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definitions - collision

collision (n.)

1.a serious collision (especially of motor vehicles)

2.a conflict of opposed ideas or attitudes or goals"a collision of interests"

3.an accident resulting from violent impact of a moving object"three passengers were killed in the collision" "the collision of the two ships resulted in a serious oil spill"

4.(physics) a brief event in which two or more bodies come together"the collision of the particles resulted in an exchange of energy and a change of direction"

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Merriam Webster

CollisionCol*li"sion (?), n. [L. collisio, fr. collidere. See Collide.]
1. The act of striking together; a striking together, as of two hard bodies; a violent meeting, as of railroad trains; a clashing.

2. A state of opposition; antagonism; interference.

The collision of contrary false principles. Bp. Warburton.

Sensitive to the most trifling collisions. W. Irving.

Syn. -- Conflict; clashing; encounter; opposition.

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definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - collision

phrases

-Bus collision NOS (traffic) • Bus collision NOS, nontraffic • Car collision NOS (traffic) • Car collision NOS, nontraffic • Collision NOS • Collision NOS involving heavy transport vehicle (traffic) • Collision NOS involving heavy transport vehicle, nontraffic • Collision NOS involving pick-up truck or van (traffic) • Collision NOS involving pick-up truck or van, nontraffic • Collision NOS involving three-wheeled motor vehicle (traffic) • Collision NOS involving three-wheeled motor vehicle, nontrafficcycle accident NOS • Collision with animal being ridden • Collision with animal-drawn vehicle • Collision with streetcar • Collision with train or other nonmotor vehicle • Driver injured in collision with other and unspecified motor vehicles in nontraffic accident • Driver injured in collision with other and unspecified motor vehicles in traffic accident • Motorcycle collision NOS (traffic) • Motorcycle collision NOS, nontraffic • Overturning without collision • Pedal cycle collision NOS (traffic) • Pedal cycle collision NOS, nontraffic • Person injured in collision between car and bus (traffic) • Person injured in collision between car and bus, nontraffic • Person injured in collision between car and heavy transport vehicle (traffic) • Person injured in collision between car and heavy transport vehicle, nontraffic • Person injured in collision between car and pick-up truck or van (traffic) • Person injured in collision between car and pick-up truck or van, nontraffic • Person injured in collision between car and two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle (traffic) • Person injured in collision between car and two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle, nontraffic • Person injured in collision between heavy transport vehicle and bus (traffic) • Person injured in collision between heavy transport vehicle and bus, nontraffic • Person injured in collision between other motor vehicle and two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle (traffic) • Person injured in collision between other motor vehicle and two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle, nontraffic • Person injured in collision between other specified motor vehicles (traffic) • Person injured in collision between other specified motor vehicles, nontraffic • Person injured in collision between railway train or railway vehicle and car (traffic) • Person injured in collision between railway train or railway vehicle and car, nontraffic • Railway collision NOS • collision course • collision involving pedal cyclist • collision involving pedestrian • collision of pedestrian (conveyance) with other pedestrian (conveyance) • collision of pedestrian (conveyance) with other pedestrian (conveyance) with subsequent fall • collision with animal-drawn vehicle or animal being ridden • collision with animal-drawn vehicle, animal being ridden, streetcar • collision with any object, fixed, movable or moving of or on (powered) aircraft • collision with any object, fixed, movable or moving of or on nonpowered aircraft • come into collision with • contact or collision with animals or persons • fall due to collision of pedestrian (conveyance) with another pedestrian (conveyance) • fall due to collision or other accident to watercraft • fall with antecedent collision • intensional collision with motor vehicle • intensional collision with train • intensional collision with tram (streetcar) • linear collision stopping power • multiple collision • near collision • overturning without collision

