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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
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1.reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)
argument; reasoning; logical thinking; abstract thought[ClasseHyper.]
démontrer mathématiquement (fr)[Classe]
qui effectue la synthèse (fr)[Classe]
(presumption; theory; impression; assumption; verge; guess; conjecture; supposition; surmise; surmisal; speculation; hypothesis), (hypothesize; surmise; assume; suppose; posit; put; expect; daresay; hypothesise; presume; take for granted; suspect; think; opine; imagine; reckon; guess; believe; figure; postulate; fancy), (alternative)[Thème]
brainpower, brainwork, cerebration, headwork, intellection, mental labor, mental labour, mentation, reflection, reflexion, thinking, thought, thought process - conclude, reason, reason out - combine, compound[Hyper.]
reason - deduction, deductive reasoning, synthesis - illation, inference - derivation - deductive - deductive - synthesiser, synthesizer - synthesis, synthetic thinking - synthesiser, synthesist, synthesizer - synthesis - deducible[Dérivé]
deductive reasoning (n.)
|Look up deductive reasoning in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
Deductive reasoning, also called deductive logic, is the process of reasoning from one or more general statements regarding what is known to reach a logically certain conclusion. Deductive reasoning involves using given true premises to reach a conclusion that is also true. Deductive reasoning contrasts with inductive reasoning in that a specific conclusion is arrived at from a general principle. If the rules and logic of deduction are followed, this procedure ensures an accurate conclusion.
An example of a deductive argument:
The first premise states that all objects classified as "men" have the attribute "mortal". The second premise states that "Socrates" is classified as a "man" – a member of the set "men". The conclusion then states that "Socrates" must be "mortal" because he inherits this attribute from his classification as a "man".
Deductive reasoning (also known as logical deduction) links premises with conclusions. If both premises are true, the terms are clear and the rules of deductive logic are followed, then the conclusion of the argument follows by logical necessity.
The law of detachment is the first form of deductive reasoning. A single conditional statement is made, and a hypothesis (P) is stated. The conclusion (Q) is then deduced from the statement and the hypothesis. The most basic form is listed below:
In deductive reasoning, we can conclude Q from P by using the law of detachment. However, if the conclusion (Q) is given instead of the hypothesis (P) then there is no valid conclusion.
The following is an example of an argument using the law of detachment in the form of an if-then statement:
Since the measurement of angle A is greater than 90°, we can deduce that A is an obtuse angle.
The law of syllogism takes two conditional statements and forms a conclusion by combining the hypothesis of one statement with the conclusion of another. Here is the general form, with the true premise P:
The following is an example:
We deduced the final statement by combining the hypothesis of the first statement with the conclusion of the second statement. We also conclude that this could be a false statement.
Deductive arguments are evaluated in terms of their validity and soundness. It is possible to have a deductive argument that is logically valid but is not sound.
An argument is valid if it is impossible for its premises to be true while its conclusion is false. In other words, the conclusion must be true if the premises, whatever they may be, are true. An argument can be valid even though the premises are false.
An argument is sound if it is valid and the premises are true.
The following is an example of an argument that is valid, but not sound:
The example's first premise is false – there are people who eat steak and are not quarterbacks – but the conclusion must be true, so long as the premises are true (i.e. it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false). Therefore the argument is valid, but not sound.
In this example, the first statement uses categorical reasoning, saying that all steak-eaters are definitely quarterbacks. This theory of deductive reasoning – also known as term logic – was developed by Aristotle, but was superseded by propositional (sentential) logic and predicate logic.
Deductive reasoning can be contrasted with inductive reasoning, in regards to validity and soundness. In cases of inductive reasoning, even though the premises are true and the argument is "valid", it is possible for the conclusion to be false (determined to be false with a counterexample or other means).
Philosopher David Hume presented grounds to doubt deduction by questioning induction. Hume's problem of induction starts by suggesting that the use of even the simplest forms of induction simply cannot be justified by inductive reasoning itself. Moreover, induction cannot be justified by deduction either. Therefore, induction cannot be justified rationally. Consequently, if induction is not yet justified, then deduction seems to be left to rationally justify itself – an objectionable conclusion to Hume.
Deductive reasoning is generally thought of as a skill that develops without any formal teaching or training. As a result of this belief, deductive reasoning skills are not taught in secondary schools, where students are expected to use reasoning more often and at a higher level. It is in high school, for example, that students have an abrupt introduction to mathematical proofs – which rely heavily on deductive reasoning.