» 
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definitions - guillotine

guillotine (n.)

1.instrument of execution that consists of a weighted blade between two vertical poles; used for beheading people

2.closure imposed on the debate of specific sections of a bill

guillotine (v.)

1.kill by cutting the head off with a guillotine"The French guillotined many Vietnamese while they occupied the country"

   Advertizing ▼

Merriam Webster

GuillotineGuil"lo*tine` (gĭl"l�*tēn`), n. [F., from Guillotin, a French physician, who proposed, in the Constituent Assembly of 1789, to abolish decapitation with the ax or sword. The instrument was invented by Dr. Antoine Louis, and was called at first Louison or Louisette. Similar machines, however, were known earlier.]
1. A machine for beheading a person by one stroke of a heavy ax or blade, which slides in vertical guides, is raised by a cord, and let fall upon the neck of the victim.

2. Any machine or instrument for cutting or shearing, resembling in its action a guillotine.

GuillotineGuil"lo*tine` (gĭl`l�*tēn"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Guillotined (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Guillotining.] [Cf. F. guillotiner.] To behead with the guillotine.

   Advertizing ▼

definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - guillotine

guillotine (v.)

behead, decapitate

see also - guillotine

guillotine (v.)

scaffold

phrases

analogical dictionary




Wikipedia

Guillotine

                   
  Historic replicas (1:6 scale) of the two main types of French guillotines: Model 1792, left, and Model 1872 (state as of 1907), right

The guillotine (/ˈɡɪlətn/ or /ˈɡ.ətn/; French: [ɡijɔtin]) is a device used for carrying out executions by decapitation. It consists of a tall upright frame from which an angled blade is suspended. This blade is raised with a rope, and the condemned then places his or her head beneath it. The blade then falls rapidly, severing the head from the body. The device is noted for long being the main method of execution in France and, more particularly, for its use during the French Revolution, when it "became a part of popular culture, celebrated as the people's avenger by supporters of the Revolution and vilified as the pre-eminent symbol of the Reign of Terror by opponents."[1] In spite of being primarily associated with the French Revolution, the guillotine continued to be used long after the French Revolution in several countries, including France, where it was the standard method of execution until the abolition of capital punishment by President François Mitterrand in 1981.[2] In Germany, it saw rapid and prolific use during the Third Reich and was used as late as 1966 (in the German Democratic Republic) and in France in 1977, for the execution of Hamida Djandoubi.

Contents

  French Revolution

  Portrait of Dr. Guillotin
  The execution of Robespierre
  The Execution of Areski El Bachir a Kabyle criminal guillotined 14 May 1895 at the age of 28

On 10 October 1789, Doctor Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, a French physician, stood before the National Assembly and proposed the following six articles in favour of the reformation of capital punishment:

  • Article 1: All offences of the same kind will be punished by the same type of punishment irrespective of the rank of status of the guilty party.
  • Article 2: Whenever the Law imposes the death penalty, irrespective of the nature of the offence, the punishment shall be the same: decapitation, effected by means of a simple mechanism.
  • Article 3: The punishment of the guilty party shall not bring discredit upon or discrimination against his family.
  • Article 4: No one shall reproach a citizen with any punishment imposed on one of his relatives. Such offenders shall be publicly reprimanded by a judge.
  • Article 5: The condemned person's property shall not be confiscated.
  • Article 6: At the request of the family, the corpse of the condemned man shall be returned to them for burial and no reference to the nature of death shall be registered.[3]

Sensing the growing discontent, Louis XVI banned the use of the breaking wheel.[4] In 1791, as the French Revolution progressed, the National Assembly researched a new method to be used on all condemned people regardless of class. Their concerns contributed to the idea that capital punishment's purpose was simply the ending of life instead of the infliction of pain.[4]

A committee was formed under Antoine Louis, physician to the King and Secretary to the Academy of Surgery.[4] Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, was also on the committee. The group was influenced by the Italian Mannaia (or Mannaja), the Scottish Maiden and the Halifax Gibbet. While these prior instruments usually crushed the neck or used blunt force to take off a head, devices also usually used a crescent blade and a lunette (a hinged two part yoke to immobilize the victim's neck).[4]

Laquiante, an officer of the Strasbourg criminal court,[5] made a design for a beheading machine and employed Tobias Schmidt, a German engineer and harpsichord maker, to construct a prototype.[6] Antoine Louis is also credited with the design of the prototype. An apocryphal story claims that King Louis XVI (an amateur locksmith) recommended a triangular blade with a beveled edge be used instead of a crescent blade,[4] but it was Schmidt who suggested placing the blade at an oblique 45-degree angle and changing it from the curved blade.[7] The first execution by guillotine was performed on highwayman Nicolas Jacques Pelletier[8] on 25 April 1792.[9][10][11]

