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|Participant in War in North-West Pakistan|
|Active||December 2007 - Present|
|Clans/tribes||Mehsud, Ahmedzai Waziri, Mohmand|
|Leaders||Baitullah Mehsud (Dec 2007 - Aug 2009)|
Hakimullah Mehsud (Aug 2009 - )
|Allies||Taliban, Al-Qaeda, Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi|
|Opponents||NATO, Government of Pakistan|
Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP; Urdu: تحريک طالبان پاکستان; Student Movement of Pakistan) is the main Taliban militant umbrella group in Pakistan primarily in conflict with the central government. Among the group's stated objectives are resistance against the Pakistani army, enforcement of sharia and unification against NATO forces in Afghanistan.
The TTP began to form when in 2002 the Pakistani military conducted incursions into the tribal areas to combat foreign militants spilling across the Afghan border. Many of the Pakistani Taliban are veterans of the fighting in Afghanistan, where they supported the fight against foreigners by providing soldiers, training and logistics. While the Pakistani military concentrated on the Afghan Taliban, small militant tribes opposed to the federal government's control began to coordinate closely. In 2004, the groups started negotiations with Islamabad that effectively established their authority in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). By this time, the militants had killed around 200 rival tribal elders in the region and further consolidated control. In December 2007 the group officially formed under the leadership of Baitullah Mehsud.
On August 25, 2008 Pakistan banned the group, froze its bank accounts and assets, and barred it from media appearances. The government also announced that bounties would be placed on prominent leaders of the TTP.
In late December 2008 and early January 2009 Mullah Omar sent a delegation, led by former Guantanamo Bay detainee Mullah Abdullah Zakir, to persuade leading members of the TTP to put aside differences and aid the Afghan Taliban in combating the American presence in Afghanistan. Baitullah Mehsud, Hafiz Gul Bahadur and Maulavi Nazir agreed in February and formed the Shura Ittehadul Mujahideen (SIM), also transliterated as Shura Ittehad-ul-Mujahideen and translated into English as the Council of United Mujahedeen. In a written statement circulated in a one-page Urdu-language pamphlet, the three affirmed that they would put aside differences to fight American-led forces. The statement included a declaration of allegiance to both Mullah Omar and Osama bin Laden.
Confusion over death of amir and succession
In August 2009 a missile strike from a suspected U.S. drone killed Baitullah Mehsud. The TTP soon held a shura to appoint his successor. Government sources reported that fighting broke out during the shura between Hakimullah Mehsud and Wali-ur-Rehman. While Pakistani news channels reported that Hakimullah had been killed in the shooting, Interior Minister Rehman Malik could not confirm his death. On August 18, Pakistani security officials announced the capture of Maulvi Omar, chief spokesperson of the TTP. Omar, who had denied the death of Baitullah, retracted his previous statements and confirmed the leader's death in the missile strike. He also acknowledged turmoil among TTP leadership following the killing.
After Omar's capture, Maulana Faqir Mohammed announced to the BBC that he would assume temporary leadership of the TTP and that Muslim Khan would serve as primary spokesperson. He also maintained that Baitullah had not been killed but rather was in ill health. Faqir further elaborated that decisions over leadership of the umbrella group would only be made in consultation and consensus with other TTP leaders. "The congregation of Taliban leaders has 32 members and no important decision can be taken without their consultation," he told the BBC. He reported to the AFP that both Hakimullah Mehsud and Wali-ur-Rehman had approved his appointment as temporary leader of the militant group. Neither militant had publicly confirmed Faqir's statement, and analysts cited by Dawn News believed the assumption of leadership actually indicated a power struggle.
Two days later Faqir Mohammed retracted his claims of temporary leadership and said that Hakimullah Mehsud had been selected leader of the TTP. Faqir declared that the 42-member shura had also decided that Azam Tariq would serve as the TTP's primary spokesperson rather than Muslim Khan.
In its original form, the TTP had Baitullah Mehsud as its amir and he was followed in the leadership hierarchy by naib amir, or deputy, Hafiz Gul Bahadur and then Faqir Mohammed. The group contained members from all of FATA's seven tribal agencies as well as several districts of the NWFP, including Swat, Bannu, Tank, Lakki Marwat, Dera Ismail Khan, Kohistan, Buner and Malakand. 2008 estimates place the total number of operatives between 30,000 and 35,000.
In the aftermath of Baitullah Mehsud's death, the organization demonstrated signs of turmoil among its leading militants. By the end of August 2009, leading members in the TTP had confirmed Hakimullah Mehsud as its second amir.
