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Robert Doisneau

                   
Robert Doisneau

in his studio in Montrouge, 1992
Born Robert Doisneau
(1912-04-14)14 April 1912
Gentilly, Val-de-Marne, Paris
Died 1 April 1994(1994-04-01) (aged 81)
Montrouge, Paris
Cause of death Acute pancreatitis
Resting place Raizeux
Nationality French
Education École Estienne, 1929 graduate, diplomas in engraving and lithography
Occupation Photographer, engraver
Known for Street photography, Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville (The Kiss by the Town Hall)
Influenced by Henri Cartier-Bresson, André Kertész, Eugène Atget
Title Chevalier of the Order of the Legion of Honour
Spouse Pierrette (née Chaumaison)
Children Annette (b.1942)
Francine (b.1947)

Robert Doisneau (French pronunciation: [ʁɔbɛʁ dwano]) (14 April 1912 – 1 April 1994)[1] was a French photographer. In the 1930s he used a Leica on the streets of Paris. He and Henri Cartier-Bresson were pioneers of photojournalism.[2] He is renowned for his 1950 image Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville (Kiss by the Town Hall), a photograph of a couple kissing in the busy streets of Paris. Robert Doisneau was appointed a Chevalier (Knight) of the Legion of Honour in 1984.[1]

Contents

  Photographic career

Robert Doisneau was known for his modest, playful, and ironic images of amusing juxtapositions, mingling social classes, and eccentrics in contemporary Paris streets and cafes. Influenced by the work of André Kertész, Eugène Atget, and Henri Cartier-Bresson, in more than twenty books he presented a charming vision of human frailty and life as a series of quiet, incongruous moments.

The marvels of daily life are so exciting; no movie director can arrange the unexpected that you find in the street. – Robert Doisneau

Doisneau's work gives unusual prominence and dignity to children's street culture; returning again and again to the theme of children at play in the city, unfettered by parents. His work treats their play with seriousness and respect. In his honour, and owing to this, there are several Ecole Primaire (primary schools) named after him. An example is at Véretz (Indre-et-Loire).

  Early life

Doisneau's father, a plumber, died in active service in World War I when Robert was about four. His mother died when he was seven. He then was raised by an unloving aunt.[1][3]

At thirteen he enrolled at the École Estienne, a craft school from which he was graduated in 1929 with diplomas in engraving and lithography. There he had his first contact with the arts, taking classes in figure drawing and still life.

When he was 16 he took up amateur photography, but was reportedly so shy that he started by photographing cobble-stones before progressing to children and then adults.[3]

At the end of the 1920s Doisneau found work as a draughtsman (lettering artist) in the advertising industry at Atelier Ullmann (Ullmann Studio), a creative graphics studio that specialised in the pharmaceutical industry. Here he took an opportunity to change career by also acting as camera assistant in the studio and then becoming a staff photographer.[3][4][5]

  Photography in the 1930s

In 1931 he left both the studio and advertising, taking a job as an assistant with the modernist photographer André Vigneau.[3][4][5]

In 1932 he sold his first photographic story to Excelsior magazine.[1]

In 1934 he began working as an industrial advertising photographer for the Renault car factory at Boulogne-Billancourt.[3] Working at Renault increased Doisneau’s interest in working with photography and people. In 1991 he admitted that the years at the Renault car factory marked “the beginning of his career as a photographer and the end of his youth.” Five years later, in 1939, he was fired because he constantly was late. He was forced to try freelance advertising, engraving, and postcard photography to earn his living. At that time the French postcard industry was the largest in Europe, postcards served as greetings cards as well as vacation souvenirs.[6]

In 1939 he was hired by Charles Rado of the Rapho photographic agency and travelled throughout France in search of picture stories. This is where he took his first professional street photographs.

  War service and resistance

Doisneau worked at Rapho until the outbreak of World War II, whereupon he was drafted into the French army as both a soldier and photographer. He was in the army until 1940 and from then until the end of the war in 1945 used his draughtsmanship, lettering artistry, and engraving skills to forge passports and identification papers for the French Resistance.

