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definitions - rhythm

rhythm (n.)

1.natural family planning in which ovulation is assumed to occur 14 days before the onset of a period (the fertile period would be assumed to extend from day 10 through day 18 of her cycle)

2.recurring at regular intervals

3.the arrangement of spoken words alternating stressed and unstressed elements"the rhythm of Frost's poetry"

4.the basic rhythmic unit in a piece of music"the piece has a fast rhythm" "the conductor set the beat"

5.an interval during which a recurring sequence of events occurs"the never-ending cycle of the seasons"

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Merriam Webster

RhythmRhythm (?), n. [F. rhythme, rythme, L. rhythmus, fr. Gr. ��� measured motion, measure, proportion, fr. "rei^n to flow. See Stream.]
1. In the widest sense, a dividing into short portions by a regular succession of motions, impulses, sounds, accents, etc., producing an agreeable effect, as in music poetry, the dance, or the like.

2. (Mus.) Movement in musical time, with periodical recurrence of accent; the measured beat or pulse which marks the character and expression of the music; symmetry of movement and accent. Moore (Encyc.)

3. A division of lines into short portions by a regular succession of arses and theses, or percussions and remissions of voice on words or syllables.

4. The harmonious flow of vocal sounds.

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definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - rhythm

see also - rhythm

rhythm (n.)

rhythmic, rhythmical

phrases

-Alpha Rhythm • Beta Rhythm • Beta Rhythm Electroencephalography • Circadian Rhythm • Circadian Rhythm Disorders • Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders • Delta Rhythm • Delta Rhythm Electroencephalography • Disturbed Nyctohemeral Rhythm • Diurnal Rhythm • Inversion of Circadian Rhythm, Psychogenic • Nyctohemeral Rhythm • Rhythm Method of Family Planning • Rhythm Method of Family Planning, Calendar • Rhythm Method of Family Planning, Cervical Mucus • Rhythm Method of Family Planning, Temperature • Rhythm disorder coronary sinus • Rhythm disorder ectopic • Rhythm disorder nodal • Theta Rhythm • Theta Rhythm Electroencephalography • Twenty-Four Hour Rhythm • alpha rhythm • atrioventricular nodal rhythm • beta rhythm • breathing rhythm • cantering rhythm • cardiac rhythm • circadian rhythm • delta rhythm • gallop rhythm • heart rhythm • musical rhythm • nodal rhythm • poetic rhythm • rhythm and blues • rhythm and blues musician • rhythm method • rhythm method of birth control • rhythm section • speech rhythm • sprung rhythm • theta rhythm