- Hakimullah Mehsud – current amir and former commander in the Khyber, Kurram and Orakzai agencies – South Waziristan 
- Hafiz Gul Bahadur – North Waziristan
- Faqir Mohammed – Bajaur
- Maulavi Nazir – South Waziristan (Western half)
- Qari Hussain – Lieutenant to Baitullah Mehsud
- Omar Khalid – Mohmand Agency
- Waliur Rehman Mehsud – South Waziristan
- Baitullah Mehsud – South Waziristan – first leader of TTP – deceased August 2009
- Qari Zainuddin Mehsud – South Waziristan (Tank) – deceased 23 June 2009
- Maulvi Omar – close aide to Baitullah Mehsud – arrested on 18 August 2009
- Muslim Khan – arrested on 11 September 2009 
Supporters and allies
|This section needs additional citations for verification.|
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(September 2009)
- Usama Bin Ladin – Al Qaeda
- Mullah Omar – Afghan Taliban
- Mangal Bagh Afridi - Leader of Lashkar-e-Islam (based in Khyber Agency, Pakistan)[not in citation given]
- Ilyas Kashmiri and Qari Saifullah Akhtar[not in citation given] - leaders of the Harkat-ul Jihad Islami (HuJI), an al Qaeda-linked terror group
- Maulana Fazlullah, "The Radio Mullah" – Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi (based in Swat, Pakistan)
- Sufi Muhammad – Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi (based in Swat, Pakistan) – arrested
- Jalaluddin Haqqani and Siraj Haqqani - Leaders of the pro-Taliban Haqqani network, based in Eastern Afghanistan
- Maulana Masood Azhar - Leader of Jaish-e-Mohammed[not in citation given]
- Hafiz Saeed - Leader of Lashkar-e-Taiba
- Matiur Rehman and Qari Mohammad Zafar - leaders of Lashkar-e-Jhangvi
- Tohir Yo'ldosh - leader of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan – deceased August 27, 2009
Claimed and alleged attacks
- The Pakistani government implicated the network in the December 2007 assassination of Benazir Bhutto although the group denies the charge. The CIA also confirmed its belief of TTP's involvement in January 2008.
- The Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariate-Mohammadi (TNSM) claimed responsibility for a December 23, 2007 suicide bombing targeting a military convoy on behalf of the TTP. The blast in the Mingora area of the Swat Valley killed five soldiers and six civilians.
- TTP claimed responsibility for the 23 July 2008 Swat Valley bombing.
- TTP spokesman Maulvi Umar claimed that the group was responsible for August 21, 2008 suicide bomb attack on a military complex.
- Someone using the name Abdur Rehman claimed that the TTP was behind a November 6, 2008 suicide bombing that targeted tribal elders, who had gathered in the Bajaur tribal area to discuss efforts to coordinate with the government against the Pakistani Taliban. The blast took the lives of 16 and injured 31.
- On November 13 2008, the TTP intercepted a military convoy along the Khyber Pass bound for NATO troops in Afghanistan.
- In telephone interviews with news media Mehsud claimed responsibility for the March 30, 2009 attack on the police training academy in Lahore. He told the BBC that the attack was in retaliation for continued missile strikes from American drones for which the Pakistani government shared responsibility. In the same interview Mehsud claimed two other attacks: a March 25 attack on an Islamabad police station and a March 30 suicide attack on a military convoy near Bannu.
- Mehsud claimed responsibility for the Binghamton shootings, stating that they were in retaliation for continued missile strikes from American drones. The FBI denied this claim and stated this was nothing to do with Massod
- Azam Tariq, spokesman of the TTP, claimed responsibility for a suicide bombing at a security checkpoint along the Pakistan-Afghan border near Torkham on August 27, 2009. Tariq said by telephone that the attack was the first in retaliation for the death of Baitullah Mehsud. Although the exact number of casualties was unknown, a doctor at a nearby hospital told Dawn News that they had received 22 bodies and local people working at the blast site said they had retrieved 13 bodies.
- Azam Tariq claimed responsibility for a suicide attack that killed five at the U.N.'s World Food Programme Islamabad offices on October 5, 2009.
- The TTP, through Azam Tariq, claimed responsibility for the October 2009 attack on the army's headquarters at Rawalpindi. Tariq told the Associated Press that the attack was carried out by its "Punjabi faction" although the military insisted the attack originated in South Waziristan.
- The militant group claimed responsibility for three separate coordinated attacks in Lahore. 10 militants targeted buildings used by the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA), the Manawan Police Training School and the Elite Police Academy.
- Camp Chapman attack - Pakistani Taliban Claimed Responsibility for the December 30, 2009 attack that claimed numerous CIA spys.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Abbas, Hassan (January 2008). "A Profile of Tehrik-I-Taliban Pakistan" (PDF). CTC Sentinel (West Point, NY: Combating Terrorism Center) 1 (2): 1–4. http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/publication/17868/profile_of_tehrikitaliban_pakistan.html. Retrieved 2008-11-08.
