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The President of the Philippines is the head of state governing the country. According to the Philippine government, the office has been held by politicians who were inaugurated as President of the Philippines following the ratification of a constitution that explicitly declared the existence of the Philippines.
For leaders of the Philippines prior to the arrival of the Spaniards, see Datu. For leaders prior to the ratification of the 1899 constitution, see Royal Governor of the Philippines. For leaders prior to the ratification of the 1935 constitution, see Governor-General of the Philippines.
The King of Spain was the head of state during the Spanish era (1565–1898) and the President of the United States was the head of state during the American era (1898–1946). Note that the presidents under the Commonwealth of the Philippines were under United States sovereignty, and that the president of the Second Republic is considered to have been running a puppet government of the Japanese during World War II although this puppet government of Jose P. Laurel during the Japanese occupation was officially considered independent by the Japanese. Thus the Philippines had three Presidents during that war - one de facto and two de jure, and two at the same time.
Emilio Aguinaldo was president of the short-lived Malolos Republic between 1899 and 1901. Although the republic never received foreign recognition, Filipinos consider Aguinaldo to be their first president.
The colors in the following chart indicate the political party or coalition of each President at Election Day or at the time of ascendancy.
|#||President||Took office||Left office||Party||Vice President||Term||Era|
|January 23, 1899[L 1]||April 1, 1901[L 2]||Independent
(Formerly Katipunan,[L 3] Magdalo faction)
Due to the leadership of the US Civil Governors of the Philippine Islands from April 1, 1901 to November 15, 1935.
|2||Manuel L. Quezon
|November 15, 1935||August 1, 1944[L 4]||Nacionalista||Sergio Osmeña||1||Commonwealth|
|3||José P. Laurel
|October 14, 1943||August 17, 1945[L 5]||KALIBAPI[L 6]
(Caretaker government under Japanese occupation)
(The 1943 Constitution did not provide for a Vice President)
|August 1, 1944||May 28, 1946||Nacionalista||vacant||2||Commonwealth
|May 28, 1946||April 15, 1948[L 7]||Liberal||Elpidio Quirino||3|
|April 17, 1948||December 30, 1953||vacant|
|December 30, 1953||March 17, 1957[L 8]||Nacionalista||Carlos P. Garcia||5|
|8||Carlos P. Garcia
|March 18, 1957||December 30, 1961||vacant|
|December 30, 1961||December 30, 1965||Liberal||Emmanuel Pelaez||7|
|December 30, 1965||February 25, 1986[L 9]||Nacionalista||Fernando Lopez||8|
|Kilusang Bagong Lipunan||vacant||Second Dictatorship
"The New Society"
|February 25, 1986[L 10]||June 30, 1992||PDP-LABAN / UNIDO||Salvador Laurel|
|12||Fidel V. Ramos
|June 30, 1992||June 30, 1998||Lakas–NUCD–UMDP||Joseph E. Estrada||12|
|June 30, 1998||January 20, 2001[L 11]||PMP
(Under Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino coalition)
|January 20, 2001||June 30, 2010||Lakas–CMD / KAMPI||vacant|
|Teofisto Guingona, Jr.|
|Lakas Kampi CMD
(Under Koalisyon ng Katapatan at Karanasan sa Kinabukasan coalition)
|Noli de Castro||14|
|15||Benigno Aquino III
|June 30, 2010||Incumbent (Elections in 2016)||Liberal||Jejomar Binay||15|
Historians and other figures have identified the following people as having held the presidency of a government intended to represent the Philippines, but their terms of office are not counted by the Philippine government as part of the presidential succession.
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