. The National Archives of Scotland , located in Edinburgh, serve that country while the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland  in Belfast is the government archive for Northern Ireland.
A network of local authority-run record offices and archives exists throughout England, Wales and Scotland and holds many important collections, including local government, landed estates, church and business records. Many archives have contributed catalogues to the national Access 2 Archives  programme and online searching across collections is possible.
In France, the French Archives Administration (Service interministériel des Archives de France) in the Ministry of Culture manages the National Archives (Archives nationales) which possess 406 km. (252 miles) of archives as of 2010 (the total length of occupied shelves put next to each other), with original records going as far back as A.D. 625, as well as the departmental archives (archives départementales), located in the préfectures of each of the 100 départements of France, which possess 2,297 km. (1,427 miles) of archives (as of 2010), and also the local city archives, about 600 in total, which possess 456 km. (283,4 miles) of archives (as of 2010). Put together, the total volume of archives under the supervision of the French Archives Administration is the largest in the world.
Most intergovernmental organisations keep their own historical archives. However, a number of European organisations, including the European Commission, choose to deposit their archives with the European University Institute in Florence.
A prominent Church Archives is the Vatican Secret Archive. Archdioceses, dioceses and parishes also have archives in the Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches. Very important are monastery archives, because of their antiquity, like the ones of Monte Cassino, Saint Gall and Fulda. The records in these archives include manuscripts, papal records, local Church records, photographs, oral histories, audiovisual materials, and architectural drawings.
Most Protestant denominations have archives as well, including the Presbyterian U.S.A Historical Society, The Southern Baptist Historical Library and Archives, the United Methodist Archives and History Center of the United Methodist Church and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ).
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Non-profit archives include those in historical societies, not-for-profit businesses such as hospitals, and the repositories within foundations. Non-profit archives are typically set up with private funds from donors to preserve the papers and history of specific persons or places. Often these institutions rely on grant funding from the government as well as the private funds. Depending on the funds available, non-profit archives may be as small as the historical society in a rural town to as big as a state historical society that rivals a government archives. Users of this type of archive may vary as much as the institutions that hold them. Employees of non-profit archives may be professional archivists, para-professionals, or volunteers, as the education required for a position at a non-profit archive varies with the demands of the collection's user base.
The process of collecting data from the World Wide Web and preserving it in an archive, such as an archive site, for the web user to see. See Website Archiving. Examples of web archives:
Some archives defy categorization. There are tribal archives within the Native American nations in North America, and there are archives that exist within the papers of private individuals. Many museums keep archives in order to prove the provenance of their pieces. Any institution or persons wishing to keep their significant papers in an organized fashion that employs the most basic principles of archival science may have an archive. In the 2004 census of archivists taken in the United States, 2.7% of archivists were employed in institutions that defied categorization. This was a separate figure from the 1.3% that identified themselves as self-employed.
Another type of archive is public secrets . This is an interactive testimonial in which women incarcerated in the California State Prison System reveal their stories about what happened to them. The function of the archive is to unfold the stories of the women who want to express themselves and want their stories to be heard. This collection of stories includes the women's direct speeches and also a recording of the women saying their speech.
The archives of an individual may include letters, papers, photographs, computer files, scrapbooks, financial records or diaries created or collected by the individual – regardless of media or format. The archives of an organization (such as a corporation or government) tend to contain other types of records, such as administrative files, business records, memos, official correspondence and meeting minutes.
The International Council on Archives (ICA) has developed a number of standards on archival description including the General International Standard Archival Description ISAD(G). ISAD(G) is meant to be used in conjunction with national standards or as a basis for nations to build their own standards. In the United States, ISAD(G) is implemented through Describing Archives: A Content Standard, popularly known as "DACS". In Canada, ISAD(G) is implemented through Rules for Archival Description, also known as "RAD".
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