  Post-war photography

  Robert Doisneau (left) and André Kertész in 1975, by Wolfgang H. Wögerer, at Arles

Some of Doisneau's most memorable photographs were taken after the war. He returned to freelance photography and sold photographs to Life and other international magazines. He briefly joined the Alliance Photo Agency but rejoined the Rapho agency in 1946 and remained with them throughout his working life, despite receiving an invitation from Henri Cartier-Bresson to join Magnum Photos.[1][6]

His photographs never ridiculed the subjects; thus he refused to photograph women whose heads had been shaved as punishment for sleeping with Germans.[3]

I don't photograph life as it is, but life as I would like it to be. – Robert Doisneau[3]

In 1948 he was contracted by Vogue to work as a fashion photographer. The editors believed he would bring a fresh and more casual look the magazine but Doisneau didn’t enjoy photographing beautiful women in elegant surroundings; he preferred street photography. When he could escape from the studio, he photographed ever more in the streets of Paris.

Group XV was established in 1946 in Paris to promote photography as art and drawing attention to the preservation of French photographic heritage. Doisneau joined the Group in 1950 and participated alongside Rene-Jacques, Willy Ronis, and Pierre Jahan.

The 1950s were Doisneau's peak, but the 1960s were his wilderness years. In the 1970s Europe began to change and editors looked for new reportage that would show the sense of a new social era. All over Europe, the old-style picture magazines were closing as television received the public's attention. Doisneau continued to work, producing children's books, advertising photography, and celebrity portraits including Alberto Giacometti, Jean Cocteau, Fernand Léger, Georges Braque, and Pablo Picasso.

Doisneau worked with writers and poets such as Blaise Cendrars and Jacques Prévert, and he credited Prevert with giving him the confidence to photograph the everyday street scenes that most people simply ignored.[1]

  Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville (The Kiss)

In 1950 Doisneau created his most recognizable work for Life – Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville (Kiss by the Hôtel de Ville), a photograph of a couple kissing in the busy streets of Paris,[7] which became an internationally recognised symbol of young love in Paris. The identity of the couple remained a mystery until 1992.[8]

Jean and Denise Lavergne erroneously believed themselves to be the couple in The Kiss, and when Robert and Annette (his older daughter and also his assistant at the time) met them for lunch in the 1980s he "did not want to shatter their dream" so he said nothing. This resulted in them taking him to court for "taking their picture without their knowledge", because under French law an individual owns the rights to their own likeness. The court action forced Doisneau to reveal that he posed the shot using Françoise Delbart and Jacques Carteaud, lovers whom he had just seen kissing, but had not photographed initially because of his natural reserve; he approached them and asked if they would repeat le baiser. He won the court case against the Lavergnes.[1][3][9][10]

I would never have dared to photograph people like that. Lovers kissing in the street, those couples are rarely legitimate. – Robert Doisneau, 1992[8][9]

The couple in Le baiser were Françoise Delbart, 20, and Jacques Carteaud, 23, both aspiring actors. In 2005 Françoise Bornet (née Delbart) stated that, "He told us we were charming, and asked if we could kiss again for the camera. We didn't mind. We were used to kissing. We were doing it all the time then, it was delicious. Monsieur Doisneau was adorable, very low key, very relaxed." They posed at the Place de la Concorde, the Rue de Rivoli and finally the Hôtel de Ville. The photograph was published in the 12 June 1950, issue of Life.[10] The relationship between Delbart and Carteaud only lasted for nine months.[9] Delbart continued her acting career, but Carteaud gave up acting to become a wine producer.[8]

In 1950 Françoise Bornet was given an original print of the photograph, bearing Doisneau's signature and stamp, as part of the payment for her "work", and thus her subsequent attempt at litigation in the 1990s was rejected by the court.[3][8] In April 2005 she sold the print at auction for 155,000 to an unidentified Swiss collector via the Paris auctioneers Artcurial Briest-Poulain-Le Fur.[3][8][11]

