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definition - list of presidents of the philippines

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List of Presidents of the Philippines

  Malacañang Palace, the official residence of the president

The President of the Philippines is the head of state governing the country. According to the Philippine government, the office has been held by politicians who were inaugurated as President of the Philippines following the ratification of a constitution that explicitly declared the existence of the Philippines.

For leaders of the Philippines prior to the arrival of the Spaniards, see Datu. For leaders prior to the ratification of the 1899 constitution, see Royal Governor of the Philippines. For leaders prior to the ratification of the 1935 constitution, see Governor-General of the Philippines.

The King of Spain was the head of state during the Spanish era (1565–1898) and the President of the United States was the head of state during the American era (1898–1946). Note that the presidents under the Commonwealth of the Philippines were under United States sovereignty, and that the president of the Second Republic is considered to have been running a puppet government of the Japanese during World War II although this puppet government of Jose P. Laurel during the Japanese occupation was officially considered independent by the Japanese. Thus the Philippines had three Presidents during that war - one de facto and two de jure, and two at the same time.[1]

Emilio Aguinaldo was president of the short-lived Malolos Republic between 1899 and 1901. Although the republic never received foreign recognition, Filipinos consider Aguinaldo to be their first president.[2]

The colors in the following chart indicate the political party or coalition of each President at Election Day or at the time of ascendancy.



  Kalibapi (Japanese-sponsored)
  Nacionalista Party (Nationalist Party)
  Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL; New Society Movement)
  Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan (PDP-Laban; Philippine Democratic Party-People's Power)
  Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino (LAMMP; Struggle of the Nationalist Filipino Masses)

  List of presidents

# President Took office Left office Party Vice President Term Era
1 Aguinaldo.jpg Emilio Aguinaldo
January 23, 1899[L 1] April 1, 1901[L 2] Independent
(Formerly Katipunan,[L 3] Magdalo faction)
Mariano Trias
First Republic
(Malolos Republic)
Due to the leadership of the US Civil Governors of the Philippine Islands from April 1, 1901 to November 15, 1935.
2 QuezonUS.jpg Manuel L. Quezon
November 15, 1935 August 1, 1944[L 4] Nacionalista Sergio Osmeña 1 Commonwealth
3 Jose P. Laurel.jpg José P. Laurel
October 14, 1943 August 17, 1945[L 5] KALIBAPI[L 6]
(Caretaker government under Japanese occupation)
(The 1943 Constitution did not provide for a Vice President)
Second Republic
4 VP Osmeña in Washington cropped.jpg Sergio Osmeña
August 1, 1944 May 28, 1946 Nacionalista vacant 2 Commonwealth
5 President Manuel A Roxas.jpg Manuel Roxas
May 28, 1946 April 15, 1948[L 7] Liberal Elpidio Quirino 3
Third Republic
6 Presidentelpidioquirino.jpg Elpidio Quirino
April 17, 1948 December 30, 1953 vacant
Fernando Lopez 4
7 Ramon-Magsaysay-01.jpg Ramon Magsaysay
December 30, 1953 March 17, 1957[L 8] Nacionalista Carlos P. Garcia 5
8 Carlos P Garcia.jpg Carlos P. Garcia
March 18, 1957 December 30, 1961 vacant
Diosdado Macapagal 6
9 Diosdado Macapagal USS Oklahoma City 1962 cropped.jpg Diosdado Macapagal
December 30, 1961 December 30, 1965 Liberal Emmanuel Pelaez 7
10 Ferdinand Marcos at the White House.jpg Ferdinand Marcos
December 30, 1965 February 25, 1986[L 9] Nacionalista Fernando Lopez 8
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan vacant Second Dictatorship
"The New Society"
10 Fourth Republic
Arturo Tolentino 11
11 Corazon Aquino 1986.jpg Corazon Aquino
February 25, 1986[L 10] June 30, 1992 PDP-LABAN / UNIDO Salvador Laurel
Fifth Republic
12 Ramos Pentagon.jpg Fidel V. Ramos
(born 1928)
June 30, 1992 June 30, 1998 Lakas–NUCD–UMDP Joseph E. Estrada 12
13 Josephestradapentagon.jpg Joseph Estrada
(born 1937)
June 30, 1998 January 20, 2001[L 11] PMP
(Under Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino coalition)
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo 13
14 Gloria Macapagal Arroyo WEF 2009-crop.jpg Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
(born 1947)
January 20, 2001 June 30, 2010 Lakas–CMD / KAMPI vacant
Teofisto Guingona, Jr.
Lakas Kampi CMD
(Under Koalisyon ng Katapatan at Karanasan sa Kinabukasan coalition)
Noli de Castro 14
15 President Benigno S. Aquino III.jpg Benigno Aquino III
(born 1960)
June 30, 2010 Incumbent (Elections in 2016) Liberal Jejomar Binay 15


  1. ^ Term began with the inauguration of the Malolos Republic, considered the First Philippine Republic.
  2. ^ Term ended when Aguinaldo pledged allegiance to the United States after his capture at Palanan, Isabela.
  3. ^ Founded by Andrés Bonifacio and others on July 7, 1892; converted into a revolutionary government by Bonifacio on August 24, 1986; as a government, officially replaced by the Tejeros revolutionary government on March 22, 1897 - though some sectors refused cooperation; as an organization, officially abolished by Emilio Aguinaldo on July 15, 1898
  4. ^ Died due to tuberculosis at Saranac Lake, New York.
  5. ^ Term ended with his dissolving the Philippine Republic in the wake of the surrender of Japanese forces to the Americans at World War II.
  6. ^ Originally a Nacionalista, but was elected by the National Assembly under Japanese control. All parties were merged under Japanese auspices to form Kalibapi, to which all officials belonged.
  7. ^ Died due to a heart attack at Clark Air Base.
  8. ^ Died on a plane crash at Mount Manunggal, Cebu.
  9. ^ Deposed in the 1986 People Power Revolution.
  10. ^ Assumed presidency by claiming victory in the disputed 1986 snap election.
  11. ^ Deposed after the Supreme Court declared Estrada as resigned, and the office of the presidency as vacant as a result, after the 2001 EDSA Revolution.



The 1935 constitution provided that no person shall serve as President for more than eight consecutive years.[3] The 1973 constitution did not place restrictions on presidential re-election. [4] The 1987 constitution provided that the President shall not be eligible for any re-election, and that no person who has succeeded as President and has served as such for more than four years shall be qualified for election to the same office at any time.[5] President Arroyo succeeded to the presidency on January 20, 2001 and, after having served as President for less than four years and having been elected to the office of President in the May, 2004 elections, was sworn in to a full six-year term on June 30, 2004.

  Unofficial Presidents of the Philippines

Historians and other figures have identified the following people as having held the presidency of a government intended to represent the Philippines, but their terms of office are not counted by the Philippine government as part of the presidential succession.


  1. ^ Quezon III, Manuel (February 2, 2001). "For trivia freaks". Today. 
  2. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. (2009). The encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American wars: a political, social, and military history. ABC-CLIO. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-85109-951-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=8V3vZxOmHssC. .
  3. ^ Article VII, 1935 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, Chan Robles Law Library.
  4. ^ Article VII, 1973 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines., Chan Robles Law Library.
  5. ^ Article VII, 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines., Chan Robles Law Library.

  See also

  External links



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