-1953 Mediterranean Sea Lancaster and Valetta mid-air collision • 1955 Cincinnati mid-air collision • 1956 Grand Canyon mid-air collision • 1965 Carmel mid-air collision • 1974 Norfolk mid-air collision • 1976 Zagreb mid-air collision • 1977 Los Rodeos Airport runway collision • 1979 Ukraine Aeroflot mid-air collision • 1987 Maryland train collision • 1993 Auckland mid-air collision • 1995 Fox River Grove bus–train collision • 1996 Charkhi Dadri mid-air collision • 1996 Delhi mid-air collision • 1996 Haryana mid-air collision • 1996 India mid-air collision • 1996 Indian mid-air collision • 1996 New Delhi mid-air collision • 1998 Suonenjoki rail collision • 2001 Japan Airlines Near Midair Collision • 2002 Charlotte's Dale train collision • 2002 Überlingen mid-air collision • 2005 Deelfontein train collision • 2006 Cape Town truck-train collision • 2006 Zoufftgen train collision • 2007 Phoenix news helicopter collision • 2008 Monorierdő train collision • 2008 Shandong train collision • 2009 Cairo train collision • 2009 California mid-air collision • 2009 Hudson River mid-air collision • 2009 Hunan train collision • 2009 Iranian Air Force mid-air collision • 2009 Lößnitzgrundbahn head-on collision • 2009 Makhachkala Il-76 collision • 2009 Romanian bus-train collision • 2009 Russia Sukhoi Su-27 mid-air collision • 2009 Slovak coach and train collision • 2009 Washington Metro train collision • 2009 satellite collision • 2010 Bilecik train collision • A Collision • Abermule train collision • Advanced Automatic Collision Notification • Ady Gil collision • Airborne Collision Avoidance System • Aircraft collision avoidance systems • Andromeda–Milky Way collision • Anti Collision Device • Atomic collision theory • Available energy (particle collision) • B Collision • Back-up collision • Beautiful Collision • Bird collision • Boeing MD-87 and Cessna Citation Collision in Milan, Italy • Caged Collision • Caged Collision (2009) • Call collision • Carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance • Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection • Carrollton, Kentucky bus collision • Cartoon collision physics • Charkhi Dadri Mid-Air Collision • Collision (David Crowder album) • Collision (Heroes) • Collision (Lost) • Collision (TV series) • Collision (White Music album) • Collision (computer science) • Collision (disambiguation) • Collision (film) • Collision (novel) • Collision (telecommunications) • Collision Course (The Hardy Boys) • Collision Course (album) • Collision Course (film) • Collision Course (novel) • Collision Course... Paradox 2 (Royal Hunt album) • Collision Warning Brake Support • Collision attack • Collision avoidance • Collision avoidance (spacecraft) • Collision avoidance manoeuvre • Collision avoidance system • Collision between Soviet frigate Bezzavetniy and USS Yorktown • Collision between Soviet submarine K-19 and USS Gato • Collision cascade • Collision course • Collision course (disambiguation) • Collision detection • Collision domain • Collision entropy • Collision frequency • Collision hull • Collision reaction cell • Collision resistance • Collision resistant • Collision theory • Collision zone • Collision-induced dissociation • Continental collision • Coulomb collision • December 2009 Philippines ferry collision • Elastic collision • Evans-Melbourne collision • Exeter crossing loop collision • First mid-air collision of airliners • Frank E. Evans-Melbourne collision • Galactic collision • Galaxy collision • Geurie crossing loop collision • Great Crush Collision March • Ground-collision warning system • Guangzhou Baiyun aircraft collision • HMAS Melbourne-USS Frank E. Evans collision • HMS Vanguard and Triomphant submarine collision • Head on Collision • Head-on collision • Heavy-Ion collision • Heavy-ion collision • Hines Hill train collision • Hinton train collision • Inelastic collision • June 22, 2009 Washington Metro train collision • LED anti-collision light • Late collision • Leif's Auto Collision Centers • Local collision • Melbourne-Evens collision • Melbourne-Frank E. Evans collision • Melbourne–Evans collision • Melbourne–Voyager collision • Mid-air collision • Midair collision • Mississauga Truck and Bus Collision • Molucca Sea Collision Zone • Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance • Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance for Wireless • Multiple-vehicle collision • Name collision • Naming collision • Nibiru collision • Nidareid train collision • Northwood mid-air collision • November 29, 2009 Washington Metro train collision • Nuclear collision length • Obstacle Collision Avoidance System • Orgreave Train Collision 1926 • Portable Collision Avoidance System • Porthcawl mid-air collision • Pre-Collision System (PCS) • Rear-end collision • Remote collision • Run-off-road collision • Satellite collision • Ship collision • Side collision • Spin-destruction collision • The Bluebell Collision • Traffic Collision Avoidance System • Traffic collision • USS Frank E. Evans-HMAS Melbourne collision • USS Greeneville/Ehime Maru collision • USS Hartford and USS New Orleans collision • Valley Heights train collision • Worlds in Collision • Worlds in Collision (album) • Zanthus train collision

analogical dictionary





Wikipedia

Collision

                   