  Personal life

In 1936 Doisneau married Pierrette Chaumaison whom he had met in 1934 when she was cycling through a village where he was on holiday. They had two daughters, Annette (b.1942) and Francine (b.1947). From 1979 until his death, Annette worked as his assistant.[3]

Pierrette died in 1993 suffering from Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Doisneau died six months later, having had a triple heart bypass and suffering from acute pancreatitis. Annette said "We won in the courts (re: The Kiss), but my father was deeply shocked. He discovered a world of lies, and it hurt him. 'The Kiss' ruined the last years of his life. Add that to my mother suffering from Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, and I think it's fair to say he died of sadness."[3]

Doisneau was in many ways a shy and humble man, similar to his photography, still delivering his own work at the height of his fame. He chastised Francine for charging an "indecent" daily fee of £2,000 for his work on a beer advertising campaign – he wanted only the rate of an "artisan photographer".[3]

Maybe if I were 20, success would change me. But now I'm a dinosaur of photography. – Robert Doisneau[3]

He lived in southern Paris (Gentilly, Val-de-Marne, Montrouge, and 13th arrondissement of Paris) throughout his life and died in 1994. He is buried in the cemetery at Raizeux beside his wife, Pierrette.

  Awards and commemoration

  Collège Robert Doisneau, chemin de la Vieille Montagne de Clichy, Paris
  Lycée Robert Doisneau de Corbeil-Essonnes (91)

Robert Doisneau was appointed a Chevalier of the Order of the Legion of Honour in 1984.[1]

He won several awards throughout his life, including:

A short film, "Le Paris de Robert Doisneau", was made in 1973.

In 1992 the French actress and producer Sabine Azéma made the film Bonjour Monsieur Doisneau.

The Maison de la photographie Robert Doisneau in Gentilly, Val-de-Marne, is a photographic gallery named in his honour.

The photography of Robert Doisneau has had a revival since his death in 1994. Many of his portraits and photographs of Paris from the end of World War II through the 1950s have been turned into calendars and postcards, and have become icons of French life.