The basis for the machine's success was the belief that it was a humane form of execution, contrasting with the methods used in pre-revolutionary, Ancien Régime France. In France, before the guillotine, members of the nobility were beheaded with a sword or axe (which typically took at least two blows before killing the condemned), while commoners were usually hanged, a form of death that could take minutes or longer. Other more gruesome methods of executions were also used, such as the wheel or burning at the stake. In the case of decapitation, it also sometimes took repeated blows to sever the head completely, and it was also very likely for the condemned to slowly bleed to death before the head could be fully severed. The condemned or the family of the condemned would sometimes pay the executioner to ensure that the blade was sharp in order to provide for a quick and relatively painless death.

The guillotine was thus perceived to deliver an immediate death without risk of suffocation. Furthermore, having only one method of civil execution was seen as an expression of equality among citizens. The guillotine was then the only civil legal execution method in France until the abolition of the death penalty in 1981,[12] apart from certain crimes against the security of the state, or for the death sentences passed by military courts,[13] which entailed execution by firing squad.[14]

  Reign of Terror

  Francisco de GoyaThe French Penalty.

The period from June 1793 to July 1794 in France is known as the Reign of Terror or simply "the Terror". The upheaval following the overthrow of the monarchy, invasion by foreign monarchist powers and the Revolt in the Vendée combined to throw the nation into chaos and the government into frenzied paranoia. Most of the democratic reforms of the revolution were suspended and large-scale executions by guillotine began. The first political prisoner to be executed was Collenot d'Angremont of the National Guard, followed soon after by the King's trusted collaborator in his ill-fated attempt to moderate the Revolution, Arnaud de Laporte, both in 1792. Former King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were executed in 1793. Maximilien Robespierre became one of the most powerful men in the government, and the figure most associated with the Terror. The Revolutionary Tribunal sentenced thousands to the guillotine. Nobility and commoners, intellectuals, politicians and prostitutes,[citation needed] all were liable to be executed on little or no grounds; suspicion of "crimes against liberty" was enough to earn one an appointment with "Madame Guillotine" or "The National Razor". Estimates of the death toll range between 16,000 and 40,000.[15]

At this time, Paris executions were carried out in the Place de la Revolution (former Place Louis XV and current Place de la Concorde); the guillotine stood in the corner near the Hôtel Crillon where the statue of Brest can be found today.

  Public guillotining in Lons-le-Saunier, 1897. Picture taken on 20 April 1897, in front of the jailhouse of Lons-le-Saunier, Jura. The man who was going to be beheaded was Pierre Vaillat, who killed two elder siblings on Christmas Day, 1896, in order to rob them and was condemned for his crimes on 9 March 1897.

For a time, executions by guillotine were a popular entertainment that attracted great crowds of spectators. Vendors would sell programs listing the names of those scheduled to die. Many people would come day after day and vie for the best locations from which to observe the proceedings; knitting female citizens (tricoteuses) formed a cadre of hardcore regulars, inciting the crowd in the role of atavistic cheerleaders. Parents would bring their children. By the end of the Terror, the crowds had thinned drastically. Excessive repetition had staled even this most grisly of entertainments, and audiences grew bored.

Eventually, the National Convention had enough of the Terror, partially fearing for their own lives, and turned against Maximilien Robespierre. On 28 July 1794, he was arrested and executed in the same fashion as those whom he had condemned. This arguably ended the Terror, as the French expressed their discontent with Robespierre's policy by guillotining him.[16]

  Retirement

The last public guillotining was of Eugen Weidmann, who was convicted of six murders. He was beheaded on 17 June 1939, outside the prison Saint-Pierre rue Georges Clemenceau 5 at Versailles, which is now the Palais de Justice. A number of problems with that execution (inappropriate behavior by spectators, incorrect assembly of the apparatus, and the fact it was secretly filmed) caused the authorities to conduct future executions in the prison courtyard.

The guillotine remained the official method of execution in France until the death penalty was abolished in 1981.[17] The last guillotining in France was that of torture-murderer Hamida Djandoubi on September 10, 1977.

