The plant is a glabrous climbing shrub found throughout India, typically growing in deciduous and dry forests. The leaves are heart shaped. The succulent bark is creamy white to grey in color, with deep clefts spotted with lenticels. It puts out long, slender aerial roots, often growing on mango or neem trees. Flowers are yellow, growing in lax racemes from nodes on old wood. Fruits are drupes, turning red when ripe.
The active adaptogenic constituents are diterpene compounds including tinosporone, tinosporic acid, cordifolisides A to E, syringen, the yellow alkaloid, berberine, Giloin, crude Giloininand, a glucosidal bitter principle as well as polysaccharides, including arabinogalactan polysaccharide (TSP). Picrotene and bergenin were also found in the plant.The active principlesof Tinospora cordifolia, a traditional Indian medicinal plant were found topossess anticomplementary and immunomodulatory activities.
In herbal medicine
Tinospora cordifolia and similar species like Tinospora crispa and Tinospora rumphii Boerl are used in Ayurvedic and Jamu herbal medicine as a hepatoprotectant, protecting the liver from damage that may occur following exposure to toxins, as well as in Thailand, Philippines. Recent research has demonstrated that a combination of T. cordifolia extract and turmeric extract is effective in preventing the hepatotoxicity which is otherwise produced as a side effect of conventional pharmaceutical treatments for tuberculosis using drugs such as isoniazid and rifampicin.According to the 1918 United States Dispensatory, the plant has a long history of use in India as a medicine and in the preparation of a starch known as gilae-ka-sat or as palo.
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- South Asia: Guduchi , amrita (Sanskrit), giloe , gulancha (Bengali), giloya (Hindi), gado , galo (Gujarati), Gulvel (Marathi), duyutige , teppatige (Telugu),amrutha balli (Kannada), Shindila kodi (Tamil)
- English: heartleaf moonseed
- Indonesia: Brotowali, Andawali, Putrawali
- Philippines: Makabuhay (Tagalog), Paliaban (Bisaya), Pañgiauban (Bisaya), Taganagtagua
- Thailand: Boraphet (บอระเพ็ด)
- ↑ Wagner, Hildebert (1999). Immunomodulatory agents from plants. Birkhäuser. pp. 294. ISBN 9783764358488. http://books.google.com/books?id=ReY_8gfGL7wC&pg=PA294.
- ↑ Warrier, P. K.; V. P. K. Nambiar, C. Ramankutty, R. Vasudevan Nair (1996). [9788125007630 Indian medicinal plants: a compendium of 500 species, Volume 5]. Orient Blackswan. pp. 283. ISBN http://books.google.com/books?id=y3_vZIUVVj8C&pg=PA283. 9788125007630.
- ↑ Winston, David & Maimes, Steven. “Adaptogens: Herbs for Strength, Stamina, and Stress Relief,” Healing Arts Press, 2007.
- ↑ S.S. SINGH, S.C. PANDEY, S. SRIVASTAVA, V.S. GUPTA, B. PATRO, A.C. GHOSHCHEMISTRY AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA (GUDUCHI)Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2003; 35: 83-91
- ↑ Adhvaryu MR, Reddy MN, Vakharia BC. Prevention of hepatotoxicity due to anti tuberculosis treatment: A novel integrative approach. World Journal of Gastroenterology 2008; 14(30): 4753-4762.
- ↑ Tinospora. Tinospora cordifolia. | Henriette's Herbal Homepage