1.having or exerting a malignant influence"malevolent stars" "a malefic force"
2.morally bad or wrong"evil purposes" "an evil influence" "evil deeds"
3.having the nature of vice
1.morally objectionable behavior
2.the quality of being morally wrong in principle or practice"attempts to explain the origin of evil in the world"
3.that which causes harm or destruction or misfortune"the evil that men do lives after them; the good is oft interred with their bones" - Shakespeare
EvilE*vil (ē"v'l) a. [OE. evel, evil, ifel, uvel, AS. yfel; akin to OFries, evel, D. euvel, OS. & OHG. ubil, G. übel, Goth. ubils, and perh. to E. over.]
1. Having qualities tending to injury and mischief; having a nature or properties which tend to badness; mischievous; not good; worthless or deleterious; poor; as, an evil beast; and evil plant; an evil crop.
A good tree can not bring forth evil fruit. Matt. vii. 18.
2. Having or exhibiting bad moral qualities; morally corrupt; wicked; wrong; vicious; as, evil conduct, thoughts, heart, words, and the like.
Ah, what a sign it is of evil life,
When death's approach is seen so terrible. Shak.
3. Producing or threatening sorrow, distress, injury, or calamity; unpropitious; calamitous; as, evil tidings; evil arrows; evil days.
Because he hath brought up an evil name upon a virgin of Israel. Deut. xxii. 19.
The owl shrieked at thy birth -- an evil sign. Shak.
Evil news rides post, while good news baits. Milton.
Evil eye, an eye which inflicts injury by some magical or fascinating influence. It is still believed by the ignorant and superstitious that some persons have the supernatural power of injuring by a look.
☞ Evil is sometimes written as the first part of a compound (with or without a hyphen). In many cases the compounding need not be insisted on. Examples: Evil doer or evildoer, evil speaking or evil-speaking, evil worker, evil wishing, evil-hearted, evil-minded.
Syn. -- Mischieveous; pernicious; injurious; hurtful; destructive; wicked; sinful; bad; corrupt; perverse; wrong; vicious; calamitous.
EvilE"vil (ē"v'l) n.
1. Anything which impairs the happiness of a being or deprives a being of any good; anything which causes suffering of any kind to sentient beings; injury; mischief; harm; -- opposed to good.
Evils which our own misdeeds have wrought. Milton.
The evil that men do lives after them. Shak.
2. Moral badness, or the deviation of a moral being from the principles of virtue imposed by conscience, or by the will of the Supreme Being, or by the principles of a lawful human authority; disposition to do wrong; moral offence; wickedness; depravity.
The heart of the sons of men is full of evil. Eccl. ix. 3.
3. malady or disease; especially in the phrase king's evil, the scrofula. [R.] Shak.
He [Edward the Confessor] was the first that touched for the evil. Addison.
EvilE"vil, adv. In an evil manner; not well; ill; badly; unhappily; injuriously; unkindly. Shak.
It went evil with his house. 1 Chron. vii. 23.
The Egyptians evil entreated us, and affected us. Deut. xxvi. 6.
definition of Wikipedia
976-EVIL • A Darker Shade of Evil • Alice (Resident Evil) • Alliance of Evil • Am I Evil? • Ancient God of Evil • Axis of Evil (album) • Axis of Evil (film) • Axis of evil • Badge of Evil • Banality of evil • Bert is Evil • Beyond Good and Evil (Book) • Beyond Good and Evil (The Cult album) • Beyond Good and Evil (disambiguation) • Breaking the Real Axis of Evil • Brotherhood of Evil • Cast into Fields of Evil Pleasure • Changing Face of Evil • Characters in Resident Evil 2 • Characters in Resident Evil 4 • Christmas Evil • City of Evil • Constant Shallowness Leads to Evil • Curious Lore and Evil Legend • DJ Evil Dee • Defending the Throne of Evil • Deliver Us from Evil • Deliver Us from Evil (2006 film) • Deliver Us from Evil (Budgie album) • Deliver Us from Evil (Kryst the Conqueror album) • Delivered from Evil • Discography of the Resident Evil film series • Dr. Evil (Captain Action) • Dr.Evil • Elemental Evil • Evil (2003 film) • Evil (Interpol song) • Evil (Ladytron song) • Evil (disambiguation) • Evil Alien Conquerors • Evil Aliens • Evil Ambitions • Evil Angel • Evil Bong • Evil Brain