-A Shot of Rhythm and Blues • Accelerated idioventricular rhythm • Additive rhythm • Art Pepper Meets the Rhythm Section • Atlanta Rhythm Section (album) • Back to the Rhythm • Basal electrical rhythm • Bentley Rhythm Ace • Bentley Rhythm Ace (album) • Boss Doctor Rhythm DR-110 • Broadway Rhythm • Brothers in Rhythm • Bruckner rhythm • Bruckner-rhythm • Canadian Heart Rhythm Society • Canter rhythm • Cardiac rhythm management • Circadian Rhythm (film) • Circadian rhythm • Circadian rhythm sleep disorder • City Rhythm (Sandy Lam album) • City rhythm • Clave (rhythm) • Clave rhythm • Combined rhythm • Composite rhythm • Counting Bodies Like Sheep to the Rhythm of the War Drums • Crazy Rhythm • Dancesport World Champions (rhythm) • Dead Rhythm Machine • Diurnal rhythm • Don't Upset the Rhythm (Go Baby Go) • Donald Davie's Some Notes on Rhythm in Verse • Drawn to the Rhythm • External rhythm • Fascinating Rhythm • Folk rhythm • Future Rhythm • Gallop rhythm • Get Rhythm • Girls Got Rhythm • Girls Got Rhythm! • Global Rhythm • Greensleeves Rhythm Album • Hazumu Rhythm • Heart Rhythm Society • Hippopotamus Rhythm • Hit Me with Your Rhythm Stick • Infradian rhythm • Internal rhythm • International Sweethearts of Rhythm • Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy • Janet Jackson's Rhythm Nation 1814 • Japana-rhythm • Jerry Jerry and the Sons of Rhythm Orchestra • Jones the Rhythm • Jump to the Rhythm • Junctional rhythm • Kill the Rhythm (Like a Homicide) • Kings of Rhythm • Latin Rhythm Airplay Chart • Let the Rhythm Hit 'Em • Light effects on circadian rhythm • List of number-one rhythm and blues hits (United States) • List of rhythm guitarists • Lombard rhythm • Members of the Atlanta Rhythm Section • Metal Rhythm • Mills Blue Rhythm Band • Mission City Hot Rhythm Cats • Mu rhythm • Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section • Nashville Rhythm • New Concepts of Artistry in Rhythm • New Orleans Rhythm Kings • New Orleans rhythm and blues • Non-retrogradable rhythm • One drop rhythm • Orgy in Rhythm • Pardon My Rhythm • People's Instinctive Travels and the Paths of Rhythm • Primitive Rhythm Machine • Prose rhythm • RDB (Rhythm Dhol Bass) • Reunion in Rhythm • Rhythm (disambiguation) • Rhythm (film) • Rhythm (horse) • Rhythm Activism • Rhythm Bandits • Rhythm Devils • Rhythm Divine • Rhythm Festival • Rhythm Heaven • Rhythm Heritage • Rhythm Is Gonna Get You • Rhythm Is Love – Best Of • Rhythm Is My Business • Rhythm Is a Dancer • Rhythm King • Rhythm Masters • Rhythm Nation 1814 Tour • Rhythm Night Club fire • Rhythm Pigs • Rhythm Rodeo • Rhythm Romance • Rhythm Room • Rhythm Shower • Rhythm Tengoku • Rhythm Zone • Rhythm and Blues (WSQ album) • Rhythm and Blues (professional wrestling) • Rhythm and Blues Foundation • Rhythm and Booms • Rhythm and Booze • Rhythm and Stealth • Rhythm and Weep • Rhythm and blues • Rhythm and blues (disambiguation) • Rhythm and vines • Rhythm band • Rhythm changes • Rhythm game • Rhythm guitar • Rhythm guitars • Rhythm in Persian music • Rhythm of Black Lines • Rhythm of Fear • Rhythm of Life • Rhythm of Life (TV series) • Rhythm of Love • Rhythm of Love (Anita Baker album) • Rhythm of Love (Kylie Minogue album) • Rhythm of Love (Scorpions song) • Rhythm of Love (Yes song) • Rhythm of Love Tour • Rhythm of My Heart • Rhythm of Time • Rhythm of Youth • Rhythm of the Night • Rhythm of the Night (album) • Rhythm of the Night (song) • Rhythm of the Pride Lands • Rhythm of the Rain • Rhythm on the Range • Rhythm on the Reservation • Rhythm on the River • Rhythm plate • Rhythm section • Rhythm style • Rhythm-al-ism • Ride on the Rhythm • Ride the Rhythm • Right Rhythm (Pointer Sisters album) • Ring-a-Ding Rhythm • Rockin' with the Rhythm • Roland Rhythm 33 • Roland Rhythm 55 • Roland Rhythm 77 • Royal Men Of Rhythm • Royal Men of Rhythm • Secret Rhythm of the Universe • She's Got Rhythm • She's Got the Rhythm (And I Got the Blues) • Sinus rhythm • Sketches in Rhythm • Slave to the Rhythm • Slave to the Rhythm (song) • Social rhythm therapy • Spirits of Rhythm • Sprung rhythm • Star Spangled Rhythm • Strictly Rhythm • Suburban Rhythm • Suburban Rhythm (CD) • Suburban Rhythm (album) • T-Bird Rhythm • TaKeTiNa Rhythm Process • The Black Market Rhythm Co. • The Delta Rhythm Boys • The Eagles (rhythm and blues group) • The Rhythm Boys • The Rhythm Devils Concert Experience • The Rhythm Of The Night. • The Rhythm Section Jazz Band • The Rhythm Sisters • The Rhythm of Your Heart • The Rhythm of the Heat • The Rhythm of the Night (song) • The Rhythm of the Saints • The Royal Men Of Rhythm • The Royal Men of Rhythm • The Washboard Rhythm Kings • Theta rhythm • Time Out for Rhythm • Tracy McCleary and the Royal Men of Rhythm • Underdog (Atlanta Rhythm Section album) • Walking in Rhythm • Zygote's Rhythm

analogical dictionary







Wikipedia

Rhythm

                   
  Rhythm, a sequence in time repeated, featured in dance: an early moving picture demonstrates the waltz.
  Simple [quadr]duple drum pattern, against which duration is measured in much popular music: About this sound Play .
  Compound triple drum pattern: divides three beats into three. About this sound Play Contains repetition on three levels.

Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμόςrhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry"[1]) may be generally defined as a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions."[2] This general meaning of regular recurrence or pattern in time may be applied to a wide variety of cyclical natural phenomena having a periodicity or frequency of anything from microseconds to millions of years.

In the performance arts rhythm is the timing of events on a human scale; of musical sounds and silences, of the steps of a dance, or the meter of spoken language and poetry. Rhythm may also refer to visual presentation, as "timed movement through space."[3] and a common language of pattern unites rhythm with geometry. In recent years, rhythm and meter have become an important area of research among music scholars. Recent work in these areas includes books by Maury Yeston,[4] Fred Lerdahl and Ray Jackendoff, Jonathan Kramer, Christopher Hasty,[5] William Rothstein and Joel Lester.

Rhythm is made up of sounds and silences. These sound and silences are put together to form a pattern of sounds which are repeated to create a rhythm. A rhythm has a steady beat, but it may also have different kinds of beats. Some beats may be stronger, longer, shorter or softer than others. In a single piece of music, a composer can use many different rhythms.

Contents

  Anthropology

  Percussion instruments have clearly defined dynamics that aid the creation and perception of complex rhythms

In his series How Music Works, Howard Goodall presents theories that human rhythm recalls the regularity with which we walk and the heartbeat we heard in the womb. Other research suggests that it does not relate to the hearbeat directly, but rather the speed of emotional affect, which also influences heartbeat. London writes that musical metre "involves our initial perception as well as subsequent anticipation of a series of beats that we abstract from the rhythm surface of the music as it unfolds in time" (London 2004, 4). The "perception" and "abstraction" of rhythmic measure is the foundation of human instinctive musical participation, as when we divide a series of identical clock-ticks into "tick-tock-tick-tock".[6]

Joseph Jordania recently suggested that the sense of rhythm was developed in the early stages of hominid evolution by the forces of natural selection.[7] Plenty of animals walk rhythmically and hear the sounds of the heartbeat in the womb, but only humans have the ability to be engaged (entrained) in a rhythmically coordinated vocalizations and other activities. According to Jordania, development of the sense of rhythm was central for the achievement of the specific neurological state of the battle trance. This state was crucial for the development of the effective defense system of early hominids against major African predators, after hominids descended from the safer tree branches to more dangerous ground. Rhythmic war cry, rhythmic drumming by shamans, rhythmic drilling of the soldiers, and contemporary professional combat forces listening to the heavy rhythmic rock music[8] all use the ability of rhythm to unite human individuals into a shared collective identity where group members put the interests of the group above their individual interests and safety.

Some types of parrots can know rhythm.[9] Neurologist Oliver Sacks states that chimpanzees and other animals show no similar appreciation of rhythm yet posits that human affinity for rhythm is fundamental, so that a person's sense of rhythm cannot be lost (e.g. by stroke).[10] Human rhythmic arts are possibly to some extent rooted in courtship ritual.[11]

The establishment of a basic beat requires the perception of a regular sequence of distinct short-duration pulses and, as subjective perception of loudness is relative to background noise levels, a pulse must decay to silence before the next occurs if it is to be really distinct. For this reason the fast-transient sounds of percussion instruments lend themselves to the definition of rhythm. Musical cultures that rely upon such instruments may develop multi-layered polyrhythm and simultaneous rhythms in more than one time signature, called polymeter. Such are the cross-rhythms of Sub-Saharan Africa and the interlocking kotekan rhythms of the Indonesian gamelan.

For information on rhythm in Indian music see Tala (music). For other Asian approaches to rhythm see Rhythm in Persian music, Rhythm in Arabian music and Usul - Rhythm in Turkish music and Dumbek rhythms.

