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Expanded octet is a colloquial term referring to the phenomenon of hypervalency where a central atom of a molecule bears more than eight electrons.Second-period atoms cannot have more than eight valence electrons around the central atom, but atoms in the third (and below) period can. In such a case, the atom is said to have an expanded octet. One example is SF6, where all six of sulfur's valence electrons form bonds with fluorine. Other examples are AsF5, XeF6, & PF5.
As mentioned before, we say that atoms in these molecules have expanded octets. These atoms have 'd' orbitals that are available for bonding; this is where the extra electron pairs are located.
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