  Exhibitions

  • 1947 Salon de la Photo, Bibliothèque, Paris [12]
  • 1951 Exhibition with Brassaї, Willy Ronis, and Izis, Museum of Modern Art, New York [13]
  • 1960 Solo Exhibition, Museum of Modern Art, Chicago.[12]
  • 1965 Exhibition with Daniel Frasnay, Jean Lattès, Jeanine Niépce, Roger Pic, and Willy Ronis, Six Photographes et Paris, Musée des Arts Decoratifs, Paris; Exhibition with Henri Cartier-Bresson and André Vigneau, Musée Réattu, Arles; Solo Exhibition, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris; Exhibition with D. Brihat, J. P. Sudre, and L. Clergue, Musée Cantini de Marseilles
  • 1972 Solo Exhibition, International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, Rochester, New York [14]
  • 1972 Exhibition with Edouard Boubat, Brassaї, Henri Cartier-Bresson, Izis, and Willy Ronis, French Embassy, Moscow
  • 1974 Solo Exhibition, University of California at Davis. Solo exhibition, Galerie du Château d’Eau, Toulouse
  • 1975 Solo Exhibition, Witkin Gallery, New York; Musée Réattu Arts Décoratifs, Nantes; Musée Réattu, Arles
  • 1975 Solo exhibition, Galerie et Fils, Brussels. Solo exhibition, fnac, Lyons; Group exhibition, Expression de l’humor, Boulogne Billancourt; Solo exhibition, Galerie Neugebauer, Basel
  • 1976 Exhibition with Brassaї, Cartier-Bresson, Jean-Philippe Charbonnier, Izis, and Marc Riboud, Kraków
  • 1977 Solo Exhibition, Brussels; Exhibition with Guy la Querrec, Carlos Freire, Claude Raimond-Dityvon, Bernard Descamps, and Jean Lattès, Six Photographes en quête de banlieue, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris
  • 1978 Solo Exhibition, Ne Bougeons plus, Galerie Agathe Gaillard, Paris; Solo exhibition, Witkin Gallery, New York; Solo exhibition, Musée Nicéphore Niépce, Charlon-sur-Saône
  • 1979 Solo Exhibition, Paris, les passants qui passent, Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris
  • 1980 Solo Exhibition, Amsterdam
  • 1981 Solo Exhibition, Witkin Gallery, New York [15]
  • 1982 Solo Exhibition, Portraits, Foundation Nationale de la Photopraphie, Lyons; Solo exhibition, French Embassy, New York; Solo exhibition, Robert Doisneau, Photographe de banlieue, Town Hall, Gentilly
  • 1982 Solo exhibition of 120 photographs, Palace of Fine Arts, Beijing, Exhibition of portraits, Tokyo; Solo exhibition, Robert Doisneau, Photographie du dimanche, Institut Lumière, Lyon
  • 1986 Group Exhibition, De Vogue à femme, Rencontres Internationales de la Photographie d’Arles
  • 1987 Solo Exhibition, St.-Denis, Musée de St.-Denis; Solo exhibition, The National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto
  • 1988 Solo Exhibition, A Homage to Robert Doisneau, Villa Medicis, Rome
  • 1989 Solo Exhibition, Doisneau-Renault, Grande Halle de la Villette, Paris
  • 1990 Solo Exhibition, La Science de Doisneau, Jardin des Plantes, Paris
  • 1992 Solo Exhibition, Robert Doisneau: A Retrospective, Modern Art Oxford
  • 1993 The Summerlee Heritage Trust, Coatbridge, Scotland; Royal Festival Hall, London; Manchester City Art Gallery; O Mes da Fotografie Festival, Convento do Beato, Lisbon, Portugal; Musée Carnavalet, Paris
  • 1994 "Hommage à Robert Doisneau", festival des Rencontres d'Arles, France
  • 1994 Musée d’Art Contemporain de Montréal, Canada; Galway Arts Centre, Ireland; Solo exhibition, A Homage to Robert Doisneau, Galerie du Château d’Eau à Toulouse; Solo exhibition, Doisneau 40/44, Centre d’Histoire de la Résistance et de la Déportation de Lyon, Lyon, France; Solo exhibition, Robert Doisneau ou la désobéissance, Ecomusée de Fresnais
  • 1995 Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, England; Aberdeen Art Gallery, Scotland; The Mead Gallery, Warwick Arts Centre, Coventry
  • 1996 Solo Exhibition, Montpellier Photo-Visions, Galerie Municipale de la Photographie; Isetan Museum of Art, Tokyo; Daimaru Museum, Osaka, Japan
  • 2000 Exhibition, Gravités, Paris
  • 2000 Exhibition, Galerie Claude Bernard, Paris [16]
  • 2002 Exhibition, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Santiago, Chile [17]
  • 2003 Exhibition, Budapest, Hungary; Exhibition, Bucarest, Romania
  • 2003 Exhibition, Galerie Claude Bernard, Paris [16]
  • 2005 Solo Exhibition, Robert Doisneau from the Fictional to the Real, Bruce Silverstein Gallery, New York [18]
  • 2005 Solo Exhibition, Robert Doisneau, Galerie Claude Bernard, Paris [19]
  • 2010 Solo Exhibitions, Robert Doisneau, Du metier a l'oeuvre, Fondation Henri Cartier Bresson, 2, Impasse Lebouis, 75014 Paris [20]
  • 2010 Group Exhibition, Discoveries, Robert Doisneau, Bruce Silverstein Gallery, New York [21]
  • 2010 Solo Exhibition, Robert Doisneau, the fisherman of images, the Space for Art of Caja Madrid Zaragoza, Aranjuez, Madrid [22]
  • 2011 Group exhibition: Night, Robert Doisneau Bruce Silverstein Gallery, New York [23]