  Terminology

  Pulse, beat and measure

(See main articles; Pulse (music), Beat (music))

  Metric levels: beat level shown in middle with division levels above and multiple levels below.

Most music, dance and oral poetry establishes and maintains an underlying "metric level", a basic unit of time that may be audible or implied, the pulse or tactus of the mensural level,[12][13] or beat level, sometimes simply called the beat. This consists of a (repeating) series of identical yet distinct periodic short-duration stimuli perceived as points in time.[14] The "beat" pulse is not necessarily the fastest or the slowest component of the rhythm but the one that is perceived as basic: it has a tempo to which listeners entrain as they tap their foot or dance to a piece of music (Handel, 1989). It is currently most often designated as a crotchet or quarter note in western notation (see time signature). Faster levels are division levels, and slower levels are multiple levels (Wittlich 1975, chapt. 3). "Rhythms of recurrence" arise from the interaction of two levels of motion, the faster providing the pulse and the slower organizing the beats into repetitive groups (Yeston 1976, 50–52). "Once a metric hierarchy has been established, we, as listeners, will maintain that organization as long as minimal evidence is present" (Lester 1986, 77).

  Unit and gesture

  Rhythmic units: division level shown above and rhythmic units shown below About this sound Play .

A durational pattern that synchronises with a pulse or pulses on the underlying metric level may be called a rhythmic unit. These may be classified as; metric - even patterns, such as steady eighth notes or pulses - intrametric - confirming patterns, such as dotted eighth-sixteenth note and swing patterns - contrametric - non-confirming, or syncopated patterns and extrametric - irregular patterns, such as tuplets.

A rhythmic gesture is any durational pattern that, in contrast to the rhythmic unit, does not occupy a period of time equivalent to a pulse or pulses on an underlying metric level. It may be described according to its beginning and ending or by the rhythmic units it contains. Beginnings on a strong pulse are thetic, a weak pulse, anacrustic and those beginning after a rest or tied-over note are called initial rest. Endings on a strong pulse are strong, a weak pulse, weak and those that end on a strong or weak upbeat are upbeat.[15]

  Alternation and repetition

Rhythm is marked by the regulated succession of opposite elements, the dynamics of the strong and weak beat, the played beat and the inaudible but implied rest beat, the long and short note. As well as perceiving rhythm we must be able to anticipate it. This depends upon repetition of a pattern that is short enough to memorize.

The alternation of the strong and weak beat is fundamental to the ancient language of poetry, dance and music. The common poetic term "foot" refers, as in dance, to the lifting and tapping of the foot in time. In a similar way musicians speak of an upbeat and a downbeat and of the "on" and "off" beat. These contrasts naturally facilitate a dual hierarchy of rhythm and depend upon repeating patterns of duration, accent and rest forming a "pulse-group" that corresponds to the poetic foot. Normally such pulse-groups are defined by taking the most accented beat as the first and counting the pulses until the next accent (MacPherson 1930, 5; Scholes 1977). A rhythm that accents another beat and de-emphasises the down beat as established or assumed from the melody or from a preceding rhythm is called syncopated rhythm.

Normally, even the most complex of meters may be broken down into a chain of duple and triple pulses (MacPherson 1930, 5; Scholes 1977) either by addition or division. According to Pierre Boulez, beat structures beyond four, in western music, are "simply not natural".[16] Western rhythms are usually arranged with respect to a time signature, partially signifying a meter usually corresponding to measure length and grouped into either two or three beats, which are called duple meter and triple meter, respectively. If the beats are in consistently even or odd groups of two, three, or four, it is simple meter, if by admixtures of two and three it is compound meter. In other systems of music such as Indian classical music rhythms may be grouped into various number of beats. In some music styles such as Yakshagana even group rhythms into fractional beats.

  Tempo and duration

(See main articles; Duration (music), Tempo)

The tempo of the piece is the speed or frequency of the tactus, a measure of how quickly the beat flows. This is often measured in 'beats per minute' (bpm): 60 bpm means a speed of one beat per second, a frequency of 1 Hz. A rhythmic unit is a durational pattern that has a period equivalent to a pulse or several pulses.[17] The duration of any such unit is inversely related to its tempo.

