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definition - government shutdown

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Wikipedia

Government shutdown

                   

In U.S. politics, a government shutdown is a situation in which the government stops providing all but "essential" services.[1] Typically, services that continue despite a shutdown include police, fire fighting, postal service, armed forces, utilities, air traffic management, and corrections (the penal system).

Contents

  Causes

A shutdown can happen when a legislative body (including the legislative power of veto by the executive) cannot agree on a budget financing its government programs for a pending fiscal year. In the absence of appropriated funds, the government discontinues providing non-essential services at the beginning of the affected fiscal year. Government employees who provide essential services, often referred to as "essential employees," are required to continue working.

Specifically, in the case of the United States federal government, the Antideficiency Act, together with legal opinions, particularly one written by Attorney General Benjamin Civiletti in 1981, define what is and is not allowed in the absence of an appropriation.[2]

  Effects

A federal government shutdown causes a large number of civilian federal employees to be furloughed. Military personnel are not furloughed, but may not be paid as scheduled.[3][4]

The exact details of which government functions would stop during a shutdown is determined by the Office of Management and Budget.[5] However, some specific aspects have applied to all shutdowns in the past. Among these is the closure of national parks and passport offices.[6] "Emergency personnel" continue to be employed, including the military, border agents, doctors and nurses working in federal hospitals, and air traffic controllers.[7] Members of Congress continue to be paid, because their pay cannot be altered except by direct law.[8] Mail delivery is not affected as it is self-funded.[9]

Shutdowns in the past have also affected the Washington, D.C. municipal government, putting a stop to utilities such as garbage collection, this can include schools, though shutdowns evidently occur during the weekend.[10]

  Examples

  See also

  US

  References

  1. ^ A distinction defined in the Carter Administration (Whitehouse.gov .doc file)
  2. ^ Dellinger, Walter, Assistant Attorney General Office of Legal Counsel (August 16, 1995), Government operations in the event of a lapse in appropriations (memorandum opinion for the director, Office of Management and Budget)
  3. ^ Shutdown: 800,000 federal workers in the dark – 2011 Cable News Network
  4. ^ Government Prepares for Shutdown – WSJ.com
  5. ^ O'Keefe, Ed (April 2, 2011). "Government shutdown: Frequently asked questions". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/frequently-asked-questions-about-a-government-shutdown/2011/04/01/AF4WPIQC_story.html. 
  6. ^ Belopotosky, Danielle (April 8, 2011). "What a Government Shutdown Means for Travelers". The New York Times. http://intransit.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/04/08/what-a-government-shutdown-means-for-travelers/. 
  7. ^ O'Keefe, Ed (April 2, 2011). "Government shutdown: Frequently asked questions". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/frequently-asked-questions-about-a-government-shutdown/2011/04/01/AF4WPIQC_story.html. 
  8. ^ Shear, Michael (April 7, 2011). "Will Members of Congress Get Paid in a Shutdown?". The New York Times. http://thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/04/07/will-members-of-congress-get-paid-in-a-shutdown/. 
  9. ^ Kolawole, Emi (April 8, 2011). "Government shutdown 2011: Will I get paid? What will be open? What can I expect?". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/federal-eye/post/government-shutdown-2011-will-i-get-paid-what-will-be-open-what-can-i-expect/2011/04/06/AFfMK2oC_blog.html?hpid=z2#maill. 
  10. ^ Jouvenal, Justin (April 8, 2011). "Government shutdown could prove smelly for D.C.". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/government-shutdown-could-prove-smelly-for-dc/2011/04/08/AFJBny2C_story.html. 
  11. ^ "Federal shutdown". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/US/9511/debt_limit/countdown/index.html. 
  12. ^ "Frontline: the clinton years: nightline transcript: government shutdown battle". PBS. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/clinton/etc/11131995.html. 
  13. ^ "Budget Mess Hits Cultural Groups,". The Buffalo News. February 7, 2005. 
  14. ^ "County Leaders Brace for Closings". The Buffalo News. February 21, 2005. 
  15. ^ "Services Shut Down As County Fails To Pay Up". The Buffalo News. July 3, 2005. 
  16. ^ Minnesota Experiences Unprecedented Government Shutdown Due to a Budget Deadlock. 6. July 11, 2005. http://www.ombwatch.org/node/2491. 
  17. ^ "Pa. State Agencies Back in Operation After Budget Deal Struck". http://www.insurancejournal.com/news/east/2007/07/12/81571.htm. 
  18. ^ Central PA Local News – Pennlive.com
  19. ^ "Time's up: chances of a budget deal slipped away". Minneapolis Star Tribune. June 30, 2011. http://www.startribune.com/politics/statelocal/124824189.html. 

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