A collision is an isolated event in which two or more moving bodies (colliding bodies) exert forces on each other for a relatively short time.

Although the most common colloquial use of the word "collision" refers to accidents in which two or more objects collide, the scientific use of the word "collision" implies nothing about the magnitude of the forces.

Some examples of physical interactions that scientists would consider collisions:

  • An insect touches its antenna to the leaf of a plant. The antenna is said to collide with leaf.
  • A cat walks delicately through the grass. Each contact that its paws make with the ground is a collision. Each brush of its fur against a blade of grass is a collision.

Some colloquial uses of the word collision are:

Contents

  Overview

  Deflection happens when an object hits a plane surface. If the kinetic energy after impact is the same as before impact, it is an elastic collision. If kinetic energy is lost, it is an inelastic collision. It is not possible to determine from the diagram whether the illustrated collision was elastic or inelastic, because no velocities are provided. The most one can say is that the collision was not perfectly-inelastic, because in that case the ball would have stuck to the wall.

Collisions involve forces (there is a change in velocity). The magnitude of the velocity difference at impact is called the closing speed. All collisions conserve momentum. What distinguishes different types of collisions is whether they also conserve kinetic energy.

Specifically, collisions can either be elastic, meaning they conserve both momentum and kinetic energy, or inelastic, meaning they conserve momentum but not kinetic energy. An inelastic collision is sometimes also called a plastic collision.

A “perfectly-inelastic” collision (also called a "perfectly-plastic" collision) is a limiting case of inelastic collision in which the two bodies stick together after impact.

The degree to which a collision is elastic or inelastic is quantified by the coefficient of restitution, a value that generally ranges between zero and one. A perfectly elastic collision has a coefficient of restitution of one; a perfectly-inelastic collision has a coefficient of restitution of zero.

  Types of collisions

A perfectly elastic collision is defined as one in which there is no loss of kinetic energy in the collision. In reality, any macroscopic collision between objects will convert some kinetic energy to internal energy and other forms of energy, so no large scale impacts are perfectly elastic. However, some problems are sufficiently close to perfectly elastic that they can be approximated as such.

An inelastic collision is one in which part of the kinetic energy is changed to some other form of energy in the collision. Momentum is conserved in inelastic collisions (as it is for elastic collisions), but one cannot track the kinetic energy through the collision since some of it is converted to other forms of energy.

Collisions in ideal gases approach perfectly elastic collisions, as do scattering interactions of sub-atomic particles which are deflected by the electromagnetic force. Some large-scale interactions like the slingshot type gravitational interactions between satellites and planets are perfectly elastic.

Collisions between hard spheres may be nearly elastic, so it is useful to calculate the limiting case of an elastic collision. The assumption of conservation of momentum as well as the conservation of kinetic energy makes possible the calculation of the final velocities in two-body collisions.

  Analytical vs. numerical approaches towards resolving collisions

Relatively few problems involving collisions can be solved analytically; the remainder require numerical methods. An important problem in simulating collisions is determining whether two objects have in fact collided. This problem is called collision detection.

.