Musical sound may be analyzed on five different time scales, which Moravscik has arranged in order of increasing duration;[18]:

  • Supershort: a single cycle of an audible wave, approximately 1/30-1/10,000 second (30-10,000 Hz or more than 1,800 bpm). These, though rhythmic in nature, are not perceived as separate events but as continuous musical pitch.
  • Short: of the order of one second (1 Hz, 60bpm, 10-100,000 audio cycles). Musical tempo is generally specified in the range 40 to 240 beats per minute. A continuous pulse cannot be perceived as a musical beat if it is faster than 8-10 per second (8–10 Hz, 480-600 bpm) or slower than 1 per 1.5 – 2 seconds (0.6-0.5 Hz, 40-30 bpm). Too fast a beat becomes a drone, too slow a succession of sounds seems unconnected.[19] This time-frame roughly corresponds to the human heart rate and to the duration of a single step, syllable or rhythmic gesture.
  • Medium: ≥ few seconds, This median durational level "defines rhythm in music"[18] as it allows the definition of a rhythmic unit, the arrangement of an entire sequence of accented, unaccented and silent or "rest" pulses into the cells of a measure that may give rise to the "briefest intelligible and self-existent musical unit",[20] a motif or figure. This may be further organized, by repetition and variation, into a definite phrase that may characterise an entire genre of music, dance or poetry and that may be regarded as the fundamental formal unit of music.[21]
  • Long: ≥ many seconds or a minute, corresponding to a durational unit that "consists of musical phrases"[18] which may make up a melody, a formal section, a poetic stanza or a characteristic sequence of dance moves and steps. Thus the temporal regularity of musical organisation includes the most elementary levels of musical form[22]
  • Very long: ≥ minutes or many hours, musical compositions or subdivisions of compositions.

Curtis Roads[23] takes a wider view by distinguishing nine time scales, this time in order of decreasing duration. The first two, the infinite and the supramusical, encompass natural periodicities of months, years, decades centuries and greater, while the last three, the sample and subsample, which take account of digital and electronic rates "too brief to be properly recorded or perceived", measured in millionths microseconds, and finally the infinitesimal or infinitely brief, are again in the extra-musical domain. Roads' Macro level, encompassing "overall musical architecture or form" roughly corresponds to Moravcsik's "very long" division while his Meso level, the level of "divisions of form" including movements, sections, phrases taking seconds or minutes, is likewise similar to Moravcsik's "long" category. Roads' Sound object (Schaeffer 1959, 1977): "a basic unit of musical structure" and a generalization of note (Xenakis' ministructural time scale); fraction of a second to several seconds, and his Microsound (see granular synthesis) down to the threshold of audible perception; thousands to millionths of seconds, are similarly comparable to Moravcsik's "short" and "supershort" levels of duration.

  Metric structure

(See main articles; Metre (music), Measure (music), Metre (poetry))

  Notation of a clave rhythm pattern? Each cell of the grid corresponds to a fixed duration of time with a resolution fine enough to capture the timing of the pattern, which may be counted as two bars of four beats in divisive (metrical or symmetrical) rhythm, each beat divided into two cells. The first bar of the pattern may also usefully be counted additively (in measured or asymmetrical rhythm) as 3 + 3 + 2

The study of rhythm, stress, and pitch in speech is called prosody: it is a topic in linguistics and poetics, where it means the number of lines in a verse, the number of syllables in each line and the arrangement of those syllables as long or short, accented or unaccented. Music inherited the term "meter or metre" from the terminology of poetry.[24]

The metric structure of music includes meter, tempo and all other rhythmic aspects that produce temporal regularity against which the foreground details or durational patterns of the music are projected (Wittlich 1975, chapt. 3). The terminology of western music is notoriously imprecise in this area (Scholes 1977). MacPherson (1930, 3) preferred to speak of "time" and "rhythmic shape", Imogen Holst (1963, 17) of "measured rhythm".