from Outer Space • Evil Clown of Middletown • Evil Con Carne • Evil Con Carne (TV) • Evil Dead II • Evil Ed • Evil Empire (album) • Evil Ernie • Evil Eye of Avalon • Evil Heat • Evil Horde • Evil Jim • Evil Live • Evil Masked Figure • Evil Masquerade • Evil May Day • Evil Minded • Evil Nine • Evil Office • Evil Overlord List • Evil Roy Slade • Evil Star • Evil Star (novel) • Evil Superman • Evil Superstars • Evil Twin Comics • Evil Under the Sun (1982 film) • Evil Woman (Crow song) • Evil Woman (Electric Light Orchestra song) • Evil Zone • Evil bit • Evil clown • Evil empire • Evil empire (disambiguation) • Evil eye • Evil laugh • Evil or Divine – Live in New York City • Evil reptilian kitten-eater from another planet • Evil speak • Evil the Cat • Evil twin phishing • Evil, Inc. (Hardy Boys) • Evil-Lyn • Fantasmic! Good Clashes with Evil in a Nighttime Spectacular (Disney's Hollywood Studios album) • Fantasmic! Good Clashes with Evil in a Nighttime Spectacular (Disneyland album) • Fear No Evil (Slaughter album) • Fear No Evil (album) • Fear No Evil (film) • For Love of Evil • Forbidden Evil (album) • Forbidding what is evil • Force of Evil • Force of Evil (band) • Fox Evil • Free will and the problem of evil • From Evil's Pillow • Garden of Evil • Good and Evil (disambiguation) • Good and evil • Great King of Evil • I Am Your Evil Twin • I Will Fear No Evil • Illusions of Evil • In the Embrace of Evil • In the Sign of Evil • Inventor of Evil • Iuz the Evil • Jesus I Was Evil • Karn Evil 9 • List of characters in the Resident Evil film series • List of creatures in Resident Evil 4 • List of creatures in the Resident Evil series • Live-Evil • McFarlane's Evil Prophecy • Means of Evil • Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil • Moral evil • Most Evil • Natural evil • Necessary Evil (aircraft) • Nemesis (Resident Evil) • New Year's Evil • On the Streets Saving the Scene from the Forces of Evil • Pop Evil • Portal of Evil (Fighting Fantasy) • Portal of evil • President Evil • Prime Evil (Buffy novel) • Privilege of Evil • Ramunder the Evil • Resident Evil • Resident Evil (disambiguation) • Resident Evil (movie) • Resident Evil 5 • Resident Evil DS • Resident Evil Dead Aim • Resident Evil Gaiden • Return to the Temple of Elemental Evil • Root of all evil • Roots of Evil • Route of All Evil Tour • Sacred Evil • Scarlet Evil Witching Black • Scientist Rids the World of the Evil Curse of the Vampires • Scream of the Evil Genie • See No Evil • See No Evil (book) • See No Evil, Hear No Evil • Shaolin Vs Evil Dead • Shaolin Vs The Evil Dead • Shaolin Vs. Evil Dead • Shaolin Vs. The Evil Dead • Speak No Evil • Spread Your Evil Wings and Fly • Supreme Evil • Temple of Elemental Evil • Temple of elemental evil • The Assembly of Evil • The Changing Face of Evil • The Evil B.B. Chow • The Evil Below • The Evil Beneath / Carl Wheezer, Boy Genius • The Evil Clergyman • The Evil Dead • The Evil Dead (computer game) • The Evil Dead (franchise) • The Evil Experiment • The Evil That Men Do • The Evil That Men Do (Buffy novel) • The Evil That Men Do (song) • The Evil Touch • The Evil of Frankenstein • The Evil of the Day • The Mind of Evil • The Possibility of Evil • The Principle of Evil Made Flesh • The Return of the Darkness and Evil • The Return to the Temple of Elemental Evil • The Root of All Evil? • The Route of All Evil • The Temple of Elemental Evil • The Temple of Elemental Evil (video game) • The Ultimate Evil • Tiny Evil Records • Touch of Evil • Tree of the knowledge of good and evil • True Evil • Twins of Evil • Two Evil Eyes • United (Dream Evil album) • United Alliance of Evil • What Evil Lurks • When Religion Becomes Evil
qui n'est pas favorable (fr)[Classe]
nuire à quelqu'un (fr)[Thème]
(magic trick; conjuring trick; legerdemain; conjuration; thaumaturgy; illusion; deception; magic), (wizard; magician; magus; enchanter; warlock), (spell), (magic trick; conjuring trick; legerdemain; conjuration; thaumaturgy; illusion; deception; magic), (incantation; conjuration)[Thème]
désagréable (personne) (fr)[Classe]
qui n'est pas favorable (fr)[Classe]
mal - bien (en soi, pour qqch) (fr)[ClasseOppos.]