  Examples of collisions that can be solved analytically

  Billiards

Collisions play an important role in cue sports. Because the collisions between billiard balls are nearly elastic, and the balls roll on a surface that produces low rolling friction, their behavior is often used to illustrate Newton's laws of motion. After a zero-friction collision of a moving ball with a stationary one of equal mass, the angle between the directions of the two balls is 90 degrees. This is an important fact that professional billiards players take into account,[1] although it assumes the ball is moving frictionlessly across the table rather than rolling with friction. Consider an elastic collision in 2 dimensions of any 2 masses m1 and m2, with respective initial velocities u1 and u2 = 0, and final velocities V1 and V2. Conservation of momentum gives m1u1 = m1V1+ m2V2. Conservation of energy for an elastic collision gives (1/2)m1|u1|2 = (1/2)m1|V1|2 + (1/2)m2|V2|2. Now consider the case m1 = m2: we obtain u1=V1+V2 and |u1|2 = |V1|2+|V2|2. Taking the dot product of each side of the former equation with itself, |u1|2 = u1•u1 = |V1|2+|V2|2+2V1•V2. Comparing this with the latter equation gives V1•V2 = 0, so they are perpendicular unless V1 is the zero vector (which occurs if and only if the collision is head-on).

  Perfectly inelastic collision

a completely inelastic collision between equal masses

In a perfectly inelastic collision, i.e., a zero coefficient of restitution, the colliding particles stick together. It is necessary to consider conservation of momentum:

m_a \mathbf u_a + m_b \mathbf u_b = \left( m_a + m_b \right) \mathbf v \,

where v is the final velocity, which is hence given by

\mathbf v=\frac{m_a \mathbf u_a + m_b \mathbf u_b}{m_a + m_b}

The reduction of total kinetic energy is equal to the total kinetic energy before the collision in a center of momentum frame with respect to the system of two particles, because in such a frame the kinetic energy after the collision is zero. In this frame most of the kinetic energy before the collision is that of the particle with the smaller mass. In another frame, in addition to the reduction of kinetic energy there may be a transfer of kinetic energy from one particle to the other; the fact that this depends on the frame shows how relative this is. With time reversed we have the situation of two objects pushed away from each other, e.g. shooting a projectile, or a rocket applying thrust (compare the derivation of the Tsiolkovsky rocket equation).

  Examples of collisions analyzed numerically

  Animal locomotion

Collisions of an animal's foot or paw with the underlying substrate are generally termed ground reaction forces. These collisions are inelastic, as kinetic energy is not conserved. An important research topic in prosthetics is quantifying the forces generated during the foot-ground collisions associated with both disabled and non-disabled gait. This quantification typically requires subjects to walk across a force platform (sometimes called a "force plate") as well as detailed kinematic and dynamic (sometimes termed kinetic) analysis.

  Collisions used as a experimental tool

Collisions can be used as an experimental technique to study material properties of objects and other physical phenomena.

  Space exploration

An object may deliberately be made to crash-land on another celestial body, to do measurements and send them to Earth before being destroyed, or to allow instruments elsewhere to observe the effect. See e.g.:

  Mathematical description of molecular collisions

Let the linear, angular and internal momenta of a molecule be given by the set of r variables { pi }. The state of a molecule may then be described by the range δwi = δp1δp2δp3 ... δpr. There are many such ranges corresponding to different states; a specific state may be denoted by the index i. Two molecules undergoing a collision can thus be denoted by (i, j) (Such an ordered pair is sometimes known as a constellation.) It is convenient to suppose that two molecules exert a negligible effect on each other unless their centre of gravities approach within a critical distance b. A collision therefore begins when the respective centres of gravity arrive at this critical distance, and is completed when they again reach this critical distance on their way apart. Under this model, a collision is completely described by the matrix \begin{pmatrix}i&j\\k&l\end{pmatrix} , which refers to the constellation (i, j) before the collision, and the (in general different) constellation (k, l) after the collision. This notation is convenient in proving Boltzmann's H-theorem of statistical mechanics.

  Attack by means of a deliberate collision

Types of attack by means of a deliberate collision include:

An attacking collision with a distant object can be achieved by throwing or launching a projectile.

  See also

  Notes

  1. ^ Alciatore, David G. (January 2006). "TP 3.1 90° rule" (PDF). http://billiards.colostate.edu/technical_proofs/TP_3-1.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 

  References

  • Tolman, R. C. (1938). The Principles of Statistical Mechanics. Oxford: Clarendon Press.  Reissued (1979) New York: Dover ISBN 0-486-63896-0.

  External links

   
               

 

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