Dance music has instantly recognizable patterns of beats built upon a characteristic tempo and measure. The Imperial Society of Teachers of Dancing (1983) defines the tango, for example, as to be danced in 2/4 time at approximately 66 beats per minute. The basic slow step forwards or backwards, lasting for one beat, is called a "slow", so that a full "right-left" step is equal to one 2/4 measure.[25]

  Notation of three measures of a clave pattern preceded by one measure of steady quarter notes. This pattern is noted in double time relative to the one above, in one instead of two four-beat measures About this sound Four beats followed by three Clave patterns .

The general classifications of metrical rhythm, measured rhythm, and free rhythm may be distinguished.[26] Metrical or divisive rhythm, by far the most common in Western music calculates each time value as a multiple or fraction of the beat. Normal accents re-occur regularly providing systematical grouping (measures). Measured rhythm (additive rhythm)also calculates each time value is a multiple or fraction of a specified time unit but the accents do not recur regularly within the cycle. Free rhythm is where there is neither (Cooper 1973, 30), such as in Christian chant, which has a basic pulse but a freer rhythm, like the rhythm of prose compared to that of verse (Scholes 1977) See Free time (music).

Finally some music, such as some graphically scored works since the 1950s and non-European music such as Honkyoku repertoire for shakuhachi, may be considered ametric (Karpinski 2000, 19). Senza misura is an Italian musical term for "without meter", meaning to play without a beat, using time to measure how long it will take to play the bar (Forney and Machlis 2007,[page needed]).

  Composite rhythm

A composite rhythm is the durations and patterns (rhythm) produced by amalgamating all sounding parts of a musical texture. In music of the common practice period, the composite rhythm usually confirms the meter, often in metric or even-note patterns identical to the pulse on a specific metric level. White defines composite rhythm as, "the resultant overall rhythmic articulation among all the voices of a contrapuntal texture."[27]

  Rhythm notation

Worldwide there are many different approaches to passing on rhythmic phrases and patterns, as they exist in traditional music, from generation to generation.

  African music

In the Griot tradition of Africa everything related to music has been passed on orally. Babatunde Olatunji (1927–2003), a Nigerian drummer who lived and worked in the United States, developed a simple series of spoken sounds for teaching the rhythms of the hand drum. He used six vocal sounds: Goon Doon Go Do Pa Ta. There are three basic sounds on the drum, but each can be played with either the left or the right hand. This simple system is now used worldwide, particularly by Djembe players.

It is noteworthy that the debate about the appropriateness of staff notation for African music is a subject of particular interest to outsiders, not insiders. African scholars from Kyagambiddwa to Kongo have for the most part accepted the conventions—and limitations—of staff notation and gone on to produce transcriptions in order to inform and to make possible a higher level of discussion and debate.— Agawu (2003: 52)[28]

John Miller Chernoff 1979 has argued that West African music is based on tension between rhythms. This tension between rhythms is called polyrhythms and is created by the simultaneous sounding of two or more different rhythms. Often there is a dominant rhythm interacting with an independent competing rhythm, or rhythms. These often oppose or complement each other, and combine freely with the dominant rhythm creating a rich rhythmic texture not limited to any one set meter or tempo.

A set of moral values underpins a full musical system based on repetition of relatively simple patterns which meet at distant cross-rhythmic intervals and call and answer schemes. Values also show up in collective utterances such as proverbs or lineages appear either in phrases that translate as drum talk or in the words of songs. People expect musicians to stimulate participation of all present, notably by reacting to people dancing the music. Appreciation of musicians is related to the effectiveness of their upholding community values.[29]

  Indian music

Indian music has also been passed on orally. Tabla players would learn to speak complex rhythm patterns and phrases before attempting to play them. Sheila Chandra, an English pop singer of Indian descent, made performances based on her singing these patterns. In Indian Classical music, the Tala of a composition is the rhythmic pattern over which the whole piece is structured.

  Western music

In the 20th century, composers like Igor Stravinsky, Béla Bartók, Philip Glass, and Steve Reich wrote more rhythmically complex music using odd meters, and techniques such as phasing and additive rhythm. At the same time, modernists such as Olivier Messiaen and his pupils used increased complexity to disrupt the sense of a regular beat, leading eventually to the widespread use of irrational rhythms in New Complexity. This use may be explained by a comment of John Cage's where he notes that regular rhythms cause sounds to be heard as a group rather than individually; the irregular rhythms highlight the rapidly changing pitch relationships that would otherwise be subsumed into irrelevant rhythmic groupings.[30] LaMonte Young also wrote music in which the sense of a regular beat is absent because the music consists only of long sustained tones (drones). In the 1930s, Henry Cowell wrote music involving multiple simultaneous periodic rhythms and collaborated with Léon Thérémin to invent the Rhythmicon, the first electronic rhythm machine, in order to perform them. Similarly, Conlon Nancarrow wrote for the player piano.