In the late 1840s the Tussaud brothers Joseph and Francis, gathering relics for Madame Tussauds wax museum visited the aged Henry-Clément Sanson, grandson of the executioner Charles Henri Sanson, where they secured parts, the knife and lunette, of one the original guillotines used during the Age of Terror. The executioner had "pawned his guillotine, and got into woeful trouble for alleged trafficking in municipal property".[18]

  Elsewhere

  German Fallbeil of 1854, Munich
(Historic replica 1:6 scale)
  The Scottish Maiden on display at the Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh.

There were guillotine-like devices in countries other than France before 1792. A number of countries, especially in Europe, continued to employ this method of execution into modern times.

Although older narratives may tell you that the guillotine was invented in the late 18th century, most recent accounts recognise that similar 'decapitation machines' have a long history. The most famous, and possibly one of the earliest, was the Halifax Gibbet, a monolithic wooden structure which was supposedly created from two fifteen foot high uprights capped by a horizontal beam. The blade was an axe head, attached to the bottom of a four and a half foot wooden block that slid up and down via grooves in the uprights. This device was mounted on a large, square, platform which was itself four foot high. The Halifax Gibbet was certainly substantial, and may date from as early as 1066, although the first definite reference is from the 1280's. Executions took place in the town's Market Place on Saturdays, and the machine remained in use until April 30th, 1650.

Another early example is immortalised in the picture 'The execution of Murcod Ballagh near to Merton in Ireland 1307'. As the title suggests, the victim was called Murcod Ballagh, and he was decapitated by equipment which looks remarkably similar to the later French guillotines. Another, unrelated, picture depicts the combination of a guillotine style machine and a traditional beheading. The victim is lying on a bench, with an axe head held above his neck by some sort of mechanism. The difference lies in the executioner, who is shown wielding a large hammer, ready to strike the mechanism and drive the blade down. If this device existed, it may have been an attempt to improve the accuracy of the impact.

In Antwerp, Belgium, the last beheaded was Francis Kol. Convicted for robbery with murder, he received his punishment on 8 May 1856. During the period from 19 March 1798 until 12 March 1856, Antwerp counted 19 beheadings.[19]

In Germany, where the guillotine is known in German as Fallbeil ("falling axe"), it was used in various German states from the 17th century onwards, becoming the usual method of execution in Napoleonic times in many parts of Germany. The guillotine and the firing squad were the legal methods of execution during the German Empire (1871–1918) and the Weimar Republic (1919–1933).

The original German guillotines resembled the French Berger 1872 model but eventually evolved into more specialised machines largely built of metal with a much heavier blade enabling shorter uprights to be used. Accompanied by a more efficient blade recovery system and the eventual removal of the tilting board (or bascule) this allowed a quicker turn-around time between executions, the victim being decapitated either face up or down depending on how the executioner predicted they would react to the sight of the machine. Those deemed likely to struggle were backed up from behind a curtain to shield their view of the device.

In 1933, Adolf Hitler had a guillotine constructed and tested. He was impressed enough to order 20 more constructed and pressed into immediate service.[4][unreliable source?] Nazi records indicate that between 1933 and 1945, 16,500 people were executed in Germany and Austria by this method.[4] It survived the Nazi era and was used for the last time in West Germany in 1949 (Richard Schuh) and in East Germany in 1966 (Horst Fischer).[20] In Switzerland it was used for the last time by the canton of Obwalden in the execution of murderer Hans Vollenweider in 1940.

The Scottish Maiden (based on the Halifax Gibbet) was introduced to Edinburgh, by James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton in the 16th century. It continued in use until 1708. The scaffold itself is now housed in the National Museum of Scotland.

In Sweden, where beheading became the mandatory method of execution in 1866, the guillotine replaced manual beheading in 1903 and used only once, for the execution of murderer Alfred Ander in 1910 at Långholmen Prison, Stockholm.

In South Vietnam, after the Diệm regime enacted the 10/59 Decree in 1959, mobile special military courts dispatched to the countryside to intimidate the rural peoples used guillotines belonging to the former French colonial power to carry out death sentences on the spot.[21] One such guillotine is still on show at the War Remnants Museum in Ho Chi Minh City.[22]

  Living heads

  Execution of Languille in 1905

From its first use, there has been debate as to whether the guillotine always provided a swift death as Guillotin had hoped. With previous methods of execution intended to be painful, there was little concern about the suffering inflicted. As the guillotine was invented specifically to be humane, however, the issue was seriously considered. The blade cuts quickly enough so that there is relatively little impact on the brain case, and perhaps less likelihood of immediate unconsciousness than with a more violent decapitation, or long-drop hanging.

