definition of Wikipedia
véhicule utilitaire routier (fr)[Classe]
lorry; truck; camion[Classe]
objet que l'on peut remplir (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
chose, véhicule qui roule (fr)[Classe]
(lorry; truck; camion)[Thème]
lorry; truck; camion[Classe]
gros camion (fr)[Classe]
véhicule que l'on remplit d'une cargaison (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
chose, véhicule qui roule (fr)[ClasseParExt...]
A semi-trailer is a trailer without a front axle. A large proportion of its weight is supported by a road tractor, a detachable front axle assembly known as a dolly, or the tail of another trailer. A semi-trailer is normally equipped with landing gear (legs which can be lowered) to support it when it is uncoupled.
A road tractor coupled to a semi-trailer is often called a semi-trailer truck or semi, or in the UK an articulated lorry. The fifth wheel on a truck connects to a semi trailer Kingpin. Kingpins come in many guises, however the most common within the UK market is the 2.0" (50.8mm) EEC approved type. This Kingpin is fully interchangeable and given strict maintenance is adhered to, it should last the life of a trailer.
In Australian English, the tractor unit is usually referred to as a prime-mover; and the combination of a prime-mover and trailer is known as a semi-trailer or semi. Semi-trailers with two trailer units are B-Doubles or road trains. A B-double consists of a prime mover towing two semi-trailers, where the first semi-trailer is connected to the prime mover by a fifth wheel coupling and the second semi-trailer is connected to the first semi-trailer by a fifth wheel coupling. A road train means a combination, other than a B-Double, consisting of a motor vehicle towing at least two trailers (counting as a single trailer a converter dolly supporting a semi-trailer).
There are two types of couplings: fifth wheel coupling and automatic. In some applications, no separable coupling is fitted, and the trailer is bolted to the tractor unit, using a bearing and rocker feet as are used under a fifth wheel skid plate.
The towing vehicle has a wide coupling plate known as a fifth wheel coupling bolted onto its chassis on which the semi-trailer rests and pivots. As the tractor reverses under the trailer, a king-pin under the front of the trailer slides into a slot in the skidplate, and the jaws of the fifth wheel close on to it. The driver has to raise the trailer legs manually, and couple the airbrake lines and electrical cables.
Many years ago, automatic couplings predominated but are now quite rare. Automatic couplings were generally used for payloads of 12 tons or less, e.g. on the Scammell Mechanical Horse.
There is no coupling plate on the tractor. There is a turntable permanently fixed to the underside of the trailer. This locks to the chassis of the tractor. When the tractor reverses under the trailer, its legs rise and the brake and electrical connections are made automatically. Almost the entire coupling and uncoupling procedure is operated by the driver from inside the cab, except that he or she has to descend to release (or apply) the trailer parking brake.
Different types of semi-trailers are designed to haul different cargoes.
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