  Publications

  • Paris délivré par son peuple. (From the People of Paris) – Paris: Braun: c.1944.
  • La Banlieue de Paris. (The Suburbs of Paris) – text by Blaise Cendrars. Paris: Éditions Pierre Seghers, 1949.
  • L'Enfant de Paris. (The Children of Paris) – text by Claude Roy. Neuchâtel: La Baconnière, 1951.
  • Sortilèges de Paris. (The magic of Paris) – text by François Cali. Paris: Arthaud, 1952.
  • Les Parisiens tels qu’ils sont. (The Parisians as they are.) – text by Robert Giraud and Michel Ragon. Paris: Delpire, 1954.
  • Instantanés de Paris. (Snapshots of Paris) – preface by Blaise Cendrars. Paris: Arthaud, 1955.
  • 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, Compter en s’amusant. (Fun Counting) – Lausanne: La Guilde du Livre, 1955.
    • 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. – text by Arthur Gregor. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1956.
    • 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. – text by Elsie May Harris. London: Nelson, 1962.
  • Pour que Paris soit. (This is Paris) – text by Elsa Triolet. Paris: Éditions Cercle d’Art, 1956.
  • Gosses de Paris. (Children of Paris) – text by Jean Dongués. Paris: Éditions Jeheber, 1956.
  • Robert Doisneau's Paris: 148 Photographs – text by Blaise Cendrars. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1956.
    • Paris Parade: 148 Photographs – London: Thames & Hudson, 1956.
  • Le ballet contre l'opéra. (The Ballet and The Opera) – Souillac, Lot: Mulhouse, 1956.
  • A.B.C. du dépannage. – N.p.: Société des pétroles Shell Berre, 1958.
  • Bistrots. (Bistros) – text by Robert Giraud. Le Point: Revue artistique et littéraire, 57. Souillac, Lot: Mulhouse, 1960.
  • * Palm Springs 1968. Paris: Flammarion. 2010. ISBN 978-2-0812-3105-4. http://editions.flammarion.com/Albums_Detail.cfm?ID=37505&levelCode=home. 
  • Arabie, carrefour des siècles: Album. (Arabia, crossroads of the centuries. An album) – text by Jacques Benoist-Méchin. Lausanne: La Guilde du livre, 1961.
  • Nicolas Schöffer. – text by Guy Habasque and Jacques Ménétrier. Neuchâtel: Éditions du Griffon, 1962.
  • Cognac. – text by Georges Vial. Cognac: Rémy Martin, 1960 (?). (English)
  • Marius, le forestier. (Marius, the forester. The working men) – text by Dominique Halévy. Les hommes travaillent. Paris: Éditions Fernand Nathan, 1964.
  • Henri Cartier-Bresson, Robert Doisneau, André Vigneau: Trois photographes français – Arles: Musée Réattu, 1965.
  • Épouvantables Épouvantails. (Appalling Scarecrows) – Paris: Éditions Hors Mesure, 1965.
  • Le Royaume d’argot. (The Kingdom of slang) – text by Robert Giraud. Paris: Denoël, 1966.
  • Catherine la danseuse. (Catherine – the dancer) – text by Michèle Manceaux. Paris: Éditions Fernand Nathan, 1966.
  • L'École polytechnique. (The Polytechnic) – Loos-lez-Lille: L. Danel, 1967.
  • L'Oeil objectif. (The eye is a lens) – Marseille: Musée Cantini, 1968.
  • Le Royaume secret du milieu. (The secret of the middle kingdom) – text by Robert Giraud. Paris: Éditions Planète, 1969.