Audiences to guillotinings told numerous stories of blinking eyelids, speaking, moving eyes, movement of the mouth, even an expression of "unequivocal indignation" on the face of the decapitated Charlotte Corday when her cheek was slapped.

The following report was written by a Dr. Beaurieux, who experimented with the head of a condemned prisoner by the name of Henri Languille, on 28 June 1905:

Here, then, is what I was able to note immediately after the decapitation: the eyelids and lips of the guillotined man worked in irregularly rhythmic contractions for about five or six seconds. This phenomenon has been remarked by all those finding themselves in the same conditions as myself for observing what happens after the severing of the neck …

I waited for several seconds. The spasmodic movements ceased. […] It was then that I called in a strong, sharp voice: "Languille!" I saw the eyelids slowly lift up, without any spasmodic contractions – I insist advisedly on this peculiarity – but with an even movement, quite distinct and normal, such as happens in everyday life, with people awakened or torn from their thoughts.

Next Languille's eyes very definitely fixed themselves on mine and the pupils focused themselves. I was not, then, dealing with the sort of vague dull look without any expression, that can be observed any day in dying people to whom one speaks: I was dealing with undeniably living eyes which were looking at me. After several seconds, the eyelids closed again […].

It was at that point that I called out again and, once more, without any spasm, slowly, the eyelids lifted and undeniably living eyes fixed themselves on mine with perhaps even more penetration than the first time. Then there was a further closing of the eyelids, but now less complete. I attempted the effect of a third call; there was no further movement – and the eyes took on the glazed look which they have in the dead.[23]

Anatomists and other scientists in several countries have tried to perform more definitive experiments on severed human heads as recently as 1956. Inevitably, the evidence is only anecdotal. What appears to be a head responding to the sound of its name, or to the pain of a pinprick, may be only random muscle twitching or automatic reflex action, with no awareness involved. At worst, it seems that the massive drop in cerebral blood pressure would cause a victim to lose consciousness in a few seconds.[24]

  See also

  References

  Footnotes

  1. ^ R. Po-chia Hsia, Lynn Hunt, Thomas R. Martin, Barbara H. Rosenwein, and Bonnie G. Smith, The Making of the West, Peoples and Culture, A Concise History, Volume II: Since 1340, Second Edition (New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007), 664.
  2. ^ Loi n°81-908 du 9 octobre 1981 portant abolition de la peine de mort
  3. ^ R. F. Opies, "Guillotine" (Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2003) p. 22
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Executive Producer Don Cambou (2001). Modern Marvels: Death Devices. A&E Television Networks. 
  5. ^ Croker, John Wilson (1857). Essays on the early period of the French Revolution. J. Murray. p. 549. http://books.google.com/books?id=fQZoAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA549. Retrieved 21 October 2010. 
  6. ^ Edmond-Jean Guérin, "1738–1814 – Joseph-Ignace Guillotin : biographie historique d'une figure saintaise", Histoire P@ssion website, accessed 2009-06-27, citing M. Georges de Labruyère in le Matin, 22 Aug. 1907
  7. ^ "Joseph Ignace Guillotin". whonamedit.com. http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/2275.html. Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
  8. ^ "Crime Library". National Museum of Crime & Punishment. http://www.crimemuseum.org/library/execution/guillotine.html. Retrieved 13 June 2009. "[I]n 1792, Nicholas-Jacques Pelletier became the first person to be put to death with a guillotine." 
  9. ^ "Chase's Calendar of Events 2007", p. 291
  10. ^ Scurr, pp. 222–223
  11. ^ Abbot, p. 144
  12. ^ Pre-1981 penal code, article 12: "Any person sentenced to death shall be beheaded."
  13. ^ Pre-1971 Code de Justice Militaire, article 336: "Les justiciables des juridictions des forces armées condamnés à la peine capitale sont fusillés dans un lieu désigné par l'autorité militaire."
  14. ^ Pre-1981 penal code, article 13: "By exception to article 12, when the death penalty is handed for crimes against the safety of the State, execution shall take place by firing squad.".
  15. ^ "Reign of Terror". http://www.mahalo.com/reign-of-terror. 
  16. ^ "The Reign of Terror". French Revolution Exhibit. http://www.historywiz.com/terror.htm. Retrieved 7 March 2011. 
  17. ^ Loi n°81-908 du 9 octobre 1981 portant abolition de la peine de mort
  18. ^ Leonard Cottrell, Madame Tussaud, Evans Brothers Limited, 1952, p. 142-43.
  19. ^ Gazet van Mechelen, 8 May 1956
  20. ^ http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_in_der_DDR_hingerichteten_Personen
  21. ^ Mrs Nguyen Thi Dinh; Mai V. Elliott (1976). No Other Road to Take: Memoir of Mrs Nguyen Thi Dinh. Cornell University Southeast Asia Program. 27. ISBN 0-87727-102-X. 
  22. ^ Farrara, Andrew J. (2004). Around the World in 220 Days: The Odyssey of an American Traveler Abroad. Buy Books. 415. ISBN 0-7414-1838-X. 
  23. ^ Dr. Beaurieux. "Report From 1905". The History of the Guillotine. http://www.guillotine.dk/Pages/30sek.html. Retrieved 13 February 2009. 
  24. ^ Excerpt from British Medical Journal, Vol 294: February, 1987, quoting Proges Medical of 9 July 1886, on the subject of research into "living heads".