contravention; transgression; invasion; offense; penal offence; breach of the law; infraction of the law; infringement of the law; transgression of the law; violation of the law; lapse; misdemeanor; misdemeanour; infraction; violation; infringement; breach; desecration; evildoing[ClasseHyper.]
acte puni par la loi (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
commit a sin, sin, transgress, trespass - breach, break, go against, infract, offend, transgress, violate - desecrate, outrage, profane, violate - disrespectful, irreverent - nefariousness, ugliness, vileness, wickedness - dark, darkness, iniquity, wickedness - evilly, wickedly[Dérivé]
idée abstraite (fr)[Classe]
chose défavorable (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
Evil is the violation of, or intent to violate, some moral code. Evil is usually seen as the dualistic opposite of good. Definitions of evil vary, as does the analysis of its root motives and causes; however, evil is commonly associated with conscious and deliberate wrongdoing, discrimination designed to harm others, humiliation of people designed to diminish their psychological well-being and dignity, destructiveness, motives of causing pain or suffering for selfish or malicious intentions, and acts of unnecessary or indiscriminate violence. The philosophical question of whether morality is absolute or relative leads to questions about the nature of evil, with views falling into one of four opposed camps: moral absolutism, amoralism, moral relativism, and moral universalism.
While the term is applied to events and conditions without agency, the forms of evil addressed in this article presume an evildoer or doers.
The modern English word "evil" (Old English yfel) and its cognates such as the German Übel and Dutch euvel are widely considered to come from a Proto-Germanic reconstructed form of *ubilaz, comparable to the Hittite huwapp- ultimately from the Proto-Indo-European form *wap- and suffixed zero-grade form *up-elo-. Other later Germanic forms include Middle English evel, ifel, ufel, Old Frisian evel (adjective and noun), Old Saxon ubil, Old High German ubil, and evil Gothic ubils.
As with Buddhism below, in Confucianism or Taoism, there is no direct analogue to the way "good and evil" are opposed although reference to "demonic influence" is common in Chinese folk religion. Confucianism 's primary concern is with correct social relationships and the behavior appropriate to the learned or superior man. Thus "evil" would correspond to wrong behavior. Still less does it map into Taoism, in spite of the centrality of dualism in that system, but the opposite of the cardinal virtues of Taoism, compassion, moderation, and humility can be inferred to be the analogue of evil in it.
Friedrich Nietzsche, in a rejection of the Judeo-Christian morality, addresses this in two works Beyond Good and Evil and On the Genealogy of Morals where he essentially says that the natural functional non-good has been socially transformed into the religious concept of evil by the slave mentality of the weak and oppressed masses who resent their masters (the strong).
Benedict de Spinoza states
1. By good, I understand that which we certainly know is useful to us.
2. By evil, on the contrary I understand that which we certainly know hinders us from possessing anything that is good.
The philosophical notion such as those of Nietzsche, Rand, and Spinoza above can be compared and contrasted with the theological notion below, but it should be noted that Rand and Nietzsche were both atheists, Spinoza was not.
Carl Jung, in his book Answer to Job and elsewhere, depicted evil as the "dark side of the Devil". People tend to believe evil is something external to them, because they project their shadow onto others. Jung interpreted the story of Jesus as an account of God facing his own shadow.
In 2007, Philip Zimbardo suggested that people may act in evil ways as a result of a collective identity. This hypothesis, based on his previous experience from the Stanford prison experiment, was published in the book The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil.
The primal duality in Buddhism is between suffering and enlightenment, so the good vs. evil splitting has no direct analogue in it. One may infer however from the general teachings of the Buddha that the catalogued causes of suffering are what correspond in this belief system to "evil".
Practically this can refer to 1) the three selfish emotions—desire, hate and delusion; and 2) to their expression in physical and verbal actions. See "ten unvirtuous actions in Buddhism". Specifically, "evil" means whatever harms or obstructs the causes for happiness in this life, a better rebirth, liberation from samsara, and the true and complete enlightenment of a buddha (samyaksambodhi). Ignorance is defined as the root of all evil.[ungrammatical/illogical]
In Hinduism the concept of Dharma or righteousness clearly divides the world into good and evil, and clearly explains that wars have to be waged sometimes to establish and protect Dharma, this war is called Dharmayuddha. This division of good and evil is of major importance in both the Hindu epics of Ramayana and Mahabharata.