- ^ a b c d Bajoria, Jayshree (2008-02-06). "Pakistan’s New Generation of Terrorists". Council on Foreign Relations. http://www.cfr.org/publication/15422/pakistans_new_generation_of_terrorists.html?breadcrumb=%2Fbios%2F13611%2Fjayshree_bajoria%3Fgroupby%3D1%26hide%3D1%26id%3D13611%26filter%3D456. Retrieved 2009-03-30.
- ^ a b c d e Carlotta Gall, Ismail Khan, Pir Zubair Shah and Taimoor Shah (2009-03-26). "Pakistani and Afghan Taliban Unify in Face of U.S. Influx". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/27/world/asia/27taliban.html. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- ^ Shahzad, Syed Saleem (2008-08-26). "Setback for Pakistan's terror drive". Asia Times Online. http://atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/JH27Df01.html. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
- ^ a b Khan, Haji Mujtaba (2009-02-23). "Taliban rename their group". The Nation. http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/Politics/23-Feb-2009/Taliban-rename-their-group. Retrieved 2009-03-30.
- ^ "Three Taliban factions form Shura Ittehad-ul-Mujahiden". The News. 2009-02-23. http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=69346. Retrieved 2009-03-30.
- ^ Toosi, Nahal; Ishtiaq Mahsud (2009-08-07). "Pakistani Taliban head's death a blow to militant". Associated Press via Yahoo! News. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090807/ap_on_re_as/as_pakistan;_ylt=AuOgjAXTAdbFaBSJ0GNeaCr34494;_ylu=X3oDMTJlc21wNG83BGFzc2V0A2FwLzIwMDkwODA3L2FzX3Bha2lzdGFuBGNwb3MDMwRwb3MDMwRzZWMDeW5fdG9wX3N0b3JpZXMEc2xrA3Bha2lzdGFuaXRhbA--. Retrieved 2009-08-07.
- ^ "Fighting erupts between Taliban rivals". Financial Times. 2009-08-08. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/7dd1aa9c-8423-11de-aa5d-00144feabdc0.html. Retrieved 2009-08-08. "Pakistani news channels were carrying unconfirmed reports that Hakimullah Mehsud, one of the movement’s most powerful commanders, had been killed at a shura, or council meeting, held to decide who would succeed slain leader Baitullah Mehsud. “The infighting was between Wali-ur-Rehman and Hakimullah Mehsud,” Interior Minister Rehman Malik told Reuters. “We have information that one of them has been killed. Who was killed we will be able to say later after confirming.”"
- ^ Khan, Ismail (2008-08-18). "Pakistan Captures Top Taliban Aide". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/19/world/asia/19pstan.html. Retrieved 2008-08-19.
- ^ "Pakistan Taliban spokesman named". BBC News. 2009-08-19. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8208750.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-19.
- ^ "Maulvi Faqeer acting Tehrik-i-Taliban chief: report". Dawn. 2009-08-19. http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakistan/04-maulvi-faqeer-is-acting-tehrik-i-taliban-chief-qs-11. Retrieved 2009-08-19.
- ^ "Faqir claims TTP leadership, Muslim Khan replaces Omer". Daily Times. 2009-08-20. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2009\08\20\story_20-8-2009_pg7_4. Retrieved 2009-08-20.
- ^ "Rifts as Pakistani Taliban deputy claims leadership". Dawn News. 2009-08-20. http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakistan/04-rifts-as-pakistani-taliban-deputy-claims-leadership-qs-10. Retrieved 2009-08-20.
- ^ "Hakeemullah annnounced new leader – doubts linger". Dawn News. 2009-08-23. http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakistan/03-doubts-remain-as-hakeemullah-annnounced-new-leader-ss-07. Retrieved 2009-08-23.
- ^ Khan, Hasbanullah (2009-08-23). "Hakeemullah appointed Baitullah’s ‘successor’". Daily Times. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2009\08\23\story_23-8-2009_pg1_5. Retrieved 2009-08-24.
- ^ a b "Taliban confirm commander's death". BBC News. August 25, 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8220762.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- ^ Yusufzai, Rahimullah (2008-11-30). "Hakimullah Mehsud unveils himself to media". The News International. http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=149728. Retrieved 2009-05-28.
- ^ http://english.aljazeera.net/news/asia/2009/10/2009101755843246925.html
- ^ Roggio, Bill (2009-08-16). "South Waziristan Taliban Groups Clash". The Long War Journal. http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2009/08/south_waziristan_tal.php. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- ^ Hasan, Syed Shoaib; M Ilyas Khan (2009-03-26). "Profile: Baitullah Mehsud". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7163626.stm. Retrieved 2009-06-09.