  Further reading

  • Caryle, Thomas. The French Revolution In Three Volumes, Volume 3: The Guillotine. Charles C. Little and James Brown (Little Brown). New York, NY, 1839. No ISBN. (First Edition. Many reprintings of this important history have been done during the last two centuries.)
  • Farrell, Simon, Sutherland, Jon. Madame Guillotine: The French Revolution. Armada Books, 1986. ISBN 0-233-97868-2.
  • Gerould, Daniel (1992). Guillotine; Its Legend and Lore. Blast Books. ISBN 0-922233-02-0. 

  External links

   
               

 

All translations of guillotine


sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

Dictionary and translator for handheld

⇨ New : sensagent is now available on your handheld

   Advertising ▼

sensagent's office

Shortkey or widget. Free.

Windows Shortkey: sensagent. Free.

Vista Widget : sensagent. Free.

Webmaster Solution

Alexandria

A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code

SensagentBox

With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.


Please, email us to describe your idea.

WordGame

The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

last searches on the dictionary :

5836 online visitors

computed in 0.078s

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
other
please precise:

Advertize

Partnership

Company informations

My account

login

registration

   Advertising ▼

PAPER CUTTER 12 x 10" inch METAL BASE TRIMMER Scrap booking Guillotine Blade New (21.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

New COMMERCIAL QUALITY GUILLOTINE Stack Paper Cutter + FREE Cutting Stick (99.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

18"x15" inch Sturdy Metal Base Paper Cutter Trimmer Scrap Booking Guillotine New (27.58 USD)

Commercial use of this term

PAPER CUTTER 18 x 15" inch METAL BASE TRIMMER Scrap booking Guillotine Blade New (31.79 USD)

Commercial use of this term

NEW COME 9770 19" HEAVY DUTY GUILLOTINE STACK PAPER CUTTER MACHINE TRIMMER (259.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

17" A3-B7 Industrial Guillotine 400 Sheet Normal Paper Cutter Cutting Machine (114.9 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Jielisi 909-1 A4 Guillotine Ruler Paper Cutter Trimmer Black-Orange (18.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

New 19" Programmable Paper Guillotine Cutter Cutting Machine+CE,High Precision (1690.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Premier Martin Yale W15 Guillotine 15" Paper Cutter Trimmer (44.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

VINTAGE INGENTO 24" PAPER CUTTER #6 No. 6 GUILLOTINE TRIMMER (140.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

12" A4-B7 Commercial Paper Cutter Guillotine 400 Sheet DeskTop Metal Base (78.92 USD)

Commercial use of this term

GUILLOTINE STACK PAPER CUTTER TIMMER MACHINE: FULL WARRANTY COME 2700 HEAVY DUTY (229.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

12" x 10" Guillotine Paper Cutter Slicer Trimmer Metal Base Pro - Straight Grid (23.97 USD)

Commercial use of this term

A3 size Electric Paper Cutter Machine. KwTrio 3952 Guillotine (500.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

A4-B7 Top Precision Paper Photo Card Trimmer Rotary Cutter Guillotine Art Craft (22.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

NEW 12" MANUAL GUILLOTINE PAPER CUTTER TRIMMER MACHINE + FREE Cutting Stick (99.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Black Jielisi 909-1 A4 Guillotine Ruler Paper Cutter Trimmer Plastic Cutters New (14.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

New 18" Programmable Paper Guillotine Cutter Cutting Machine, Trimmer, 460mm (1290.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

17" Heavy Duty commercial Paper Cutter Guillotine 400 Sheet Desktop Metal Base (149.9 USD)

Commercial use of this term