There is no concept of absolute evil in Islam, as a fundamental universal principle that is independent from and equal with good in a dualistic sense. Within Islam, it is considered essential to believe that all comes from Allah, whether it is perceived as good or bad by individuals; and that what the things that are perceived as "evil" or "bad" are either natural events(natural disasters or illnesses) or caused by humanity's free will to disobey Allah's orders. See however Iblis.
Evil is that which is not good. The Bible defines evil as the condition of being alone (the "not good" of Genesis 2:18). In this sense, evil may be seen as that which goes against, or is outside of society, both in terms of values and actions.
Some authors, such as Christian apologist William Lane Craig, have divided evil into moral evil, or harms perpetrated by some agent; and natural evil, harms resulting from natural disasters, disease, or other agentless causes. Natural evil has particular import to theodicy, as it cannot be simply explained as the result of an agent's free will.
Christian theology draws its concept of evil from the Old and New Testaments. In the Old Testament, evil is understood to be an opposition to God as well as something unsuitable or inferior such as the leader of the Fallen Angels Satan  In the New Testament the Greek word poneros is used to indicate unsuitability, while kakos is used to refer to opposition to God in the human realm. Officially, the Catholic Church extracts its understanding of evil from the Dominican theologian, Thomas Aquinas, who in SUMMA THEOLOGICA defines evil as the absence or privation of good.French-American theologian Henri Blocher describes evil, when viewed as a theological concept, as an "unjustifiable reality. In common parlance, evil is 'something' that occurs in experience that ought not to be."
In Judaism, evil is the result of forsaking God. (Deuteronomy 28:20) Judaism stresses obedience to God's laws as written in the Torah (see also Tanakh) and the laws and rituals laid down in the Mishnah and the Talmud.
Some forms of Judaism do not personify evil in Satan; these instead consider the human heart to be inherently bent toward deceit, although human beings are responsible for their choices. In other forms of Judaism, there is no prejudice in one's becoming good or evil at time of birth. In Judaism, Satan is viewed as one who tests us for God rather than one who works against God, and evil, as in the Christian denominations above, is a matter of choice.
Some cultures or philosophies believe that evil can arise without meaning or reason (in neoplatonic philosophy, this is called absurd evil). Christianity in general does not adhere to this belief, but the prophet Isaiah implied that God is ultimately responsible for everything. (Isa.45:7).[dubious ]
In Mormonism, mortal life is viewed as a test of faith, where one's choices are central to the Plan of Salvation. See Agency (LDS Church). Evil is that which keeps one from discovering the nature of God. It is believed that one must choose not to be evil to return to God.
Christian Science believes that evil arises from a misunderstanding of the goodness of nature, which is understood as being inherently perfect if viewed from the correct (spiritual) perspective. Misunderstanding God's reality leads to incorrect choices, which are termed evil. This has led to the rejection of any separate power being the source of evil, or of God as being the source of evil; instead, the appearance of evil is the result of a mistaken concept of good. Christian Scientists argue that even the most "evil" person does not pursue evil for its own sake, but from the mistaken viewpoint that he or she will achieve some kind of good thereby.
In the originally Persian religion of Zoroastrianism, the world is a battle ground between the god Ahura Mazda (also called Ormazd) and the malignant spirit Angra Mainyu (also called Ahriman). The final resolution of the struggle between good and evil was supposed to occur on a day of Judgement, in which all beings that have lived will be led across a bridge of fire, and those who are evil will be cast down forever. In Iranian belief, angels and saints are beings sent to help us achieve the path towards goodness.
A fundamental question is whether there is a universal, transcendent definition of evil, or whether evil is determined by one's social or cultural background. C. S. Lewis, in The Abolition of Man, maintained that there are certain acts that are universally considered evil, such as rape and murder. However the numerous instances in which rape or murder is morally affected by social context call this into question. One might argue, nevertheless, that the definition of the word rape necessitates that any action described by the word is evil, since the concept refers to causing sexual harm to another. Up until the mid-19th century, the United States — along with many other countries — practiced forms of slavery. As is often the case, those transgressing moral boundaries stood to profit from that exercise. Arguably, slavery has always been the same and objectively evil, but men with a motivation to transgress will justify that action.