- ^ Roggio, Bill (2008-05-28). "Pakistan strikes deal with the Taliban in Mohmand". Long War Journal. http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2008/05/pakistan_strikes_dea.php. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- ^ Roggio, Bill (2009-08-25). "Baitullah Mehsud dead; Hakimullah new leader of Pakistani Taliban". Long War Journal. http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2009/08/baitullah_mehsud_dea.php. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- ^ Khan, Riaz (2009-06-08). "Pakistanis attack Taliban over mosque bombing". Yahoo! News. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090608/ap_on_re_as/as_pakistan. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
- ^ Roggio, Bill (2009-08-18). "Pakistani Taliban's Top Spokesman Captured in Mohmand". Long War Journal. http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2009/08/pakistani_talibans_t.php. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- ^ Roggio, Bill (2009-08-19). "Faqir Mohammed Takes Command of Pakistani Taliban". Long War Journal. http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2009/08/pakistani_talibans_t.php. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- ^ a b c d "TTP says Osama welcome in Swat: Taliban reject peace accord". Lahore: Daily Times. 2009-04-22. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2009\04\22\story_22-4-2009_pg1_1. Retrieved 2009-09-11. "Muslim Khan counted the Lashkar-e-Tayyaba, the Jaish-e-Muhammad, the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, Al Qaeda, and the Taliban of Afghanistan among his allies. “If we need, we can call them and if they need, they can call us,” he said. He said his forces would go to help the Taliban in Afghanistan if the United States and NATO continue to fight there."
- ^ a b c d Roggio, Bill (2009-08-31). "Pakistan's most-wanted: look at who isn't listed". The Long War Journal. Public Multimedia Inc.. http://www.longwarjournal.org/threat-matrix/2009/08/pakistans_most_wanted_look_at.php. Retrieved 2009-09-02.
- ^ Mir, Amir (2009-09-01). "The top ten most wanted Jehadis". The News International (Jang Multimedia). http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=196050. Retrieved 2009-09-26. "...He later shifted his base to the Waziristan region and joined hands with Baitullah Mehsud."
- ^ Rehmat, Kamran (2009-01-27). "Swat: Pakistan's lost paradise". Islamabad: Al Jazeera. http://english.aljazeera.net/focus/2009/01/200912512351598892.html. Retrieved 2009-09-26. "His...rebel army reportedly takes its cue from Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan,... headed by Baitullah Masud... The two came together in the aftermath of a sweeping military operation in 2007 at the Red Mosque in Islamabad... this alliance is said to be responsible for suicide bombings that killed dozens of security personnel."
- ^ "Pakistan and the Taliban". The Economist. http://www.economist.com/world/asia/displaystory.cfm?story_id=14201152. Retrieved 2009–09–26. "[Baitullah Mehsud] was also associated with Lashkar-e-Jhangvi."
- ^ Khan, Anwarullah (2008-11-06). "Bomber hits anti-militant tribal jirga; 16 dead". Dawn Media Group. http://www.dawn.com/2008/11/07/top1.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-08.
- ^ a b "Lahore 'was Pakistan Taleban op'". BBC News. 2009-03-31. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7973540.stm. Retrieved 2009-03-31.
- ^ Ali, Mohammad Faisal (2009-03-31). "Baitullah claims responsibility for Manawan attack". Dawn Media Group. http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/Dawn%20Content%20Library/dawn/news/pakistan/attack-on-police-academy-leaves-8-dead--150-injured--il. Retrieved 2009-03-31.
- ^ "Pakistani Taliban chief Mehsud claims U.S. shooting". Thomson Reuters. April 4, 2009. http://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-38880020090404. Retrieved April 4, 2009.
- ^ Shinwari, Ibrahim (2009-08-28). "Taliban claim responsibility for Khyber suicide attack". Dawn News. http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakistan/provinces/pre-iftar+suicide+blast+kills+22+border+guards. Retrieved 2009-08-28.
- ^ Ahmad, Munir; Ravi Nessman, Ishtiaq Mahsud and Hussain Afzal (2009-10-06). "Taliban claim responsibility for deadly UN blast". Yahoo! News (The Associated Press). http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20091006/ap_on_re_as/as_pakistan. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
- ^ Khan, Riaz; Ishtiaq Mahsud, Babar Dogar (2009-10-12). "Pakistan says 41 killed in market bombing". Associated Press (Yahoo! News). http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20091012/ap_on_re_as/as_pakistan. Retrieved 2009-10-12.
- ^ Hussain, Zahid; Rehmat Mehsud (2009-10-15). "Wave of Deadly Attacks in Pakistan". Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones & Company, Inc.). http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125557894653686797.html?mod=WSJ_hps_MIDDLEThirdNews. Retrieved 2009-10-15. "Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan has claimed responsibility for the Lahore attacks, according to a private TV news channel, GEO News."
- A Profile of Tehrik-I-Taliban Pakistan Harvard Kennedy School's Belfer Center
- Interview with Tehrik-i-Taliban spokesperson Muslim Khan by Radio France Internationale in English April 2009