Use of polyrhythms in American music is generally traced to the influence of black culture through Dixieland and Jazz styles. The effect of multiple soloing in these forms, often utilizing cross-rhythms comes directly from the underlying aesthetics of sub-Saharan African music. These complex rhythmic structures have been widely adopted in many current forms of western popular music.

  Rhythm in linguistics

In linguistics, rhythm or isochrony is one of the three aspects of prosody, along with stress and intonation. Languages can be categorized according to whether they are syllable-timed or stress-timed. Speakers of syllable-timed languages such as Spanish and Cantonese put roughly equal time on each syllable; in contrast, speakers of stressed-timed languages such as English and Mandarin Chinese put roughly equal time lags between stressed syllables, with the timing of the unstressed syllables in between them being adjusted to accommodate the stress timing.

Narmour[31] describes three categories of prosodic rules which create rhythmic successions which are additive (same duration repeated), cumulative (short-long), or countercumulative (long-short). Cumulation is associated with closure or relaxation, countercumulation with openness or tension, while additive rhythms are open-ended and repetitive. Richard Middleton[32] points out this method cannot account for syncopation and suggests the concept of transformation.

  See also

  Sources

  1. ^ ῥυθμός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus project
  2. ^ The Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary. II. Oxford University Press. 1971. p. 2537. 
  3. ^ "Art, Design, and Visual Thinking". http://char.txa.cornell.edu/language/principl/rhythm/rhythm.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  4. ^ Yeston, Maury (1976). The Stratification of Musical Rhythm. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-01884-3. 
  5. ^ Hasty, Christopher (1997). Meter as Rhythm. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-510066-2.
  6. ^ Scholes, Percy (1977). "Metre" and "Rhythm", in The Oxford Companion to Music, 6th corrected reprint of the 10th ed. (1970), revised and reset, edited by John Owen Ward. London and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-311306-6
  7. ^ Joseph Jordania. Why do People Sing? Music in Human Evolution. Logos, 2011
  8. ^ Jonathan Pieslak. Sound Targets: American Soldiers and Music in the Iraq War. Indiana University Press, 2009
  9. ^ April 30, 2009. "Parrots have got rhythm, studies find", World-Science.net.
  10. ^ Patel, Aniruddh D. (2006), "Musical rhythm, linguistic rhythm, and human evolution not you", Music Perception (Berkeley, California: University of California Press) I (24): 99–104, ISSN 0730-7829, "there is not a single report of an animal being trained to tap, peck, or move in synchrony with an auditory beat."  as cited in Sacks, Oliver (2007). "Keeping Time: Rhythm and Movement". Musicophilia, Tales of Music and the Brain. New York • Toronto: Alfred a Knopf. pp. 239–240. ISBN 978-1-4000-4081-0. "No doubt many pet lovers will dispute this notion, and indeed many animals, from the Lippizaner horses of the Spanish Riding School of Vienna to performing circus animals appear to 'dance' to music. It is not clear whether they are doing so or are responding to subtle visual or tactile cues from the humans around them." 
  11. ^ Mithen, Steven (2005). The Singing Neanderthals: The Origins of Music, Language, Mind and Body.. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.. ISBN 0-297-64317-7. http://www.epjournal.net/filestore/ep03375380.pdf. 
  12. ^ Berry, Wallace (1976/1986). Structural Functions in Music, p.349. ISBN 0-486-25384-8.
  13. ^ (Lerdahl & Jackendoff, 1983). Fitch, W. Tecumseh and Rosenfeld, Andrew J. (2007). "Perception and Production of Syncopated Rhythms", p.44, Music Perception, Vol. 25, Issue 1, pp. 43–58, ISSN 0730-7829.
