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definitions - corynebacterium diphtheriae

Corynebacterium diphtheriae (n.)

1.a species of bacterium that causes diphtheria

2.(MeSH)A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.

Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Toxin (n.)

1.(MeSH)An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.

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synonyms - corynebacterium diphtheriae

Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Toxin (n.) (MeSH)

Diphtheria Toxin  (MeSH)

Corynebacterium diphtheriae (n.)

C. diphtheriae, Klebs-Loeffler bacillus

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Wikipedia

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

                   

Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria. It is also known as the Klebs-Löffler bacillus, because it was discovered in 1884 by German bacteriologists Edwin Klebs (1834 – 1912) and Friedrich Löffler (1852 – 1915).

Contents

  Classification

Four subspecies are recognized: C. diphtheriae mitis, C. diphtheriae intermedius, C. diphtheriae gravis, and C. diphtheriae belfanti. The four subspecies differ slightly in their colonial morphology and biochemical properties, such as the ability to metabolize certain nutrients, but all may be toxigenic (and therefore cause diphtheria) or non-toxigenic. Corynebacterium diphtheriae produces Diptheria toxin which alters protein function in the host by inactivating elongation factor (EF-2). This causes pharyngitis and 'pseudomembrane' in the throat. The diphtheria toxin gene is encoded by a bacteriophage found in toxigenic strains, integrated into the bacterial chromosome.

  Diagnosis

In order to accurately identify C. diphtheriae, a Gram stain is performed to show gram-positive, highly pleomorphic organisms with no particular arrangement. Special stains like Alberts's stain and Ponder's stain are used to demonstrate the metachromatic (metachromacity is the phenomenon by which different parts of an organism can get stained in two or more different colours just by applying a single dye) granules formed in the polar regions. The granules are called as polar granules, Babes Ernst Granules, Volutin, etc.). An enrichment medium, such as Löeffler's serum, is used to preferentially grow C. diptheriae. After that, use a selective plate known as tellurite agar, which allows all Corynebacteria (including C. diphtheriae) to reduce tellurite to metallic tellurium. The tellurite reduction is colormetrically indicated by brown colonies for most Cornyebacteria species or by a black halo around the C. diphtheriae colonies.

A low concentration of iron is required in the medium for toxin production. At high iron concentrations, iron molecules bind to an aporepressor on the beta bacteriophage, which carries the Tox gene. When bound to iron, the aporepressor shuts down toxin production.[1] Elek's test for toxogenecity is used to determine whether the organism is able to produce the diphtheria toxin or not.

  Sensitivity

The bacterium is sensitive to the majority of antibiotics, such as the penicillins, ampicillin, cephalosporins, quinolones, chloramphenicol, tetracyclines, cefuroxime and trimethoprim.

  See also

  References

  1. ^ Nester, Eugene W.; et al. (2004). Microbiology: A Human Perspective (Fourth ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-247382-7. 

  External links

  • CoryneRegNet - Database of Corynebacterial Transcription Factors and Regulatory Networks
   
               

 

All translations of corynebacterium diphtheriae


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