  • My Paris – text by Chevalier, Maurice. Macmillan Publishers. New York. 1972
  • Le Paris de Robert Doisneau et Max-Pol Fouchet – Les éditeurs français réunis. France. 1974
  • L’Enfant à la Colombe. (The Child of the Dove) – text by Sage, James. Editions of the Oak. Paris. La Loire. Denoël. Paris. 1978
  • Le Mal de Paris. (The Evil of Paris) – text by Lépidis, Clément. Arthaud Publications. Paris. Trois Secondes d’éternité. Contrejour. Paris. 1979
  • Ballade pour Violoncelle et Chambre Noir. (A Song for a Cello and a dark room) – co-author: Baquet, Maurice. Herscher Editions. Paris. 1980
  • Robert Doisneau – text by Chevrier, Jean-François. Belfond Editions. Paris. 1981
  • Passages et Galeries du 19ème Siècle. (Passages and Galleries of the 19th Century) – text by Delvaille, Bernard. Éditions Baslland. Paris. 1982
  • Doisneau – Photopoche, Centre National de la Photographie. France. 1983
  • Paysages, Photographies. (Landscapes) – (mission photography for DATAR) Éditions Hazan. Paris. 1985
  • Un Certain Robert Doisneau – Editions of the Oak. Paris. 1986
  • Pour saluer Cendrars. (In honour of Cendrars) – text by Camilly, J. Actes Sud. Arles, France. 1987
  • 60 portraits d/artists. (60 portraits of artists) – text by Petit, Jean. Hans Grieshaber Publications. Zürich. 1988
  • Doisneau. Quotations by Doisneau collected by Maisonneuve Andre – Éditions Hazan. Paris, France. 1988
  • Bonjour Monsieur Le Corbusier. (Hello Mr Le Corbusier) – text by Petit, Jean. Hans Grieshaber Publications. Zürich. 1988
  • A l’imparfait de l’objectif. (The imperfect object) – Belfond Editions. Paris. 1989
  • Les Doigts Pleins d’encre. (Fingers full of ink) – text by Cavanna. Hoëbeke Editions. Paris. 1989
  • La Science de Doisneau. (The Science of Robert Doisneau) – Hoëbeke Editions. Paris. 1990
  • Les Auvergnats. (People of the Auvergne) – (with Dubois, Jaques) Nathan Images. Paris. 1990
  • Lettres à un Aveugle sur des Photographies de Robert Doisneau. (Letters to a blind man about the Photographs of Robert Doisneau) – text by Roumette, Sylvain. 1990
  • Le Tout sur le tout/Le Temps qu’il fait. (All about the weather) – Paris. 1990
  • Le Vin des rues – text by Robert Giraud. Paris: Denoël, 1990.
  • Rue Jacques Prévert – Hoëbeke Editions. Paris, France. 1991
  • La Compagnie des Zincs – text by Carradec, François Carradec. Seghers. Paris. 1991
  • Les Grandes Vacances. (Summer vacation) – text by Pennac, Daniel. Hoëbeke Editions. Paris. 1992
  • Mes gens de Plume – Writings by Doisneau collected by Dubois, Y. Éditions La Martinière. France. 1992
  • Les Enfants de Germinal. (The children of Germinal) – text by Cavanna. Hoëbeke Editions. Paris. 1993 (See also Germinal (month) – the downfall)
  • Doisneau 40/44 – text by Ory, Pascal. Hoëbeke Editions. Paris. 1994
  • La Vie de Famille. (Family life) – text by Ory, Pascal. Hoëbeke Editions. Paris. 1994
  • Robert Doisneau ou la Vie d’un photographie. (Robert Doisneau – the life of a photographer – text by Hamilton, Peter. Hoëbeke Editions. Paris. 1995
  • Mes Parisiens. (My Parisians) – Nathan Publications. Paris. 1997