  14. ^ Winold, Allen (1975). "Rhythm in Twentieth-Century Music", Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music, p.213. Wittlich, Gary (ed.). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice–Hall. ISBN 0-13-049346-5.
  15. ^ *Winold, Allen (1975). "Rhythm in Twentieth-Century Music", Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music. Wittlich, Gary (ed.). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Chapter 3 ISBN 0-13-049346-5.
  16. ^ In Discovering Music: Rhythm with Leonard Slatkin at 5:05
  17. ^ Winold, Allen (1975). "Rhythm in Twentieth-Century Music", Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music. Wittlich, Gary (ed.). Englewood
  18. ^ a b c Moravcsik, Michael J. (2001). Musical Sound: An Introduction to the Physics of Music, p.114. ISBN 978-0-306-46710-3.
  19. ^ P. Fraisse, Les Structures Rhythmiques, Erasme Paris 1956, H Woodrow Time Perception in "A Handbook of Experimental Psychology", ed. S.S. Stevens, Wiley, NY 1951, both quoted at http://www.zeuxilogy.home.ro/media/manifesto.pdf (zeuxilogy.home.ro)
  20. ^ Scholes, Percy A., The Oxford Companion to Music Oxford University Press 1977, article; Form
  21. ^ Macpherson, Stewart, Form in Music, Joseph Williams, London, 1930
  22. ^ MacPherson, Stewart (1930). Form in Music. London: Joseph Williams Ltd., page 3
  23. ^ Roads, Curtis (2001). Microsound. MIT. ISBN 0-262-18215-7.
  24. ^ Scholes, Percy (1977). "Metre" and "Rhythm", in The Oxford Companion to Music, 6th corrected reprint of the 10th ed. (1970), revised and reset, edited by John Owen Ward. London and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-311306-6 : Latham, Alison. 2002. "Metre", The Oxford Companion to Music", edited by Alison Latham. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866212-2.
  25. ^ The Imperial Society of Teachers of Dancing (1983). Ballroom Dancing, Hodder and Stoughton.
  26. ^ Cooper, Paul (1973). Perspectives in Music Theory: An Historical-Analytical Approach. New York: Dodd, Mead. ISBN 0-396-06752-2, page 30
  27. ^ White, John D. (1976). The Analysis of Music, p.136. ISBN .0-13-033233-X.
  28. ^ Agawu, Kofi (2003: 52). Representing African Music: Postcolonial Notes, Queries, Positions. New York: Routledge.
  29. ^ Chernoff, John Miller (1979) African Rhythm and African Sensibility -- Aesthetic and Social Action in African Musical Idioms. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press
  30. ^ Sandow, Greg (2004). "A Fine Madness", p. 257, The Pleasure of Modernist Music. ISBN 1-58046-143-3.
  31. ^ Narmour (1980), p 147–53. Cited in Winold, Allen (1975).
  32. ^ Middleton, Richard (1990). Studying Popular Music. Philadelphia: Open University Press. ISBN 0-335-15275-9. 

  Further reading

  • McGaughey, William (2001). Rhythm and Self-Consciousness: New Ideals for an Electronic Civilization. Minneapolis: Thistlerose Publications. ISBN 0-9605630-4-0. 
  • Honing, H. (2002). "Structure and interpretation of rhythm and timing." Tijdschrift voor Muziektheorie [Dutch Journal of Music Theory] 7(3): 227–232.
  • Humble, M. (2002). The Development of Rhythmic Organization in Indian Classical Music, MA dissertation, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.
  • Lewis, Andrew (2005). Rhythm—What it is and How to Improve Your Sense of It. San Francisco: RhythmSource Press. ISBN 978-0-9754667-0-4.
  • London, Justin (2004). Hearing in Time: Psychological Aspects of Musical Meter. ISBN 0-19-516081-9.
  • Williams, C. F. A., The Aristoxenian Theory of Musical Rhythm, (Cambridge Library Collection - Music), Cambridge University Press; 1st edition, 2009.
  • Toussaint, G. T., “The geometry of musical rhythm,” In J. Akiyama, M. Kano, and X. Tan, editors, Proceedings of the Japan Conference on Discrete and Computational Geometry, Vol. 3742, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 2005, pp. 198–212.

  External links

   
               

 

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