The Nazis, during World War II, found genocide acceptable, as did the Hutu Interhamwe in the Rwandan genocide. One might point out, though, that the actual perpetrators of those atrocities probably avoided calling their actions genocide, since the objective meaning of any act accurately described by that word is to wrongfully kill a selected group of people, which is an action that at least the victimized party will understand to be evil. Universalists consider evil independent of culture, and wholly related to acts or intents. Thus, while the ideological leaders of Nazism and the Hutu Interhamwe accepted (and considered it moral) to commit genocide, the belief in genocide as "fundamentally" or "universally" evil holds that those who instigated this genocide are actually evil.[improper synthesis?] Other universalists might argue that although the commission of an evil act is always evil, those who perpetrate may not be wholly evil or wholly good entities. To say that someone who has stolen a candy bar, for instance, becomes wholly evil is a rather untenable position. However, universalists might also argue that a person can choose a decidedly evil or a decidedly good life career, and genocidal dictatorship plainly falls on the side of the former.
Views on the nature of evil tend to fall into one of four opposed camps:
Plato wrote that there are relatively few ways to do good, but there are countless ways to do evil, which can therefore have a much greater impact on our lives, and the lives of other beings capable of suffering. For this reason, philosophers such as Bernard Gert maintain that preventing evil is more important than promoting good in formulating moral rules and in conduct.
There is a school of thought that holds that no person is evil, that only acts may be properly considered evil. Psychologist and mediator Marshall Rosenberg claims that the root of violence is the very concept of "evil" or "badness." When we label someone as bad or evil, Rosenberg claims, it invokes the desire to punish or inflict pain. It also makes it easy for us to turn off our feelings towards the person we are harming. He cites the use of language in Nazi Germany as being a key to how the German people were able to do things to other human beings that they normally would not do. He links the concept of evil to our judicial system, which seeks to create justice via punishment — "punitive justice" — punishing acts that are seen as bad or wrong. He contrasts this approach with what he found in cultures where the idea of evil was non-existent. In such cultures, when someone harms another person, they are believed to be out of harmony with themselves and their community, are seen as sick or ill and measures are taken to restore them to a sense of harmonious relations with themselves and others.
Psychologist Albert Ellis makes a similar claim, in his school of psychology called Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy, or REBT. He says the root of anger, and the desire to harm someone, is almost always related to variations of implicit or explicit philosophical beliefs about other human beings. He further claims that without holding variants of those covert or overt belief and assumptions, the tendency to resort to violence in most cases is less likely.
Prominent American psychiatrist M. Scott Peck on the other hand, describes evil as "militant ignorance". The original Judeo-Christian concept of "sin" is as a process that leads us to "miss the mark" and fall short of perfection. Peck argues that while most people are conscious of this at least on some level, those that are evil actively and militantly refuse this consciousness. Peck characterizes evil as a malignant type of self-righteousness which results in a projection of evil onto selected specific innocent victims (often children or other people in relatively powerless positions). Peck considers those he calls evil to be attempting to escape and hide from their own conscience (through self deception) and views this as being quite distinct from the apparent absence of conscience evident in sociopaths.
He also considers certain institutions may be evil, as his discussion of the My Lai Massacre and its attempted coverup illustrate. By this definition, acts of criminal and state terrorism would also be considered evil.
Martin Luther allowed that there are cases where a little evil is a positive good. He wrote, "Seek out the society of your boon companions, drink, play, talk bawdy, and amuse yourself. One must sometimes commit a sin out of hate and contempt for the Devil, so as not to give him the chance to make one scrupulous over mere nothings... ."
In certain schools of political philosophy, leaders are encouraged to be indifferent to good or evil, taking actions based solely on practicality; this approach to politics was put forth by Niccolò Machiavelli, a 16th-century Florentine writer who advised politicians "...it is far safer to be feared than loved."
The international relations theories of realism and neorealism, sometimes called realpolitik advise politicians to explicitly disavow absolute moral and ethical considerations in international politics in favor of a focus on self-interest, political survival, and power politics, which they hold to be more accurate in explaining a world they view as explicitly amoral and dangerous. Political realists usually justify their perspectives by laying claim to a "higher moral duty" specific to political leaders, under which the greatest evil is seen to be the failure of the state to protect itself and its citizens. Machiavelli wrote: "...there will be traits considered good that, if followed, will lead to ruin, while other traits, considered vices which if practiced achieve security and well being for the Prince."
|Look up evil in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
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