  References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Lynne Warren (2006). Encyclopedia of 20th Century Photography. CRC Press. pp. 413–. ISBN 978-0-415-97665-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=YeK7FXhKrw0C&pg=PA413. Retrieved 14 April 2012. 
  2. ^ W. Scott Haine, Culture and Customs of France (London Greenwood, 2006), p. 289
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Sunday Times. November 6, 2005. It started with the kiss. by John Follain[dead link]
  4. ^ a b "ArtCentral Profile of Robert Doisneau". Artcentral.com. http://www.artscenecal.com/ArticlesFile/Archive/Articles1999/Articles0699/RDoisneauA.html. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
  5. ^ a b "Profile of Robert Doisneau". SKJ Studio. http://www.skjstudio.com/doisneau/index.html. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
  6. ^ a b "Nouvelles Images, Our Artists, Profile of Robert Doisneau". Nouvellesimages.com. 1912-04-14. http://www.nouvellesimages.com/Robert-Doisneau_id~artistes_aut~402054. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
  7. ^ Shown here [1].
  8. ^ a b c d e "report on the auction of ''Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville''". BBC News. 2005-04-25. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/4481789.stm. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
  9. ^ a b c Lucas, Dean (2007-04-17), Famous Pictures Magazine – Kissing Couple, http://www.famouspictures.org/mag/index.php?title=Kissing_Couple 
  10. ^ a b "BlueArt reproduction of the Smithsonian Magazine article about Robert Doisneau". Bluegirlredstate.typepad.com. http://bluegirlredstate.typepad.com/blue_girl/art/. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
  11. ^ The Photographs of Robert Doisneau, "Promenades dans les Passages avec Robert Doisneau" with Rosi Huhn (Interview), Bracha L. Ettinger (Photographic portraits of Robert Doisneau) and Wolfgang Schmitz (Drawings). In: Passages d'après Walter Benjamin / Passagen Nach Walter Benjamin. [Eds.: V. Malsey, U. Rasch, P. Rautmann, N. Schalz]. Verlag Herman Schmidt, Mainz, 1992. ISBN 3-87439-250-3
  12. ^ a b "Atelier Robert Doisneau | Chronologie des Expositions de Doisneau". Robert-doisneau.com. http://www.robert-doisneau.com/fr/expositions/historique-expos/. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
  13. ^ "Robert Doisneau". Masters of Photography. http://www.masters-of-photography.com/D/doisneau/doisneau_articles2.html. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
  14. ^ Yann Picand, Dominique Dutoit. "Robert Doisneau : definition of Robert Doisneau and synonym of Robert Doisneau (English)". Dictionary.sensagent.com. http://dictionary.sensagent.com/robert+doisneau/en-en/. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
  15. ^ "Museum of Contemporary Photography". Mocp.org. http://www.mocp.org/collections/permanent/doisneau_robert.php. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
  16. ^ a b "Galerie Claude Bernard: Robert Doisneau". Claude-bernard.com. http://www.claude-bernard.com/artiste.php?artiste_id=98. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
  17. ^ "MNBA – Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes Santiago Chile, Santiago – Overview". Artfacts.net. 2011-05-11. http://www.artfacts.net/en/institution/mnba-museo-nacional-de-bellas-artes-santiago-chile-2348/overview.html. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
  18. ^ "Robert Doisneau – Exposições". Pt.photography-now.com. http://pt.photography-now.com/artists/K10984.html. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
  19. ^ "Galerie Claude Bernard: Robert Doisneau". Claude-bernard.com. http://www.claude-bernard.com/artiste.php?artiste_id=98#expo. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
  20. ^ "Robert Doisneau Exhibited in Paris". Parisvoice.com. 2010-04-18. http://www.parisvoice.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=650&Itemid=33. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
  21. ^ "Discoveries". The New Yorker (2010-08-09)
  22. ^ "Robert Doisneau exhibition in Zaragoza, Spain – Mondrian's Room". Mondriansroom.posterous.com. 2010-06-03. http://mondriansroom.posterous.com/robert-doisneau-exhibition-in-zaragoza-spain. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
  23. ^ Ignacio Villarreal (2011-04-12). "Bruce Silverstein Gallery Shows Works by Artists Who Found the Night to Be an Inspiring Subject". Artdaily.org. http://www.artdaily.org/index.asp?int_sec=2&int_new=46469. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 

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A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

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WordGame

The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

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